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Scots 99agazine,



For MAY 1815.

Description of CESSFORD CASTLE. spring at a short distance. The roof

is entirely gone; the area within the THE Castle of Cessford is situated walls is 41 feet in length, and 20 in

in the county of Roxburgh, about breadth ; and according to tradition, six miles east from the Town of Jed. there is a subterraneous vault below the burgh. It was for a long time the prin- Castle, which in times of danger was cipal residence of the Kerrs, ancestors used for concealing both persons and of the present Duke of Roxburghe. goods within its walls, as this place, The first proprietor of this castle men from its vicinity to the English bortioned in history was Andrew Ker, der, was more frequently liable to atwho obtained the title of Baron of tack *.

S. Cessford, and got a charter of confirmation from Archibald Earl Doug. lass, afterwards stiled Duke of Tu- Remarks on the Advantages of the renne, Douglass, and Longueville: North or Level Line of Canal, be

This Castle, together with the vast tween Edinburgh and Glasgow, extent of territory, possessed by the over the Line of the Union Cunal. family in this county, descended, in

TO THE EDITOR, succession, to Robert, first Earl of Koxburghe, who (as tradition relates) situated in the centre of his relations,

Edinburgh, April 1815. dependents, and vassals, was enabled, I AM convinced that your readers at that turbulent period, to bid de

are too generally impressed with a fiance, not only to the feeble civil sense of the advantages resulting to power of the country, but at times all classes in society, from the exteneven to the sovereign himself. No sion of inland navigation, not to redate is discernible to fix the period of ceive with satisfaction some informathe erection of this building; but tion respecting the comparative merits from those parts of it yet entire, it of the disputed lines of Canal

, for conappears to have been a place of connecting our metropolis with Glasgow. siderable strength, both from the

One project has been already rethickness of the walls (which are 14 jected by Parliament; but the interfeet at an average) the remains of the

est of the country is again excited, by battlements on the top, the embra. another being set un fout of still sures on the sides, and the vestiges of greater pretension, which is powerful a surrounding moat, which, in cases

ly of emergency, appears to have been

# For additional particulars, see S:atistifurnished with water from a copious c.] Account, vul. VIII.


nie's plan.

ly recommended by the talents of its from Glasgow. The public advatitaauthor, Mr Rennie, the most celebra. ges to which both canals lay claim, ted engineer of the age, and by the are the supply of Edinburgh with coal, support of the Edinburgh community. which is at present scarce and dear,

Both schemes will of course be the amelioration of the coal district again contrasted; and while the dis- in return,—the diffusion of lime and pute materially and directly affects manure over the whole country, the interests of the most populous dis- the transportation of goods and pas. trict in Scotland, it cannot, at the sengers, and other benefits inseparasame time, from the general views of ble from water-carriage. national improvement which it opens It is proper to mention here, that up, be indifferent to the most remote. in the years 1797 and 1798, the

After an examination, which, to Magistrates of Edinburgh, anxious to whatever other merits it may be en procure a supply of coal, had employtitled, has at least that of being un. ed Mr Rennie to report on four dif. biassed by any personal interest, I ferent lines, surveyed by Messrs Ainhave no hesitation in determining sley and Whitworth.—That gentleagainst that lately thrown out by the man accordingly' did so; and at the House of Commons, and in as deci same time stated, that he would greatsively urging the adoption of Mr Ren- ly prefer a fifth route, the present level

line, provided minerals were in equal The former line, many of your abundance as on the other lines; readers know, commences at Gilmour where surveys by Messrs Taylor and Street, on the west of Edinburgh ; Grieve, in the year 1793, and by and after a course, which it is unne. Messrs Bushby in 1800, had given cessary to describe, passes through very favourable representations. The about 6 miles of thin coal, in the mineral survey, recommended by Me vicinity of Falkirk; and, without Rennie, was not then undertaken,any more minerals in the whole way on account of the expences of the to Glasgow, descends by nine locks to war,-the consequent absorption of the Forth and Clyde Canal, at lock capital,--the great sums expended at 16. The other line, recommended Leith on the harbour, and also the reby Mr Rennie, termed the Level line, duction of the price of coal by supproceeds from Bruntsfield Links, in plies coastwise : -But with Mr Rena course for some time nearly similar nie's high authority, who, having the to the former ; but by commencing Great Canal before his eyes, never about 40 feet higher, it not only runs thought of a junction with it being to Falkirk without lockage, and inter- advisable, and with the mineral sursects the whole coal and minerals of vey required by him not completed, the other line; but, leaving the Great we say, that the Magistrates not only Canal a great way to the north, it acted right in demanding delay, when proceeds onward, on one level, to

one level, to their sanction was applied for by the within 25 miles of Glasgow, is the Committee of the Union Canal subtrough of the Monkland ridge of coal; scribers, but they would have shown and besides, by means of side rail a dereliction of all public duty, if roads or canals, opens up fields still they had at once proceeded in the more extensive, which lie on the south. face of such motives for caution and

It is a part of Mr Rennie's plan, inquiry. ultimately to lock his canal down to The effect of this delay, which the Leith, and to the Clyde at Broomie. Union Canal subscribers found it ne. law; while the other stops at Edin cessary to submit to, was, that the burgb, and Port Dundas, about a mile Union Committee employed mineral


