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the workmen, while taking down the medal is of a much older date. The old church at Libberton, in this neigh- church of Libberton was very old bourhood. It appears from the in it existed in the 13th century, and scription round the head, which bears was built probably long before.a venerable and noble countenance, That part where the medal was found to have been struck in honour of St was more modern than the rest. It Alexander Nevsky or Nevskoy (usu- will puzzle the antiquarian to explain ally spelled in this country Newsky.) how this solitary Russian production Translated, it runs thus :

came there, for the intercourse be“ The Grand Prince Alexander tween this country and Russia is of a Yaroslavitch Neffvskoy."

very recent date. On the reverse is the following inscription :

“ He bravely conquered the Swedes, and Livonian Germans, who attacks Account of the Grave of Louis XVI. ed Novogorod in the year 1252;

TO THE EDITOR. he reigned 12 years, and lived 44

Sir, years."

This Alexander reigned at Novo- HAVING been much struck with gorod in the 13th century, and was the following affecting and rehonoured with the sirname of Nevs- markable circumstance, recorded in koy, for his glorious victories over a manuscript journal, lately put into the Swedes on the banks of the river my hands, I am induced to transmit Neva. Pope Innocent sent two Car- it to you for publication, in the idea. dinals to persuade him to embrace the that it will be perused with much inCatholic faith, but they did not suc terest by many of your readers the ceed. The Russian church numbers lines, written on the spot, are not unhim among her saints, and Peter the worthy of the subject. I am, Sir, Great built a magnificent church at your most obedient servant, St Petersburgh, which bears his name, 17th Jan. 1815.

M. S. S. and ordered his remains to be deposited within it. The church of St A.

Paris, July 28th, 1814. lexander Nevsky stands on the banks “ In the evening I went to visit a of the Neva, where the decisive bat- spot, which is certainly not the least tle was fought, and, it is said, in the interesting object that Paris has to very spot where Alexander wounded present to a stranger. In a small but the Swedish king. The 30th August neat garden, behind a house in Rue (O.S.) is this Saint's day, on which d'Anjou-at one corner of it, inclothe Emperor goes to the church in sed by a hedge of privet, &c., is seen grand style, to attend divine service. a small turf hillock, which denotes Peter projected, and Catherine l. the " narrow cell of humanity” befounded an order of knighthood, cal- neath! It is kept with the nicest care, led the order of St Alexander Nevs. in a kind of hallow'd sanctity, cover'd ky, which is the third in rank among with springing flowers, of the sweetest the Russian orders. This medal must kinds, and overshadow'd by two weephave been struck after Alexander's ing willows. In this simple cemetery death, and before he was canonized; are deposited the ashes of Louis, the but at what period he was thus hon- unfortunate Louis, and his Queen ! oured we have not ascertained. The in the space without the hedge, are church was built at the beginning of interred those of the Swiss guard the last century, and, from the form who defended with such bravery their of the letters, we do not think the Sovereign's cause. I was impressed

with the utmost seriousness! and felt fibres capable of being dressed, and as if I had heard the words of the worked into cordage, canvas, and Herald of Heaven, The place where other sorts of cloth. Among our in“on thou standest is holy ground.” digenous plants, the common nettle,

I was penetrated with admiration Urtica dioica, has long been noted for at the pious loyalty of the good old affording a very tolerable fibre, algentleman, to whom it belongs, and though decidedly inferior to hemp. to whose politeness we were much The hemp plant and the nettle, we indebted. The site of his garden may remark, belong to the same was formerly the burying ground of Natural Order," Urticcæ of Jussieu : the church of St Magdalene, where and we have now to announce, that the bodies were interred, with quick- a new species of Urtica, possessing lime, immediately after the execution : qualities which may, in some situawhen the church and its cemetery tions, entitle it to be considered as a were destroyed, he purchased the valuable substitute for hemp, was disground, dressed it up in the best man covered, five or six years ago, in the ner, and has paid to the remains of neighbourhood of the great lakes of his royal master this tribute of his ve Upper Canada. The discoverer was neration !"

Mr CHARLES WHITLOW, a native of At the Grave of Lours the Martyr. East Lothian, who in early life went Let mimic art her busts and statues raise,

to America, and settled in Canada, Rich in the fulsome flattery of praise ; and who is at present on a visit to his Let sculptur'd marbles give to distant fame native country. This new Urtica is The King's, the Statesman's, or the War. rior's name ;

a stronger and taller plant than our Let brazen tablets tell to future times common nettle; it is equally hardy, The fabled virtues of the man of crimes ! and, being likewise a perennial, proThese have their beauties,-yet they are but pagates as readily by the roots. Each art,

stool sends forth from six to twelve They charm the eye-but seldom reach the heart.

stems yearly, and these grow to the -This simple sod, this weeping willow height of five or six feet. bower,

well-established stools, from fifteen to This circling hedge,—this solitary flower !

twenty stems have been counted, This spot, where France in sore repentance rising from a space not more than six

weeps, This grave, where France's martyr'd Mon

inches in diameter. arch sleeps!

