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maison. Voici la mienne. Ce sont vos livres ou les miens. Ce n'est pas votre bien, c'est le nôtre. Son avis est meilleur que le mien.

mine.

Exercise. Her father and mother. Her relatives. His friendship. Our (100.) (102.)

parents (101.) amitié f. books and pens. Their friend and their cousins. Your gloves and

gants m. Your country and mine. His horses and thine. His age, (99.) pays m.

age m. her age, its age. Her brother, sister, and cousin. Your desk

f.

pupitrem. and theirs. My penknife and his. He speaks to your friends and to canif m.

parle mine. From their garden to your house. His or her father.

jardin m.

105. RELATIVE PRONOUNS.

The relative pronoun relates to a substantive or pronoun which precedes, and which is called its antecedent; as, Voilà la personne qui tous There is the person who knows connaît,

you. Voilà la personne que vous There is the person whom you connaissez,

know. Le livre qui est sur la table, The book which is on the table. Le livre que je vois sur la table, The book which I see on the table.

The relative pronouns are: Qui (nominative), who, which, that. De qui, or dont, of or from whom, whose, etc.; de quoi, of

what, etc. À qui, to whom, to which ; à quoi, to what. Que (accusative), whom, which, that. Lequel, m. s.; laquelle, f. s.; lesquels, m.pl.; lesquelles, f. pl.,

who, whom or which. Duquel, de laquelle, desquels, desquelles, of or from whom or

which. Auquel, à laquelle, auxquels, auxquelles, to whom or which. Ou, where, in which place.

a

106. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. Qui? (nom. and acc.) who or whom? qui est-ce qui? de qui?

à qui ? etc. Quoi ? que? qu'est-ce que? what? de quoi ? à quoi ? etc. Lequel, m. s. ; laquelle, f. s.; lesquels, m. pl.; lesquelles, f. pl.;

which? Duquel of which?' etc.; Auquel? to which? etc. 107. The following interrogative pronouns are always used with a substantive: Quel, m. s. ; quelle, f. s.; quels, m. pl.; quelles, f. pl.; what ?

Examples of the Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. L'homme qui parle,

The man who speaks. L'homme dont je parle, The man of whom I speak. L'enfant que je vois,

The child whom I see. L'étude à laquelle il s'ap- The study to which he devotes plique,

himself La maison il demeure, The house in which he lives De quoi parlez-vous ? What are you speaking of? Qui est-ce qui parle ? Who speaks? Qui aimez-vous ?

Whom do you love? Que dites-vous ?

What do you say

? Quoi ? qu'est-ce que c'est ? ?

? What? what is it? En quoi vous ai-je offensé ?

In what have I offended you? Lequel de ces tableaux pré- Which of those pictures do you férez-vous ?

prefer? Quel livre lisez-vous ? What book do you read ? Quelles idées! quels ouvrages! What ideas ! what works!

108. The relative pronouns qui for the nominative, and que

for the accusative, are used for all nouns of both genders and numbers; as, L'enfant qui étudie,

The child who studies. La personne que je vois, The

person

whom I see. La lettre qui est écrite, The letter which is written. Les leçons que vous avez ap- The lessons which you have prises.

learnt. 109. Que meaning what or which thing is used after a pronoun or substantive followed by another pronoun or substantive which is the subject of the verb étre, to be; as,

Voyez ce que c'est, See what it is.

110. Qui as an interrogative pronoun refers to persons, and que refers to things.

Qui fait du bruit ? Who makes a noise ?
Qui accusez-vous ? Whom do you accuse ?
Qui est arrivé ? Who has arrived ?
Qu'est-il arrivé? What has happened ?
Qui est-ce ?

Who is it?
Qu'est-ce ?

What is it?

