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appears to have had the effeet which the dynasty of the Bourbons, which Providence, writer wished, for he was invited thither, as if in contempt of all human calculations, and was actually permitted to land on the seems to delight in perpetuating on the 21st of Oct. at Port-au Prince. This was a throne of our dear France. You will pregreat point gained; but unfortunately M. fer the lot of an illustrious servant of the Lavaysse, in a day or two, fell dangerously mighty Sovereigns of the French, to the ill; and so continued up to the 1st of Nov. more than precarious state of a Chief of rePreviously to the Commissioner's arrival, volleu Slaves ; and if examples were necesthe President, foreseeing that the late events sary for your imitation, behold Generals in Europe would lead to some attempt on
Murat and Bernadotte, who, as Kings or the part of France to recover possession of Princes, have for several years governed the St Domingo, and that that attempt, when nations that they have rendered illustrious ever made, would be better counteracted by by their arms, now descending voluntarily the assistance of England, determined to and nobly from their thrones, and preferring add to the motives of humanity which legitimate and durable honours for theinmight impel her conduct, the more power selves and their posterity to the odious and fultie of self interest. His first step, therefore,
unsafe title of usurpers. was to grant some local facilities to the Bri. “ Do not deceive yourself, General. You tish trade at Port-au Prince, but that not doubtless know, what every body in Europe being sufficient, he, on the 15th of Oct. knows, although it is not yet diplomatically published a decree, declaring that, from the published, that the principal article of the 'Ist of Jan. 1815, merchandize manufactured agreement, which the Sovereigns of that in countries under the dominion of his Bri quarter of the globe have ratified with their tannic Majesty, shall be subjected to an im royal word, is to unite their arms, if necesport duty of only five per cent. The con sary, in order to destroy all the governments duct of the President Petion is wise and which have lécn formed in consequence of the politic; but not as it has been represented, events of the French Revolution, either in quite disinterested. He has given Britain Europe, or in the New World. Learn, interest in preventing the return of St Do moreover, that it is Great Britain who is the mingo under the yoke of France ; for should centre and prime mover of this confederacy, to that event take place, the British trade which, sooner or later, all other powers would be entirely excluded from the ports must yield; and every Government or Chief of that Island.
that refuses to submit, will be punished as On King Christophe's receipt of M. La traitors and banditti." The result of the vaysse's letter, he ordered his Secretary to deliberation of the council proves that the answer it. It was then laid before a Ge. French Cominissioner did not forin a corneral Council. The following are some of rect estimate of the Haytian character, the expressions attributed to the French when he used threats to influence them to Commissioner : Every thing has been submission : The couneil were too well in. foreseen and provided for in the Treaty of formed of the progress of affairs of Europe Peace, between the Sovereigns of Europe. to give credit to the political passages; but Being insufficiently informed of your Ex the menacing passages they felt as men cellency's principles, they thought it possible whose feelings, habits, and opinions, had that you might hesitate in respect to the been long formed--as soldiers who had conduct you ought to follow, and they there fought and conquered their own indepen. fore agreed, that, in order to replace the po dence and that of their families. They vo. pulation of Hayti, which in that cusc rcould ted an address to Christophe expressive of be totally exterminated, by the immense mass their determination to perish to the last of forces sent against it, France should con man rather than subinit. A deputation next tinue the Slave Trade for several years, with morning waited on their Sovereign, a view not only to supply the necessary whom Christophe made the following rehands for cultivation, but also to form a ply: black soldiery, in imitation of the English.” “ Haytians! your sentiments, your gene“ You, General, will not force us to convert rous resolution, are worthy of us : your into soldiers those Negroes, whom we are King shall always be worthy of you. at the present moment collecting on the indignation is at its height.
Let Ilayti, coast of Africa ; you will not force us to from this moment, be only one vast camp; use all the possible means of destruction." let us prepare to combat those tyrants who “I am persuaded you have too sound a threaten us with chains, slavery, and death. judgement, too enlightened an understand Haytians! the whole world has its eyes fixed ing, and too noble a disposition, not to be upon us ; our conduct must confound our satisfied with becoming a great Nobleman calumniators, and justify the opinion which and a General Officer, under that antique philanthropists have formed of us.