This species, as already hinted, is Tell to the world of crimes, and virtues not described in Willdenow's enlar

past, In accents louder than Pame's clarion blast; ged edition of the Species Plantarum, Speak to the heart more sad-more awful

nor in any botanical work. It will things,

fall to be placed between U. CanaThan all death's ensigns on the tombs of densis and U. divaricata, to both of Kings.

which it is nearly allied, and both of -I envy not the mightiest of the great, The pomps and splendor of their funéral which, it may be added, are also instate!

digenous to Canada. It belongs to Their's be the honors of the trophied shrine, the section Alternifolic of thegenus, alA turf like this—and pitying virtue-mine! though the uppermost leaves are truly

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MONTHLY MEMORANDA IN NATURAL
HISTORY.

Descriptio.
New Substitute for. Hemp.

Caulo 5-angulo simplici orgyali urente.

Foliis alternis cordato-uvatis acutis serIt is well known that the stems of ratis trinerviis punctatis petiolatis, suprevarious plants besides liemp, afford mis oppositis.

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were drawn up, we understand, by autumn. The soil best adapted to its Dr Muhlenberg, clergyman at Lan- cultivation is low wet meadow, such caster in Pennsylvania, the most as is suitable for hemp. But it will distinguished botanist in the western succeed in soil that is too poor and world, and one of the few surviving clayey for that plant; and it will pupils who studied under Linnæus at grow where hemp could not be cultiUpsala :

vated on account of the excess of wet. Description.

Mr Whitlow has seen it thriving in

situations where the ground was reStem quinquiangular, simple, 6 feet gularly covered with water for not high, stinging

less than six months in the year. It Leaves the lower alternate, heart- is, moreover, a plant not very nice in shaped ovate, acute, serrated, with 3 its choice of soil or situation ; like nerves or ribs, dotted, with foot- the fiorin.grass, it may be planted stalks; the uppermost leaves opposite. even in dry upland situations. It is Stipules 2. cleft.

not injured, while growing, by the Panicles pedunculated, axillary, heaviest continued rains, which someforked or divided by pairs, bristly; times prove destructive to hemp; and the panicle of male flowers longer it equally withstands the severest than the leaf-stalks, (and inferior;) droughts, which are often exceedingly the female panicles terminal.

injurious to flax. Capsule circular, compressed, tipt A week after the crop is cut, the with a rigid spine.

stems may be handled freely, the hairs, The root is not noticed in the above

or aculei, having by that time comdescription. It may be described as pletely lost their stinging power. perennial, somewhat tuberous, and To facilitate the separation of the spreading horizontally.

fibrous bark from the pith, the nettle The plant has been named, in hon- may be water-rotted like hemp; or it our of the discoverer,Urtica Whitlowi. may be dew rotted, as is sometimes

Its favourite habitat seems to be done with hemp, and from this longswampy ground on the banks of continued exposure to the atmosphere, rivers. Mr Whitlow found it in it suffers much less than hemp. But great abundance on the banks of Mr Whitlow's practice has been, after streams which fall into Lake Ontario, drying it in the field, to bundle and Lake Erie, and Lake Superior; and stack it like hemp, till the winter sparingly in low wet meadow ground snow covers the ground; he then near rivers and creeks, in Orange spreads it out, and lets it remain till County, New York, and some other spring, when the bark not only freely parts of the United States.

separates from the cellular substance, It may be propagated, either by but the fibre is pretty well bleached. parting the roots in autumn, or by The fibre has been found, by exsowing the seeds in the spring months. periments made both in America and If the latter method be adopted, Mr in London, to be stronger than that Wbitlow recommends raising the either of hemp or flax, and capable of plants in small thickly-sown beds, and

as great divisibility as the former. transplanting them into the field in The loss of weight in manufacturing

was found to be only 21 per cent.

Mr A. Shirreff of Leith, now in the Stipula bifida.

United States, mentions, that he “ had Paniculis pedunculatis axillaribus dichoto

seen some of the urtica collected in mis hirsutis ; petiolo longioribus masculis,

Genisee country, perfectly sound and et terminalibus foemineis. Ccpsula orbiculari coin pressa mucronata. fresh, after having been exposed to all

the

the vicissitudes of a winter in that these must consist chiefly in its afclimate; while hemp exposed in the fording a stronger fibre or staple, and same manner was completely destroy- one which, along with superior strength, ed. It has also been found to with- offers the additional quality of being stand the destructive rotting effect of less liable to rot from alternate exthe miasmata from the American posure to wetness and driness. For marshes, which are said completely to cordage and canvas to the navy, these destroy the fibres of hemp or flax. It properties are invaluable. If the may be added, that the nettle hemp plant is to be cultivated by the Briwas speedily rendered white by the tish, however, it must be in its nableaching liquor; and that it seemed tive land of Upper Canada, or perto suffer less from the acid, on account haps in New South Wales : in both of the greater strength of its fibre. of these places, indeed, it may prove

