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those of Bengal, immediately under the influence of the Supreme Government, which has an evident love of mystification. The following official account, respecting the progress of the siege of Bhurtpore, is worthy of insertion, although nothing decisive has yet been accomplished towards the reduction of that renowned fortress:
Fort William, Jan. 2.-The Right Hon. the Governor-General has received a despatch from his Excellency the Commander-in-Chief, dated Head-quarters before Bhurtpore, 23d December 1825, a copy of which is published for general information.
"To the Right Hon. Lord Amherst, Governor-General, &c.
"MY LORD, I have the honour to acquaint your Lordship, that the engineers having reported to me that they were prepared for commencing operations against the town of Bhurtpore, I this morning advanced a force into the jungle, and took possession of the small places called Kuddum Kundee and Buldeo Singh's Garden, which afford cover for the troops, and on being joined by a covered way, will form the first parallel, at a distance from the fort of about 800 yards. I expect that this parallel, with a mortar battery of twenty pieces at the garden, and a gun-battery of six eighteenpounders at Kuddum Kundee, will be prepared by to-morrow morning, when we shall return their fire.
"I have enclosed, for your Lordship's information, a sketch of the country round Bhurtpore, showing the encampment of the troops, and I hope tomorrow to be enabled to forward a plan of the intended works; in the mean time, I beg to observe, that our operations will, in the first instance, be directed against the north-east angle of the town.
"The return of casualties in the army this day has not yet been received; but no loss was experienced in taking possession of the ground this morning, and though the enemy have kept up a constant fire during the day, it has been by no means injurious.
"A return of casualties since the 14th instant is herewith transmitted: our loss at present has been confined to a few casual shot from the fort at our reconnoitring parties, and some trifling skirmishes with the enemy's cavalry outside of the fort, who have endeavoured to harass our foraging parties.
Being desirous of saving the women and children in the fort from the horrors of a siege, I addressed a letter, on the 21st instant, to Doorjun Sall, calling upon him to send them out of the fort, promising them a safe conduct through our camp, and allowing him twenty-four hours for the purpose. Having received an evasive reply, I have again sent to him, allowing him a further extension of the time for twelve hours. To this letter I have not received an answer, though he must have received it yesterday afternoon. "I have the honour to be, &c. (Signed)
"Head-quarters, Camp before Bhurtpore, Dec. 23, 1825."
Return of casualties in the 2d Division of the Army, under the command of Major-General Nicolls, on the 15th of December 1825:
11th Regiment Native Infantry.-Wounded, 3 sepoys; 2 severely, 1 slightly; missing, 2.
31st Ditto.-Wounded, 1 severely,-Total 6.
Return of killed, wounded, and missing, of the out-lying Picquet of his Majesty's 11th Light Dragoons, and a Foraging Party of the 4th Regiment Light Cavalry, on the 20th and 21st of December 1825:
His Majesty's 11th Light Dragoons.-Wounded, Lieutenant Wymer, slightly; 2 privates, 4 horses.
4th Regiment Light Cavalry.-Wounded, 1 naick, 2 privates, 4 horses.— Total, 1 Lieutenant, 1 naick, 4 privates, 8 horses.
(Signed) W. L. WATSON, Adj. Gen. Published by command of the Right Hon. the Governor-General in Council.
GEORGE SWINTON, Secretary to the Government.
In confirmation of the report received by the way of Bombay respecting the hostile preparations of the redoubtable Runjeet Sing, it was also reported in the Bengal papers of the end of November, that the Supreme Council there contemplated a large augmentation of the army, in consequence of the appearance of dangerous movements among the Siekhs.
Death of Mr. Moorcroft.-Poor Moorcroft, the enterprising indefatigable Moorcroft, is dead. He was the very best man that could have gone upon such exploratory and perilous errands as his were. He was, in his way, eminently gifted. Physician, artizan, horse-doctor, he knew a little of every thing, and most of what was most useful. Moreover, he was liberal, frank, open, and courageous, just the man, in short, for the tribes amongst whom he travelled, and better suited than probably one individual in a thousand, to raise our character for general intelligence and fellowfeeling, a point which, strange to say, our conduct in these parts has made more problematical amongst the Natives than any other. There is a report, that Moorcroft died of chagrin at hearing that Government had stopped all his allowances, but we do not believe it; if indeed he was so treated, it is difficult to imagine any thing more mean, ungrateful, or impolitic. It is thus that our profit-and-loss rulers have ruined, and will continue to ruin, every plan that has for its object the spread of general knowledge, or the happiness and civilization of man, whether foreigners, or our own subjects of Hindoostan, be concerned.-Private Letter.
