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UN, UNE, one, a or an ; UNS, UNES,Vous, ye, you, yourself, yourselves,
some, unus.

to you, etc., vos.
VOTRE, vos, your, Z vester, Y, to or in me, thee, him, her, it, us,
VÔTRE, vôtres, yours, S voster. you, them, that, ibi (Italian ivi, vi).

TERMINATIONS OF VERBS.
The four Latin conjugations end in are, ēre, čre and ire in their infinitive
mood, and the French in er, ir, oir and re:
Latin Are into French er, AMARE, aimer, to love (see page 112).
ERE

oir, (often) VIDERE, voir, to see; DEBERE, devoir,

to owe; HABERE, avoir, to have.
ÈRE

ir, re, oir, (often) REGERE, régir, to rule ; DICERE,

dire, to say; BIBERE, boire, to drink ; PERCI-

PERE, percevoir, to receive, and others in oir,
ir (often), VENIRE, venir, to come ; FINIRE, finir,

to finish.
Several French verbs are from the past participle or supine. Thus,
OSER, to dare, from ausus, past participle of audere.

ADVERBS.
AILLEURS, elsewhere, aliorsùm (Alio Comme, as, how, COMMENT, how,
loco, according to Wey).

qua memte.
AINSI, thus, in sic.

D'ABORD, first, de ABORD.
ALENTOUR, around, À L' (endroit qui D'AILLEURS, from another cause, be-
est) EN (le) TOUR.

sides, moreover, DE AILLEURS.
ALORS, then, ad illam horam. DAVANTAGE, more, DE AVANTAGE.
ARRIÈRE, behind, À RIÈRE, retro. DEçà, on this side, DE ÇÀ.
Assez, enough, ad satis.

DEDANS, within, DE DANS.
AUJOURD'Hvi, today, AU JOUR DE DEHORS, outside, DE HORS.

HUI, hujus (diei or temporis). Déjà, already, de jam.
AUPARAVANT, before, À PAR AVANT. DELà, on that side, beyond, DE LÀ.
AUPRÈS, near, À LE PRÈS.

DEMAIN, tomorrow, de mane.
Aussi, as, also, ad sic.

DERECHEF, again, DE RE CHEF.
Aussitôt, as soon, immediately, DERRIÈRE, behind, de retro.
AUSSI Tôr.

DÉSORMAIS, henceforth (Old French
AUTANT, as much, alterum tantum. DES-ORES-MAIS), de hâc horá magis.
AUTOUR, around, À LE TOUR. Dessous, underneath, de sub.
AUTREFOIS, formerly, AUTRES Fois. Dessus, upon, desuper.

Fois, vices (turns, courses, changes). Devant, before, de ante.
BEAUCOUP, much, bella copia. DORÉNAVANT, henceforth (Old
BIEN, well, benè.

French DES-ORES-EN-AVANT), de
BIENTÔT, soon, BIEN TÔT.

hâc horâ in antè.
Çà, hither, CE LÀ.

ENCORE, still (Italian ancora), hâc
Céans, within, hic intus.

hora.
CEPENDANT, meanwhile, CE PEN- ENFIN, at last, in finem.

ENSEMBLE, together, in simùl.
CERTES, certainly, certè.

ENSUITE, afterwards, EN SUITE.
Ci, here, hicce.

ENVIRON, about, EN VIRON (or GI.
COMBIEN, how much

or many, RON), in gyrum.
COMME BIEN.

EXPRès, on purpose, expressè.

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DANT.

FORT, very, fortis.
GUÈRE, little, varium or avarè? (Teu-
tonic ware, caution, difficulty?).
HIER, yesterday, herì.
Icı, here, hicce.

IMPROVISTE (à l'), on a sudden, un- PRÈS, near, præstò.

expectedly, improvisus.
JADIS, formerly, jam diù.
JAMAIS, ever, (with ne expressed or
understood) never, jam magis.
Là, there, illa. (In parte illâ.)
LOIN, far, longè.

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PLUTÔT, rather, PLUS TÔT.
POINT (with ne expressed or under-
stood), no not, punctum.
POURTANT, however, pro tanto.
PRESQUE, almost, PRÈS QUE.

ATTENDU, considering, attendere.
AVANT, before, ab ante.

