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PROTHESIS, or augmentation at the beginning.

Prothesis is generally the prefixture of a letter for the sake of
euphony:-Gb before r: RANULA, grenouille, frog; RUGIRE, bruire,
to roar. H before o: OLEUM, huile, oil; OSTREA, huître, oyster.
E before sp, st, sc: SPATIUM, espace, space; SPERARE, espérer,
to hope; SPIRITUS, esprit, spirit; STOMACHUS, estomac, stomach;
SCANDALUM, esclandre, event that gives rise to scandal. The
original s often disappears: STRANGULARE, étrangler, to strangle;
STUDERE, étudier, to study; SCHOLA, école, school; SPINA, épine,
thorn; STATUS, état, state; STABULUM, étable, stable; SPISSUS,
épais, thick; SCINTILLA, étincelle, spark; SPICA, épi, ear of corn.

(To the above may be added estampe, a print, from the Italian
stampare, or the German stampfen; and étendard, standard, from
the old French standardum.)

AMBRICES,

HEDERA,

The prefixture of the article, for the sake of euphony, can be
traced in several words; thus,-From the Latin

OTIUM,

OTTER,

UVA,

IN, DE, MANE,

HAND-IRON,

has been
formed

in old
French,

(From the English

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l'ambris, whence le lambris,
li hierre,
le lierre,
l'oisir,

the wainscot.
the ivy-tree.
the leisure.

le loisir,

l'outre,

la loutre,

the otter.

l'uvette

la luette,

the uvula.

l'endemain,

le lendemain, the morrow.

l'andier, whence le landier, the kitchen andiron.)

PARAGOGE, or augmentation at the end.

SOL, soleil, sun; PAR, pareil, like. The added letter in the
French word is often merely a final letter of the Latin root.

PARS, PART IS, partie, part; MORS, MORT IS, mort, death; AC-
TIO, ACTION IS, action, action; PRÆSENS, PRÆSENT IS, présent,
present. With further change, GENUS, GENERIS, genre, kind.

METATHESIS, or transposition.

VIGINTI, vingt, twenty; HERI, hier, yesterday; PUNGENS, poi-
gnant; STAGNUM, étang, pond; VERUS (ver, vair, then), vrai, true.

VOWEL CHANGE.

A into ai or e: CLARUS, clair, clear; NECESSARIUS, nécessaire,
necessary; FAMILIARIS, familier, familiar; MUSA, muse;
TESTA, téte, head.

E into ai, ei, ie, oi: FLEBILIS, faible, feeble; PLENUS, plein, full;
BENE, bien, well; LEX, loi, law.

I into e, ei: TRISTITIA, tristesse, sadness; CONSILIUM, conseil,
counsel.

o into œu, eu, ou, oi, ui: COR, cœur, heart; FLOS, fleur, flower;
AMOR, amour, love; vox, voix, voice; NOX, NOCTIS, nuit, night.
u into oi, ui, ou: NUX, noix, nut; TRADUCERE, traduire, to trans-
late; CURIA, cour, court; CURSUS, cours, course; CURTUS,
court, short; DULCIS, doux, sweet; GUSTUS, goût, taste; LUPUS,
loup, wolf; SURDUS, sourd, deaf; URSUS, ours, a bear.
Frequently the added letter is an alteration of the Latin termina-
tion of the accusative case from which the French word is derived :
RES, REI, acc. REM, rien, a thing.

CONSONANT CHANGES.

:-

Consonants may be thus subdivided :-
B, P, F, V.
Mutes. C, Q, G, J.
D, T.

Sibilant.

Liquids. M, N.

S,
X, Z.
Aspirate. H.
The changes of the mutes, properly understood, are among the
principal auxiliaries in etymology.

Smooth.

P sounds (labials)........... p
C=K sounds (gutturals) c=k, q
T sounds (linguals)

t

......

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In the progress of language it has been observed that mutes of
the same organ are frequently interchanged:

p, b sounds into v: CAPER, chevreuil, roe-deer; FABA, fève, a bean;
HABERE, avoir, to have.

v into b: VERVEX, brebis, lamb.

v into f: VIVUs, vif, lively.

c, q into g, ch: ACER, aigre, sour; AQUILA, aigle, eagle; CABALLUs,
cheval, horse; QUÆRERE, chercher, to seek.

t into d: PARATUS, parade.

th into t: THESAURUS, trésor, treasure.

Mutes of different organs, and consonants of different classes,
undergo various changes:

v into g: VESPA, guépe, wasp; VASTARE, gáter, to spoil; CAVEA, cage.
t into ss, s, c, z: POTENTIA, puissance, power; POTIO, poison;
GRATIA, grace; AD-SATIS, assez, enough.

n into gn: CAMPANIA, Champagne, Champaign; CASTANEA, chá-
taigne, chestnut.

EPENTHESIS, or insertion.

b, t between ml, nr, with a vowel between them: HUMILIS, humble;
CANERE, chanter, to sing.

d before r: FULGUR (fouldre, then), foudre, thunder.