The following is an extract of a letter, dated from Coel, 29th December last: "Operations against Bhurtpore were going on very successfully. The town had been several times set fire to by our shells, and it was expected that the troops would effect a lodgment in three or four days.'
This was brought by the Childe Harold, and bears the Madras post-mark of the 24th of January; yet nothing is said of any confirmation of the news peace with the Burmese, although a vessel would run across the Bay from Rangoon in four or five days at that season; and we might consequently have had intelligence nearly a fortnight later than the official accounts quoted below, reporting the ratification of the treaty.
Having, in the preceding pages, entered into a full discussion of
the present state of affairs, and the prospects of peace held out, we shall here give the facts, that the reader may judge for himself:
India Board, May 13.-A despatch, dated the 17th of January, 1826, has been this day received at the East India House, from the Secretary to the Government at Fort St. George, enclosing a copy of a despatch from Brigadier-General Willoughby Cotton to that Government, of which the following is an extract:
Patanagoh, Jan. 1.-I have the honour to acquaint you, for the information of the Honourable the Governor in Council, that the pursuit of the scattered columns of the enemy was continued from Meaday to Patanagoh, by forced marches, by the Madras division, accompanied by the body guard, a troop of horse artillery, and a commander of the forces; on reaching Neaungla, five miles below this place, we ascertained the enemy had crossed their whole force to the right bank of the river, and that they occupied the position of Malloon, consisting of a series of strong fortified heights, and a formidable stockade, with from ten to twelve thousand men. It was also ascertained, the king's brother-in-law, and most of the men of rank, who had assisted at Zeahengaish, were at Malloon; they despatched a woondowle on the 28th, with a flag of truce and a letter, stating it to be the wish of their chiefs to put a period to hostilities, and that a minister had arrived from Ava with full powers to treat and ratify, and requesting a meeting for that purpose. Lieutenant-Colonel Tidy, and Lieutenant Smith, of the navy, were accordingly despatched to arrange a conference to be held in a boat on the centre of the river, moored between Malloon and Patanagoh. Accordingly, the Commander of the forces, and the second commissioner, Mr. Robertson, attended by myself and most of the brigadiers, met the two Burmese commissioners, Kelien Menjee and the Kee Woonjee, on the 30th ult., and I am most happy to state that the resul: of the conferences of that day and yesterday has been a satisfactory adjustment, as far as regards territory and money, between the British and Burmese nations. The ratification, by the commissioners, of the treaty, takes place this day at two o'clock, and the terms of peace are as follow:
"The four provinces of Arracan to be ceded in perpetuity to the Honourable Company.
"The provinces of Mergui, Tavoy, and Zea, to be ceded to the Honourable Company in perpetuity.
"The Burmese Government engage to pay the Honourable Company one crore of rupees, by instalments, the periods for the payment of which to be settled this day.
"The provinces or kingdoms of Assam, Cachar, Zeatung, and Munnipore, to be placed under princes to be named by the British Government.
"Residents, with an escort of fifty men, to be at each court; British ships to be admitted into Burmese ports, to land their cargoes free of duty, not to unship their rudders or land their guns; Burmese ships to have the same privilege in British ports; no person to be molested for their opinions or conduct during the war hereafter.
"The Siamese nation to be included in the peace."
Thus, I hope, has terminated a war which has been most expensive in its prosecution, not only in money, but also, by the effects of climate, very destructive to both European and Native troops; but I hope the Honourable the Governor in Council will here permit me to express the unanimous grateful feeling of the Madras army for the considerate comforts the Madras Government have, upon every occasion, forwarded to their army here,— comforts which have been the means of saving many valuable lives, and
which will be ever most gratefully acknowledged by every officer and
It will of course take a long period to arrange the move of the troops from hence to Rangoon, with the materiel and stores.
The ratification of the treaty by the King of Ava, and the English prisoners now at Amerapoorah, are to arrive at Patanagoh in fifteen days (15th January), on the receipt of which we shall immediately retrograde to Prome. The roads across the Arracan mountains present difficulties which will oblige the Bengal army to retire by Rangoon.
P. S.-Jan. 13.-Owing to prolonged discussions, the treaty was not signed until this day, Jan. 3, at four P. M.
We shall only add one remark more: It was pompously announced in the Government papers of Bengal, that had the Burmese fired a hostile shot after the late armistice was concluded, Pegue would from that moment be declared to be severed for ever from the Burman empire! Now, the Burmese have since broken through the armistice, treated such a threat with contempt, fired, not one, but thousands of hostile shots, and made a great havoc among our officers and men; yet, after all this, we are glad to conclude a peace with them, accepting (after this drubbing!) a million less than we previously asked, and leaving them Pegue, that was to have been eternally severed from their empire! This is called a glorious termination to the war,-a triumphant and honourable peace !!!
