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for the person or the thing we wish to designate or
point out; as,
Ce n'est pas moi,

It is not I.
Ce n'est

pas
vrai,

It (that) is not true.
See, in the Syntax, Ce, cela, comparé avec il.
123. Ce is much used with a relative pronoun; as,
Ce qui nous plaît,

That which pleases us.
Ce dont je me plains, That of which I complain.
Ce à quoi je m'applique, What I apply to.
Ce que je vois,

What I see. 124. Note.—Ce que is used before a substantive or a pronoun which is the subject of the verb être. The relative que (109.) signifying quelle chose, which thing; as,

Voilà ce que c'est, Behold what it is. 125. Ceci (this) and cela (that) refer to an object which is understood; as, Ceci est bien fait,

This is well done.
Cela est mal fait,

That is badly done.
Donnez-moi ceci,

Give me this.
Prenez cela,

Take that. 126. Ci (here) and (there) are often added to the noun, to point it out more distinctly; as

Ce livre-ci, this book. Ce livre-, that book.

Ces livres-ci, these books. Ces livres-, those books. 127. The following point out an object previously mentioned :

Celui, m. s., celle, f. s., this, that.

Ceux, m. pl., celles, f. pl., these, those. m. .

m. .

that (one). -f. .

, . . Ceux-ci, m. pl

Ceux-là, m. pl.

those. Celles-là, f. pl.)

:

Celle-ci, pants } this (one). Celled,

} }

Celles-ci

, f. p. } these.

Eramples. Mon livre et celui de mon frère, My book and that of my brother. Ma sæur et celle de mon cousin, My sister and that of my cousin. Ses crayons et ceux de Guil- His pencils and those of Willaume,

liam.

Vos plumes et celles de Jean, Your pens and those of John. Ce dictionnaire-ci et celui-, This dictionary and that one. Cette grammaire-ci et celle-, This grammar and that one. Je préfère celle-à celle-ci, I prefer that one to this. Donnez-moi ceux-ci,

Give me these. Prenez ceux-,

Take those. 128. Celui, celle, ceux, celles, are also used with a relative pronoun, in reference to a noun previously expressed, and are applied to both persons and things.

Nominative.
Celui qui .. he who, or that which.
Celle qui

she who, or that which.
Ceux qui
Celles qui

Accusative.
he whom, or that which.
she whom, or that which.

} they who, or those which

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Celui que
Celle que
Ceux que
Celles que....

} they whom, or those which

Examples. Celui qui me voit,

He who sees me. Celui que je vois,

He whom I see. Quel livre?-Celui qui est sur Which book ?—That which is le pupitre,

on the desk. Celui que je vous montre,

The one that I show you.

Read, translate, and parse: Ce n'est pas là (or cela n'est pas) ce que vous m'aviez promis. Ce livre me plaît. Ceci mérite attention. Cette gravure n'est pas celle que vous m'aviez promisc.—Que dites-vous de cela? Rien.-Cet enfant n'est pas celui que j'ai vu. Ces raisins sont bons, mais ceux-ci sont meilleurs.—Que dites-vous de ces jeunes personnes ? Celle-là est aimable, mais celle-ci me plait davantage.-Ceci est bon, cela est mauvais.

Exercise. This child. That general. Those gentlemen. This woman. That (121.) m. général friendship. This book or that one. I do not like that. This is for

(126.) ou (127.) n'aime pas (125.) (125.)

you. That which pleases me. Give me this or that. Of several

(123.) plaît Donnez (125.) plusieurs hats, this one or that one, these or those. Of several pens, this one (127.)

(127.) or that one, these or those. It is you. It is useful.

(122.) (122.) utile

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

Tout ce qui,} whatever.

129. Indefinite pronouns have a vague and general signification; as, On, one, people, they, etc.

. Plusieurs, several. Nul (ne), no one.

Qui que ce soit, whoever. Autres, others.

Quoi que ce soit, whatever. Autrui, other people. Quiconque, whoever. Chacun, every one.