PROCHE, near, proximus.
PUIS, then, positus.
QUAND, when, quandò.
QUELQUEFOIS, sometimes, QUELQUES
FOIS, vices.

REBOURS (A), the wrong way, back-

wards, reburrus, a Latin word of the
middle ages meaning rough, hispid.
RIEN (with ne expressed or under-
stood), nothing, res.

SI, so, sic.

SITÔT, so or as soon, sI TÔT.
SOUDAIN, suddenly, subitaneus.
SOUVENT, often (Italian sovente), sub-
indè.

SURTOUT, above all, SUR TOUT.
TANT, so much, TANTUM.
TANTÔT, SOON, TANT TÔT.
TARD, late, tardè.
TELLEMENT, SO much, so, TEL, talis,
MENT, mente2.

Tôr, soon (Italian tosto), tostus (?),
or citò.

TOUJOURS, always, TOUS JOURS.
TOUTEFOIS, yet, TOUTES FOIs, vices.
TRAVERS (A), across, through, trans

versus.

PREPOSITIONS.

TRÈS, very, tres.

TROP, too much (Italian troppo),
turba (?).

VITE, quick. (Formed by onomato-
VOIRE, even, nay, verè. [pia".)
VOLONTIERS, willingly, volenter.
Y, there, ibi.

AVEC, with, ab usque cum.

CHEZ, at (the house of), among, casa.
CONTRE, against, contra.
DANS, in, de intus.

1 Oui is also supposed to be a contraction of the old French lo voil, i. e. je
le veux, I am willing. Oui, voil, voglio, volio, volo. Country people in many
parts of France say even now voui, and in some provinces vouaill, for oui.

2 MENT, mente, from mens, is the termination of most adverbs formed
from adjectives, agréablement, sincèrement, etc. 3 See page 350.

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DONC, then, therefore (Italian
dunque), tunc.
ET, and, et.

LORSQUE, when, LORS QUE.
MAIS, but, magis.

NI, nor, nec.

OR, now, hac hord.
Ou, or, aut.

PAR, by, per.
PARMI, among, PAR MILIEU.
PENDANT, during, PENDRE.
POUR, for, pro.

QUANT À, as to, quantum ad.
SANS, without, sine.
SAUF, except, salvus.

SELON, according to, secundùm (se-
cundo loco?).

CONJUNCTIONS.

CAR, because, for, quâ re (yap, gar ?). | PARCE QUE, because, FAR CE QUE.
CEPENDANT, yet, however, CE PEN- POURQUOI, wherefore, pro quod. ❖ཇི
POURVU QUE, provided, proviso quod.
PUISQUE, since, posito que.
QUE, that, que.

DANT.

Sous, under, sub.

SUIVANT, according to, SUIVRE.
SUR, upon, super.

TOUCHANT, concerning, TOUCHER.
VERS, towards, versus.
Voici, here is; vois ICI, see here.
VOILÀ, there is; VOIS LÀ, see there.
VIS-À-VIS, opposite, visus.
Vu, considering, VOIR.

1 Maître ès arts, Master of arts.
2 Tout est perdu fors l'honneur (all
is lost except honour), said Francis I.
after the battle of Pavia (in 1525).

3 Ambigo, I go about, I doubt.
♦ Cedo, I yield.

QUOIQUE, though, quamquam (?).
SI, if, si.

SINON, otherwise, SI NON.
TANDIS QUE, whilst, tam diù que.
TOUTEFOIS, yet, however, TOUTES
FOIS, vices.

LATIN AND FRENCH PREFIXES.

AB, ABS, from, away; abjurer, to ab- | CONTRA, against, near; contredire,
jure; abstenir, to abstain.
to contradict.

AD, to, at (the d frequently suffers DE, from; départ5, departure.

DI, DIS, signifies asunder; diviser,
to divide.

a consonant-change); amener, to
bring; apporter, to bring.
AMB (AMBI), about, from side to side;
ambigu3, ambiguous.
ANTE, before, antécédent1.
CIRCON, round about; circonscrire,
to circumscribe.

E, EX, out; étendre, to extend.
EN, in; enterrer7, to bury.
EN, away; s'envolers, to fly away.
EXTRA, beyond, out of, extraordi-
naire.

CON, with; concourir, to concur.

FOR, out of; forfait, crime.