111. Lequel, laquelle, lesquels, lesquelles ; duquel, de laquelle, desquels, desquelles ; auquel, à laquelle, auxquels, auxquelles, agree in gender and number with the nouns to which they refer; as,

Les enfants avec lesquels (or qui) vous êtes venu,

The children with whom you came. 112. Lequel, duquel, auquel, etc. apply to persons and things. Qui after a preposition, as de qui, à qui, etc., applies to persons only; as, C'est un travail auquel (not à It is a labour which I cannot

qui) je ne puis renoncer, relinquish. C'est un homme à qui (or It is a man to whom I auquel j'ai parlé,

spoke. 113. Dont is used for both genders and numbers, and may apply to all nouns; as, Le garçon dont vous parlez, The boy of whom you speak. La chose dont vous parlez, The thing of which you speak. La nature dont nous ignorons Nature, whose secrets are unles secrets,

known to us. 114. Quoi, as a relative pronoun, is used with a preposition, and is applied to things only; as, La chose à quoi (or à laquelle) The thing about which we

l'on pense le plus, est souvent think the most, is often that celle dont on parle le moins, of which we speak the least.

115. As an interrogative pronoun also, quoi is frequently used with a preposition, and applies to things only; as,

De quoi l'accusez-vous ? Of what do you accuse him?

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116. Quoi is likewise used in exclamations; as, Quoi de plus beau que la What is more beautiful than vertu!

virtue! 117. NOTE. In an interrogation formed with a verb which governs an accusative case (132.), we use que, and not quoi; as,

Que dites-vous ? What do you say ?
Que veut-il ?

What does he want? 118. Note. On the contrary, in an interrogation formed with a verb which governs an oblique case (133.), we use quoi, and not que, according to the rule 115. mentioned above; as, De quoi parle-t-il ?

Of what is he speaking ? 119. Où always refers to inanimate objects; as, Le siècle (or dans lequel) The age in which we live.

nous vivons, Les moyens par (or par les- The means by which

you

will quels) vous réussirez,

succeed. 120. Relative pronouns must always be expressed in French; as, The book you see,

Le livre que vous voyez.
The lesson he learns, La leçon qu'il apprend.

Read, translate, and parse : C'est le soleil qui nous éclaire; il échauffe la terre qui nous nourrit; il mûrit les fruits qui nous rafraîchissent, et fait éclore les fleurs qui réjouissent les yeux. C'est la dame que vous connaissez. Voici la boîte que vous m'avez donnée. Les papiers que vous m'avez confiés.—Quelle est cette maison d'où vous sortez? La maison de mon père.—De ces bijoux, lequel préférez-vous ? Celui-ci.-De ces étoffes, laquelle vous plaît le plus ? Celle-ci. Lesquels (de ces livres) vous appartiennent? Ceux-ci.Je connais les événements dont vous parlez, je m'en réjouis. Un plaisir dont nous nous repentirions ne mérite pas nos regrets. Heureux le peuple qui est conduit par un sage roi ! il est dans l'abondance, il vit heureux, et aime celui à qui il doit tout son bonheur.

Exercise. The child who reads. The boy whom I see. (108.) lit

(108.) vois

The girl of whom I

(113.)

speak. The house of which I speak. The house which I have parle (113.)

¡108.) j'ai bought. Who is there? To whom do you write ? Whom achetée (110.)

(112.)

écrivez-vous (110.) do you love? What gentleman? What lady? What books? With aimez-vous (107.) monsieur (107.) dame (107.) what money? To what knives? The dictionary with which I (107.) argent m. (107.) couteau m. dictionnaire m. (112.) translate my lesson. Of those gentlemen, to which have you spoken? traduis leçon f.

messieurs (111.) avez-vous parlé books, which will you read? With what do you open Voici • (39.

(111.) voulez-vous lire (115.) the door? Of what do you speak? What do you want? What

(115.) parlez-vous (117.) voulez-vous (117.) does he say?

The errors

into which he has fallen. The dit-il erreur f. (119.)

est tombé money you bring. The child you love. (120.) apportez

(120.) aimez

Here are

Ouvrez-VOUS

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

121. The demonstrative pronouns serve to designate and point out objects.

The following are placed before the noun, and agree with it in gender and number. They are called pronouns adjective. Singular.

Plural.

Masc. and Fem. Masc.

Fem.

S this
[

these Ce (cet before a vowel or hm.). Cette,

Ces, that.

those.

or

or

Examples.
Masculine.

Feminine.
Ce garçon, that boy.

Cette fille, that girl. Cet ouvrier, that workman. Cette ouvrière, that workwoman. Ces garçons, those boys. Ces filles, those girls. Ces ouvriers, those workmen. Ces ouvrières, those workwomen. 122. Ce (it, that,) before the verb étre, to be, is used

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