In the formation of the French language, as may be seen from the

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above, the Latin words became for the most part contracted. Two or
more Latin words are also found contracted into one French word :
DIES DOMINICA, dimanche, Sunday1. SEPTEM MANE, semaine,
week. ANTÈ-NATUS, aîné, elder; POLLICE TRUNCUs, poltron,
poltroon.

The conformity between French and Latin is found not only in the
formation of words, as shown by the preceding rules and examples,
but also in various figures of speech and idioms common to both
languages:

CORDI ID EST MIHI (I am pleased with that), j'ai cela à cœur. I
have that at heart.

Desiderio MORI, mourir d'envie. To be most anxious.
UNGUES ARRODERE, se ronger les ongles (réfléchir profondément).

To meditate.

my opinion.

MEO JUDICIO, MEÂ SENTENTIÂ, à mon sens. In
MEO MODO, à ma manière, à ma fantaisie. To my fancy.
AD LITTERAM, à la lettre. Literally, strictly.
EST BONI JUDICIS, il est d'un bon juge. It is (the duty) of a good judge.
Habere pro cERTO, avoir pour certain. To know for certain.
AMITTERE È CONSPECTU, perdre de vue. To lose sight of.
BENE, MALÈ VELLE ALICUI, vouloir du bien, du mal à quelqu'un.
To bear another good-will, ill-will.

DEO JUVANTE, PERAGAM, Dieu aidant, je terminerai. With God's
help, I shall finish it.

HOC FACTO, EFFUGIT, cela fait, il s'enfuit. That being done, he fled.
REDIIT HORÂ DICTÂ, il revint à l'heure dite. He returned at the

appointed hour.

NESCIO QUID agam, je ne sais que faire. I know not what to do.
UBI LOCI RES EST? où en est l'affaire? How does the matter stand?
TURBA RUÊRE, une foule d'hommes se précipitèrent. A host of men

rushed on.

(Other analogies will be found in their proper places in the Grammar.)

1 The English names of the days of the week are borrowed from the
names of idols, which the ancient Saxons chiefly worshipped on those days;
as on Sunday the idol of the sun was worshipped, on Monday the idol of
the moon, etc. The analogy with the Latin names is remarkable :

MONDAY (Moon day).
TUESDAY (Tuisco's day), TUISCO was

the Mars of the Saxons.
WEDNESDAY (Woden's day), WODEN,
the Mercury of the Saxons.
THURSDAY (Thor's day), THOR, the
Jupiter of the Saxons.
FRIDAY (Friga's day), FRIGA, the
Venus of the Saxons.
SATURDAY (Seater's day), SEATER,
the Saturn of the Saxons.

LUNDI (Lunæ dies), day of the moon.
MARDI (Martis dies), day of Mars.

MERCREDI (Mercurii dies), day of
Mercury.

JEUDI (Jovis dies), day of Jupiter.

VENDREDI (Veneris dies), day of
Venus.

SAMEDI (Saturni dies), day of Sa-
turn (Sabbati dies ?).

WORDS OF FREQUENT OCCURRENCE,

WITH A

COMPARATIVE TABLE OF LATIN AND FRENCH TERMINATIONS,
AND OF LATIN, GREEK AND FRENCH PREFIXES.

ARTICLES.

LE, LA, LES, the; ille, illa, illos. DU, DES, of or from the; DE
AU, AUX, to the; À LE, À LES. UN, UNE, a, one,

LE, DE LES.

unus, una.

TERMINATIONS OF SUBSTANTIVES.

Latin OR into French eur: HONOR, honneur; COLOR, couleur, colour;
PUDOR, pudeur, shame, modesty.

TIO IO, tion on: MENTIO, mention; OPINIO, opinion.
MENTUM, ment: MONUMENTUM, monument; ALIMENTUM, aliment.
A, e: ROSA, rose; FORTUNA, fortune; LUNA, lune, moon.
IUM, e: PRINCIPIUM, principe, beginning; REMEDIUM, remède,
remedy.

ITIUM ICIUM, ice: VITIUM, vice; AUSPICIUM', auspice.

UGIUM AGIUM, uge age: REFUGIUM, refuge; NAUFRAGIUM, NAU-

frage, shipwreck.

ORIUM, oire: PRÆTORIUM, prétoire; ORATORIUM, oratoire, oratory.
ITAS ETAS, ité été té: VERITAS, vérité, truth; PIETAS, piété, piety;
SANITAS, santé, health; VOLUPTAS, volupté, pleasure.
ANTIA, ance: ELEGANTIA, élégance; MAGNIFICENTIA, magnificence.
ITIA, ice AVARITIA, avarice; JUSTITIA, justice.

UDO, ude: MANSUETUDO, mansuétude; SOLITUDO, solitude.

TERMINATIONS OF ADJECTIVES.

Latin UNDUS into French ond: RUBICUNDUS, rubicond; FURIBUN-
DUS, furibond, furious.