Quelconque, whatever. Personne (ne), nobody. Quelque .

que, however. Quelqu'un, some one. L'un l'autre, one another. Tel, such a one.

L'un et l'autre, both. Tout, everything, all. L'un ou l'autre, either. Tout le monde, everybody. Ni l'un ni l'autre, neither. Aucun, any ;-with ne, none.

Examples. On dit qu'il est malade, (One says) It is reported that

he is ill. Nul n'est content de sa for- No one is satisfied with his fortune,

tune. Read, translate, and parse: Quelqu'un m'a dit vous avoir vu. Ne faites pas à autrui ce que vous ne voudriez pas qu'on vous fît. On dit que la paix est faite. Nul n'est exempt d'erreur. Quiconque passe par là, doit payer tant. On frappe à la porte. Chacun pense à soi. On ne doit pas compter sur la prospérité.

Exercise.

They say so. (129.) le dit

No one knows it.

Some one came. Every one ne sait le (90.)

vint

nas his duty. Do good to others. devoirm. Faites du bien à

a

self. No one has seen your father.

soi

n'a vu

French. Each one has his opinion. français

a

One likes to speak of one's aime à parler de * Every one of you will speak parlera

Je suis,
J'ai,

VERBS.

130. The verb is a word whose function is to express existence, possession, action or passion, either present, past, or future.

I am.
I have.

J'aime,
I love.
Je suis aimé, I am loved.

131. Whatever performs the act, or is in the state expressed by the verb, is its nominative case, subject, or agent; as JE marche, I walk; JE suis estimé, I am esteemed.

132. Whatever the act immediately falls upon is called its accusative case, object, or regimen (régime ou complément direct); as, J'aime MON PÈRE, I love

MY FATHER.

133. When the noun or pronoun comes after a preposition, either expressed or understood, it is said to be in an oblique case. The oblique cases are the genitive (génitif), dative (datif), and ablative (ablatif).

The genitive is the noun or pronoun after the preposition de, meaning of. It names the possessor of another noun; as La maison DE MON PÈRE, My father's house.

The dative is the noun or pronoun after the preposition to or for; as, Il ME le dit, he tells it (to) me. It shows to whom or to what the thing spoken of is directed; as, Envoyez ces lettres À VOTRE SŒUR, Send those letters to your sister.

The ablative names the person or thing from which something is taken away or received; as, J'ai reçu une lettre DE VOTRE AMI, I have received a letter from your friend. It is also known by other prepositions expressed or understood, as in, with, by, etc.

The oblique cases are called in French, régimes ou com. pléments indirects, or régimes ou compléments de prépositions.

There is another case, called the vocative (vocatif), which is used whenever a person or thing is addressed by name; as, Charles ! viens jouer, Charles ! come and play.

Examples of the cases.
Nominatif. Je suis, I am. Je parle, I speak.
Génitif. C'est le livre DE MON FRÈRE, It is my brother's

book.
Datif. Je lui donne la plume, I give (to) him the pen.
Accusatif. Je la vois, I see her (or it).
Vocatif.

JULES! viens ici. Julius ! come hither.
Ablatif. J'ai reçu une lettre DE MON PÈRE, I have re-

ceived a letter from my father.
134. The verb étre, as it expresses existence, is
called a verb substantive; all other verbs, as they con-
tain an attribute or quality, are called verbs attributive.
These are divided into :

Verbs active, or transitive;
Verbs passive;
Verbs neuter, or intransitive;
Verbs reflective; and

Verbs unipersonal or impersonal.
135. Active or transitive Verbs.The action ex-
pressed by the active or transitive verb passes directly
to an object; as,

Je cueille une fleur, I gather a flower.
J'étudie la musique, I study music.
J'estime mon précepteur,

I esteem my preceptor. 136. Passive verbs are verbs which present the subject as receiving the effect of an action produced by another subject; as, Un enfant sage est aimé de A good child is beloved by his ses parents,

relatives.
The subject producing the action is frequently under-
stood; as,

Une fleur est cueillie, A flower is gathered.
La musique est étudiée, Music is studied.
Mon précepteur est estimé, My preceptor is esteemed.

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