The following are extracts of three separate letters received from Bengal, on the Arracan Court of Inquiry, and the last skirmish with the Burmese:
Since I last wrote, there has been a great deal of speculation on the Arracan Court of Inquiry, ordered upon the suggestion of Dr. Tytler; as usual, parties run very high, and in this public, composed of Government functionaries, the personality of the attack, and the dangerous publicity given to the evils complained of, are loudly blamed. But this clamour subsides in proportion as the dreadful nature of the calamity becomes more apparent; and it is now generally acknowledged, that Dr. Tytler has acted with judgment and intrepidity, and that he deserves the respect and gratitude of the country. I forbear to make any comments, hoping that the publication of the opinion given by the Court will satisfactorily explain every thing; it is not, however, useless to observe, that the repeated injunctions to be economical, so indiscriminately and authoritatively sent out by the Leadenhall-street politicians, may have, as in the instance before us it unhappily has had, a most disastrous effect on the conduct of individuals who stand so much in awe of responsibility as the leading men of this Government do, when the pleasure of their masters, and not the honour of the British name, is at stake.
Our news from Prome is unfavourable. Sir A. Campbell has had another detachment repulsed by the Burmese; the affair is got over in the official despatches, as usual, with regretting that the troops retreated at all, and praising them for not having retreated before; but there are two points incidentally brought to light, which deserve serious consideration. The first is, that the opposing force were Shaums, people from the frontiers of China, which seems to indicate that the Burmese monarch is determined to parade every man who is able to bear arms, before he makes peace with us, besides an attempt to bring our Koutou friend to take part in the quarrel; and,
accordingly, these very Shaums were destined to attack Prome, and cut off our supplies and magazines, as soon as Sir A. Campbell had removed too far to be able to render them any assistance; and when I add, that two of the corps now defeated were destined to have been the only garrison of Prome on the advance of the main body to Ava, some idea may be formed of the ability of these people in conducting a defensive campaign, and of the risk we so narrowly escaped of a much greater military disaster than that which has befallen us. One thing I am glad to observe, that Pegue has been declared independent of Ava. Pegue is the Poland of the Burmese empire, and if proper means be taken to organize its population, and put its principal places in a state of defence, a point of retreat and rally will have been furnished, the value of which we may yet feel disposed to acknowledge.
Sad doings in our proceedings against the Burmese. The armistice ended in nothing at all, except in the Emperor slitting the mouths, from ear to ear, of the chiefs who conveyed General Sir Archibald Campbell's terms to him; on which occasion, the golden-footed Monarch is said to have stated, that the English were encroaching usurpers and treacherous freebooters, picking a quarrel with him about a swampy islet, in order that they might thereon set up a plea for stealing into his empire, and for robbing him of the fairest jewels of his diadem, just as we had done by other weaker Eastern potentates; and that we had trepanned his leaders into a cessation of hostilities, disgraceful to his reign, only because we felt our weakness, and wanted to gain time for the arrival of fresh troops; finally, that he would grant no terms beyond permission for our forces to return to Calcutta, without molestation in their retreat. True enough it is, that Sir Archibald was re-inforced during the truce. On or about the 10th ult. he advanced from Prome, and hearing of an assemblage of the enemy not far a-head, at a place about twenty miles from Prome, he pushed forward two brigades, consisting of four Madras regiments, under LieutenantColonel M'Dowall, and, as we hear, without scaling-ladders or a single gun. They came upon a strong stockade on the 16th or 17th ult., and a much greater number of the enemy than had been calculated on. They were repulsed with the following loss, viz.: the Lieutenant-Colonel and another Officer, killed; ten Officers wounded, some of them severely and dangerously; fifty-one sepoys killed, 103 wounded, and thirty-nine prisoners, or missing. In my opinion, this warfare is only now beginning. I dare say we shall go on to Umerapoora, and take it; but I see not what good that will do us, for we shall find neither Emperor, nor court, nor treasure there all will have gone into hills and wilds. These people are much like the Malays. When at the capital, we shall have increased our distance from home considerably; and it will be still more difficult to pay our troops, to supply provisions and commissariat stores, to forward ammunition, &c. &c. By my calculation, we have spent much upwards of a million sterling already in hire of transports, buying and building of gun-boats, and, in short, in shipping and boats alone! In the opinion of the Natives, we have quite the worst in this warfare, for they are not used to see us settle a job (if it were not yet settled) so tardily. Consequently, to right ourselves in their opinion, we must make a splash elsewhere; and this is the way in which I account for our present doings against Bhurtpore, Deeg, and Alwur.
We have often predicted that the establishment of the principles of free trade at Singapore by its founder, Sir Stamford Raffles—those Oriental Herald, Vol. 9. 29