IDUS, ide: CUPIDUS, cupide, covetous; RIGIDUS, rigide, rigid.
ILIS, le: HORRIBILIS, horrible; GRACILIS, grèle, slender.
AX ACIS, ace: VORAX VORACIS, vorace, voracious.

ANUS IANUS INUS, ain ien in: ROMANUS, romain, Roman; MERI-
DIANUS, méridien, meridian; DIVINUS, divin, divine.
ARIUS ARIS, aire: NECESSARIUS, nécessaire, necessary; SALUTA-

RIS, salutaire, salutary.

OSUS, eux: FRUCTUOSUS, fructueux, fruitful; PRETIOSUS, précieux,
precious.

IVUS VUS, iff: APERITIVUS or APERTIVUS, apéritif, aperitive;
NOVUS, neuf, new.

TUS, te: INEPTUS, inepte, unfit; JUSTUS, juste, just.

LUS LIS, 1, and by a subsequent change, I into au u: NOVELLUS,
nouvel, nouveau, new; MOLLIS, mol, mou, soft.

1 Avispicium, from avis, a bird, and specere, to observe. Auspicari,
auspicatus, to observe birds, to watch for tokens from the actions of birds.

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PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.

AUCUN, AUCUNE, some one, any one,
aliquis unus.

AUQUEL, AUXQUELS, AUXQUELLES,
to whom, to which, À LE and QUEL.
AUTRE, AUTRES, other, different,
alter.

AUTRUI, another, others, alter, geni-
tive alterius (Autre homme, autre-
hum, autre-hus, then autrui, ac-
cording to WEY).

ÇA, that, it, a contraction of CELA.
ČE, this, that, it; CET, CETTE, this,
that; CES, these, those, hicce,
hæcce, hocce.

CECI, this, CE and cr.
CELA, that, CE and LA.
CELUI, this, that, he, CE and LUI.
CELLE, this, that, she, ce and ELLE.
CEUX,
CE and EUX.
CELLES,

CE and ELLES.

these,
those,

they,
CHACUN, CHACUNE, each one, every
one, quisque unus..
CHAQUE, each, every, quisque.
DESQUELS, DESQUELLES, of or from

which, DE LES and QUELS.
DONT, of (or from, with, by, about)
which or whom, de, undè.
DUQUEL, of or from which, DE LE
and QUEL.

ELLE, she, her, it; ELLES, they, them,
illa, illas.

EN, of, from or by me, thee, him, her,
it, us, you, them or that; thence,
hence, some or any of it or of them,
inde.

German manich, manch, and the
English word many.)
ME, me, to me, me.
MÊME, same, seif, selves (Italian
medesimo), met ipsissimus.
MIEN, MIENS, MIENNE, MIENNES,
mine, meus.

Mor, I, me, to me, mei (μoí).
MON,
my, meus, mea, meum, meos.
MES,
NOTRE, NOS, our,
NÔTRE, NÔTRES, ours,

,},

Nous, we, us, ourselves, to us, nos.
NUL, NULLE, no, none, null, nullus.
ON, some one, somebody, homo.
PERSONNE, person, anybody, persona.
PLUSIEURS, several, many, plures.
QUE, whom, which, that, quem.
QUEL, QUELS, QUELLE, QUELLES,
what, which, whom, qualis.
QUELCONQUE, whatever, any, qualis-

noster.

cunque.

QUELQUE, Some, any, QUEL and QUE.
QUI, who, whom, which, that, qui.
QUICONQUE, whoever, quicunque.
QUOI, what, which, quid.
| SA, his, her, its, one's, sua.
SE, himself, herself, itself, one's self,
each other, themselves, to himself,
etc., se.

SES, his, her, its, one's, suos.
SIEN, SIENS, SIENNE, SIENNES, his,
hers, suus.

Sor, himself, herself, itself, one's self,
each other, themselves, se, sui.
SON, his, her, its, one's, suum.
TA, thy, tua.

TE, thee, to thee, to thyself, te.
TEL, TELS, TELLE, TELLES, such, like,
same, such a one, such people,
talis. (Tel...que, talis...qualis.)
TES, thy, tuos.

|

Eux, they, them, is, ea.
IL, he, it; ILS, they, ille.
JE, I (Italian Io), ego (èyú).
LA (the), her, it; LES (the), them,
LE (the), him, it; ille, illa, illos.
LEQUEL, LAQUELLE, LESQUELS,
LESQUELLES, which, who, whom,
that, LE and QUEL.
LEUR, LEURS, their, theirs; LEUR, to ToI, thou, thee, to thee, tu, tui.
them, illorum.

TIEN, TIENS, TIENNE,
thine, tuus.

MAINT, many. (Origin Teutonic,

whence the Gothic manags, the Tu, thou, tu.

TIENNES,

TON, thy, tuus.

Lui, he, him, to him, her or it, illi. TOUT, TOUS, TOUTE, TOUTES, all,
MA, my, mea.
whole, entire, every, any, each,
totus.

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