5 Partio, I divide, I separate.
6 Divido, formed of dis and the
Etruscan verb iduo, I separate.
7 Terra, the earth.
8 Volo, I fly.

9 Facio, I do.

IN, into; incorporer, to incorporate. | SINE, without; sinécure, sinecure;
IN, not, inconstant.

INTER, between; intervenir, to in-

tervene.

OB, in front of; obvier1, to obviate.
PAR, PER, through, quite; parfait 2,
perfect, perspective3.
PRE, before, préface.
PRO, forth, forward, procession.
RE, again, back; relire, to read again.
RETRO, back; rétrograder, to retro-
grade.

SE, apart; séduire, to seduce1.

simple 5.

SUB, SOUs, under; subjuguer, to
subdue; soumettre, to submit.
SUBTER, under, subterfuge.
SUPER, SUR, above, superfin, sur-
naturel.

TRANS, TRA, over, beyond; trans-
planter, to transplant; traverser,

GREEK AND FRENCH PREFIXES.

to cross.

ULTRA, OUTRE, beyond; ultramon-
tain, ultramontane.

A, a (a), without, abyme7, abyss.

AMPHI, ȧupi (amphi), both, amphibie, amphibious.
ANA, avà (ana), back, again, analyse, analysis.
ANTI, ȧvri (anti), against, antipathie 10, antipathy.
AРо, άπò (apo), from, Apocryphe11, Apocrypha.
CATA, Karà (kata), against, catastrophe12.
DIA, dia (dia), through, across, diagonale 13.
EPI, Èπì (epi), upon, over, épiderme, epidermis 14.
Eu, ev (eu), well, good, évangile 15 (good tidings), gospel.
HYPER, UTEP (huper), above, beyond, hyperbole 16.
HYPо, Tò (hupo), under, hypothèse17.

META, μerà (meta), beyond, métaphysique18.
MONO, póvos (monos), one, alone, monologue 19.

PARA, Tapa (para), side by side, similar, paraphrase 20.
PENTA, TEVTE (pente), five, pentagone 13.

PERI, Tepi (peri), round about, périphrase 20.

POLY, TOXUS (polus), several, polysyllabe21.

1 Via, way.
3 Specto, I see.
4 Duco, I lead.

PSEUDO, evons (pseudés), false, pseudonyme 22, pseudonymous.
SYN, ovv (sun), with, sympathie1o.

2 Factum, deed.

MÉS, MÉ AND MI, FRENCH PREFIXES.

MÉS, or мÉ, a prefix of Teutonic origin, mis, signifying contrary to, wrong;
mésintelligence, misunderstanding; mécontent, dissatisfied.
MI- half, from the Latin medius (MI-AOÛT, middle of August).

13

yúvia (gonia), an angle.
14 dépμa (derma), the skin.
15 ayyew (angello), I declare.
16 Báλw (ballo), I throw.
17 Oéois (thesis), a position.
18 puois (phusis), nature.
19 Xóyos (logos), a word or dis-

5 Sine plexu (sans plis), without
folds.

6 Subjugo, I subdue.

7 Bvooòs (bussos), depth.
8 Bios (bios), life.

9 λύω (luó), I dissolve.
10 málos (pathos), feeling.
11 кρÚπтW (kruptő), I hide.
12 orρépw (strepho), I turn.

course.

20 ppáris (phrasis), a speech.
21 σὺν (sun), with; λαμβάνω
(lambano), I take together.
22 ovoμa (onoma), a name.

EXPLANATION OF THE ABBREVIATIONS.

hm.

8.

m. stands for masculine.

pl. stands for plural.
f.
feminine.

h mute.
singular.

h

asp. h aspirated. In the Exercises.- Art. or (the) between parentheses shows that the definite article is to be used in French. The words (of the) are also in a few instances between parentheses, and show that du, de la, de l', or des are to be used in French. With the exception of personal pronouns used with verbs in the imperative mood; as, come (thou), have (ye), a single word between parentheses is to be translated, though not used in English. In instances where several English words are inclosed in parentheses, they must be rendered by the word or words only which are placed under them.

denotes that the English word is like the French. The figures between parentheses, thus (121.), refer to the rule applicable to the sentence.

* under a word, shows that it is not to be expressed in French.

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