This urtica was first described in an object well worthy of attention. the Baltimore Jedical and Physical In England and Ireland, its culture Ly:cum, a periodical work scarcely is not likely soon to be adopted. Beknown in this country. In the New ing a perennial plant, and propagatYork Herald newspaper, for 21st ing itself at root in the manner of November 1812, there was published our common neitie, it is evident that a short account of the plant, by Dr , a field once planted with it could not Eddy, a lecturer on botany ; together easily be reclaimed. It is well known with a report by a committee of the to agriculturists that the tufted vetch Corporation of New York, stating, (Vicia cracca) would yield a heavier that “ a number of manufacturers of crop than any other sort of tare or Alas and hemp, linen and cotton, bad clover, and that it is excellent for catexamined the plant in its different tle; but it has been found impossible stages of flax, tow, and thread, and to eradicate the plant where it has were of opinion that it is far superior. once got established, and for this reato any flax or hemp they had ever son it is never cultivated. The same seen, as well in the quantity produced objection holds with regard to the from a single stem, as in superior fiorin-grass (Agrostis stolonifera and strength, beauty, and fineness of tex. A. alba), or at least to the cultivature; and that from the experiments tion of fiorin on corn lands. made, they think it will produce None of these perennial plants, from 20 to 25 per cent. more from therefore, can enter into a rotation of the heckle than any flax or hemp crups, or be planted on land with the known to them."

view of being ploughed up in two or Mr Whitlow obtained at New three years. In Lincolnshire, Suffolk, York a patent right for his discovery, and other places where hemp is cultito endure for fourteen years ; and vated, the hemp crop is alternated about two years ago, we are told, he with turnip, clover, or wheat, When sold one half of this patent, for the the seeds are wanted for sale, or for sum of 12,000 dollars, to a company the oil to be expressed from them, of merchants there, who began to hemp is considered as rather a scourgplant fields of the urtica in auiumn ing crop; bat when cut before seed1813. He has brought a quantity of ing, it is reckoned a cleansing crop, the seeds and roots to London, and as it rises so thick as effectually to we understand that it is his intention choke all weeds, and, being itself an to send some of both to the Royal annual, perishes completely during Botanic Garden of Edinburgh. the winter, and leaves the ground It seems evident, that if this new

very clean. urtica possess advantages over hemp, In former days, a small quantity of

hemp

hemp was raised by every farmer in ant article of hemp, than she has been Scotland, for the use of his own farm; for many years past, this substitute for, hempen ropes made by the plough- certainly deserves attention, as one men in the winter nights, then sup- which might be produced to some explied the place of leather harness tent, within our territories at home, manufactured by a saddler. At pre without interfering with the rich arasent, hemp is scarcely cultivated in ble lands on the produce of which the Scotland. Some small fields have, sustenance of the people depends ; indeed, of late years, been sown in while it might be reared in any quanthe island of Islay, under the special tity in our trans-atlantic and Austradirections of the patriotic Mr Camp- lasian possessions. If the fibre be bell of Shawfield, the proprietor. In stronger and more durable, the mothe Hebrides, we may remark, it is tive for trying the cultivation of the very possible that the urtica might plant is evidently greatly increased. be cultivated with greater advantage

CANONMILLS,

N. than hemp. It would be less liable to 28th Jan. 1815. be destroyed by heavy rains, and squally weather. Hemp must be sown in April, at the very time that the insu- Improvements and new Institutions lar husbandman is preparing for his

throughout SCOTLAND. other crups ; but the roots of the urti. AN institution has been formed unca might be planted late in the au der the patronage of the most distumn. Hemp must be pulled when tinguished characters in this country, it begins to change colour or approach. for the important purposes of life-ines ripeness, even if this should hap- surance and provision for widows.pen in the midst of the bear or oat It is to be entitled, The Scottish harvest; while the urtica could be Widows Fund, and Life. Assurance left uncut for weeks, without detri. Society. It was at first intended onment. The rent of moist land in ly to have embraced the former obthe islands is low; and there would be ject ; but on considering that this little motive for wishing for a change country contained yet no institution of crop for a series of years, during for the purposes of Life Assurance on which, with a very little cleaning and a general plan, it appeared advisable care, the urtica would annually afford to extend the original Jesign so as to a cutting. The price of seed and la- embrace it. The laws and regulabour would thus be saved ; and to tions of the Society have therefore most of the Hebridean farmers, the been drawn up, and the rates fixed by saving of the price of seed would be a person long experienced in the an object. If Mr Whitlow's nettle- management of such concerns, and hemp, therefore, is ever to be culti- also by eminent legal and mathemavated in Scotland, it ought to be in tical advice. The calculations are some of its numerous islands.

made at four per cent. instead of In concluding, we think it right to three, which last is the rate adopted add, that, along with many more by the London and other societies; competent judges, we have seen, in so that though an additional contri. this city, specimens of the staple af- bution is made for the purpose

of forded by this new urtica, in different management, the rates are unusually stages of its dressing, which seemed low. An investigation is to take fully to authorize the praises bestow- place at the end of every ten years ; ed on it, If it would be a desirable and if the funds of the society are thing to see this country more inde- found to admit, an increase is to be pendent on the Baltic for the import- made in the provisions secured upon

the

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