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Advantages of the North Line of Canal. surveyors to examine the coal near become material. This compromise Falkirk, and obtained what they call we do not consider so favourable to a favourable report. But it is natu- the public, as the exclusive adoption ral to imagine, that if a large supply of the level canal ; but it may be of coal bad been the principal motive here adduced in evidence of the sinfor inducing the prime movers of the cerity of the Magistrates. The reaUnion Canal to institute a subscrip- sonableness of their proposal, too, tion, this survey would have been a may be judged of from this, that the preliminary step. Its adoption at the Union Canal Committee, the more particular period, shows it to have moderate part of that association, acbeen entirely out of view originally, tually closed with it, and gave it to any further than to allure some un- be understood every where, that all wary subscribers, and that the Forth differences were accommodated. Afand Clyde profits were the real and ter this mutual agreement, one would sole inducement.

scarcely expect to hear any imputaThe Magistrates of Edinburgh, on tion of the Magistrates being hostile their part, employed themselves in to all inland navigation, and of the again consulting Mr Rennie, and grounds of their opposition being a were enabled to furnish him with a mere cover of their real design. We mineral survey of the level, or north should as little expect, that the proline, by Mr Bald, who was employed posals then accepted should be deby a few of the most opulent and re- nied to be beneficial, when actually spectable citizens of Edinburgh and admitted by the more respectable Leith, at their private expense, that, part of their opponents. But mark for their own satisfaction, and the the consequence. A crowd of the good of the public, a rational deter- advocates of the Union Canal from mination might be formed as to the the West flocked in to town,-overmost expedient line of inland naviga- set the whole of what the Committion. The survey of Mr Bald was tee had done,--and refused to modiin the highest degree favourable ; and fy in any article the shape of their the result of the whole investigation scheme. The cause of this proceedwas, a decided opinion of the supe- ing it is not difficult to discover. rior merits of Mr Rennie's plan, and The lockage to Leith might not pay of the propriety of opposing the Un as a distinct speculation, and it would ion Canal. Wishing, however, to certainly interfere with the Grangesecure a great body of subscribers, to mouth navigation. The wished-for remove a formidable opposition to prolongation also of the Union Canal their own line, and to effect, with as to the Monkland coal wouid have much certainty and speed as possible, materially affected the Falkirk field. some inland navigation, the City of When the general meeting of subEdinburgh was willing to adopt the scribers had thus overturned all that plan of Mr Baird, who had surveyed their Committee had agreed to, the and recommended the line of the opposition of the Magistrates of EdinUnion Canal, modified, so as to suit burgh became avowed : and although somewhat the public interest. Their we are satisfied, that if the fatal redemands were, that the Canal should sult of their opposition could have be locked down to Leith ; and that been foreseen, the subscribers would it should be a part of the general plan have come into the terms which had to permit an extension of the Union been settled ; yet, confiding in their Canal to the west, as far as the Monk. own strength and numbers, they reland ridge of coal on Mr Rennie's line, solved to proceed on their original if supply from that quarter should views.


The irritation which was the con- cept to serve the public most effec. sequence of this, displayed itself in tually. It has been thrown out, that the most unjustifiable measure of ad- they espoused this line, merely in ordressing the mob of Edinburgh by der to defeat the other, from a prinplacards, containing an invitation to ciple of hostility to any canal whatpetition Parliament, with an energe- ever. Yet if the tendency of canals tic persuasion of cheap coal and fuel, be, as is universally acknowledged, an abundant supply of water gratuit- to supply coal and other articles, at a ously, and employment for thousands. low rate, and to increase trade, it

The placard was affixed to all the should seem very unaccountable to streets and public places, at a time find the Magistrates of Edinburgh, when the popular feelings were ex or other public bodies, opposing what cited by the corn bill, then in de- must be decidedly beneficial to them, pendence, and when the peace and whether as traders, or masters of fasafety of Edinburgh was considerably milies, or heads of the community. endangered.

We shall soon have decided proof The placard operated, of course, of the falsehood of this charge of hoslike a charm. Thousands of gaping tility to inland navigation, by the mechanics, after standing to misspeil City of Edinburgh and others using the advertisement, flocked to the every exertion in bringing into Parliashops, industriously thrown open for ment a bill for executing Mr Renthe reception of signatures; but, a- nie's line. But if we had not posbove all, the grammar school supplied sessed information to this extent,a most invaluable store of auxiliaries, nay, even if we bad been alike ignowhose love of amusement, in flying rant of the character and station of from shop to shop, gave names innu. Mr Rennie's supporters, and of the merable. To have shown the weight recommendation to his line, from his which it was proper to attach to the own great experience and acknowsanction thus procured, the subscri. ledged professional merits, we should bers, to the Union Canal should, in have looked only to the personal and justice, lave laid before Parliament, municipal interest of the Magistrates the specimen of logic and eloquence and Merchant Company of Edinby which they succeeded in influen. burgh to decide upon the absurdity cing the multitude. We are told of supposing them to throw any ob. that this was done with considerable stacle in the way of a canal, if no effect by their opponents ;--so differ- preferable one was practicable. It ently do different persons view the has been indeed said, that the shore. eifects of the same measure. The dues at Leith would be hurt, by the conclusion, therefore, from surveying Canal diverting the transport of goods the confined interests of the promo- from Grangemouth to Leith, into the ters of the Union Canal, its origin other track ; and that this constituand whole conduct, is, that the scheme, ted an interest in the Town Council whatever it may be in reality, has adverse to the good of the city. To much the appearance of a cabal com manifest the absurdity of this suppobined for private and selfish purposes. sition, we ask whether the shore-dues,

On the other hand, with regard to or the personal and municipal advanthe supporters of Mr Rennic's canal, tages of a canal, predominate? In a prospectus of which will soon be order to determine which question, I published *, it is not easy to discover may inform your readers, that coal, what imaginable interest they could and other rude produce, the staple of have had formerly, or have now, ex- the canal, pay no shore-dues, and that . See p. 949.

all the most bulky goods from Glas


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