rally; let us have but one and the same Art. 1. The first article provides, that all wish that of exterininating our tyrants. hostilities are to cease as soon as the treaty On the unanimous co-operation of our u shall have been ratified by both parties ; all nion, of our efforts, will depend the prompt territories taken possession of by either par. success of our cause. Let us exhibit to pos ty to be restored, excepting the islands in terity a great example of courage ; let us the Bay of Passamaquoddy ; they are to combat with glory, and be effaced from the remain in the possession of the respective rank of nations, rather than renounce liberty powers, in whose hands they then are, unand independence. A King, we know how til it is decided to whom they belong, acto live and die like a king; you shall al. cording to the agreement of a former treaty. Fays see us at your head, sharing in your 2. Immedia after the ratification of perils and dangers. Should it so happen this treaty by both parties, as hereinaiter that we cease to exist before consolidating mentioned, orders shall be sent to the aryour rights, call to mind our actions; and mics, squadrons, oflicers, subjects, and citi. should our tyrants so far succeed as to en zens of the two powers, to cease from all danger your liberty and independence, dis hostilities : and to prevent all causes of cominter my bones ; they will still lead you plaint which might arise on account of the to victory, and enable you to triumph over prizes which may be taken at sea after the cur implacable and eternal enemies.” said ratification of this treaty, it is recipro
Christophe issued, on the 20th October cally agreed, that all vessels and esteets talast, a manifesto, asserting the liberty and ken after the space of twelve days from the independence of the people of that interest ratification, upon all parts of the coast of ing colony, and solemnly pledging himself, North America, from the latitude of 23 de. and the whole of the population under his grees north, to the latitude of 50 degrees dominion, to suffer death rather than sab. north, and as far eastward in the Atlantic mit to the introduction and establishment Ocean as the 36th degree of west long.tude of any foreign authority. The crimes, the from the meridian of Greenwich, shall be perfidies, and the outrages of Bonaparte, restored on each side. That the time shall form the ground-work of this paper. The be 30 days in all other parts of the Atlantic, manifesto is remarkable for the justness of north of the (quinoctial. line or equator; the panegyric bestowed upon England in and the same time for the British and Irish her indefatigable and successful exertions Channels, for the Gulf of Mexico, and all for the abolition of the slave trade, and does parts of the West Indies : forty days for the not scruple to express a hope, not marked North Seas, for the Baltic, and for all parts indeed with any extraordinary confidence, of the Mediterranean : 60 days for the Atthat the independence of Hayti will be re lantic Ocean south of the equator, and as far cognised by Louis XVIII. At the Cape as the latitude of the Cape of Good Hope; there are about 5000 infantry, and 1500 90 days for every other part of the world cavalry, with a very good park of artillery. south of live equator ; and 20 days for all The whole of the regular military establish other parts of tire world, without exception. ment is calculated at 22,000 men, and the 3. This article relatis to the mutual resmilitia is said to consist of 33,000.--Fort toration of prisoners. Henry, or the citadel of Christophe, is a 4. Relates to the islands in the Bay of stupendous work, and appears impregnable. Paranaquoddy--(m. Commissioner is to It is secured by its extraordinary elevation , be appointed by Wiki Power, who are to de. from any sudden attack : its fortifications cide to which Power those islands respecare constructed with great skill, and amply tively belong, apically to the intention of provided with water within ; it is supplied the Treaty of 1703. If the Commissioners with provisions and ammunition for six cannot igree's retuience is to be made to thousand men for two years.
some friendly Sovereign to decide.
3, (i, 7. klate to the line of boundary, AMERICA. agreably to the Treaty cf 1783.
The TREATY OF PEACE.
buuntry line in to run through the middle The negociations at Ghent have happily of the river St Lawrenc?, and of the several terminated in a treaty of peace, which was Laks respectively. It is necessary to designed there by the British and American cide where th: middle is, and to which Pienipotentiaries on the 24th December ; Pover the islands near the middle of these and has been since ratified in London by Lakes, &c. respectively belong. the Prince Regent, and sent off' to America 8. States that the Cominissioners are to for final confirmation by the President of appoint Surveyors and Clerks, &c. and to the United States. The following is conti provide for their payment. dently given as a correct abstract of the 9. Rcates to the Indians. It is agreed treaty :
that each of the two Powers is to make
peace with the Indians, who have joined in when the two parties had lost their respecthe war against them, and to restore them tive characters of neutral and belligerent, to the privileges, &c. they possessed previous cannot well be questioned. In this respect, to the war, provided that the Indians rc indeed, the road to peace was so open and frain from aggression, and conduct them. direct, that it could hardly have been missed. selves peaceably.
Respecting the other points in discussion, 10. Both Powers agree to continue their it was hardly possible that they could have efforts to procure the abolition of the slave produced a continuance of the war ; for they trade.
were really not essential to the happiness 11. This treaty, when the same shall and prosperity of either country. Of what have been ratified on both sides, without al moment, for example, can it be to the peoteration by either of the contracting parties, ple of this country what portion she possesand the ratifications mutually exchanged, ses of the Canadian deserts ? or whether the shall be binding on both parties; and the Americans participate in the Newfoundland ratifications shall be exchanged at Washing- fishery ? Admit that it is a lucrative and imton in the space of four months from this portant branch of commerce for America, date, or sooner, if practicable.
will it be maintained, in the present day, Dated 24th Dec. 1814.
that the prosperity of America is a loss to This intelligence is truly gratifying, and this country. The jealousy of the prosperi. may be regarded as the consummation of ty of other countries is among the antiquathose great events which have already taken ted prejudices of the last century. It took place on the Continent of Europe. Without its rise in the system of politics framed by the restoration of universal peace those e. King William, which, though they were set vents formed indeed an unfinished story; off by the glare of battles and victories, had but now the piece is complete—the curtain this unhappy consequence, that they tended is fairly dropt; and we hope it will be long to foster a jealous, and even a blind hatred before the managers of the European drama of those nations which had at any time been will entertain their subjects with the bloody our opponents in war; and this vicious printragedy of a new war. The truth is, that ciple tainted even the pacific policy of the the Ainerican war was virtually at an end country. The war of arms only gave piace with the war in Europe. It was a branch tr the war of commercial prohibitions, and of the main quarrel, and naturally ceased it was generally inculcated as an indisputawith the source from which it arose. Great ble axiom of state policy, that all injuries Britain and America differed in their res inflicted on our enemies, or those who had pective capacities of neutral and belligerent been our enemies, were to be set down to powers. These differences of course deri. the account of our own benefit. This prinved all their interest from war, in which a. ciple will be found to have pervaded the lone it was that the privileges connected policy of the European states for the greater with them could be exercised ; and when part of the last century, and Mr Pitt's comthe war ceased, it was evidently useless to mercial treaty concluded with France in the continue a new war for the exercise of cer year 1786, forms the first remarkable devia. tain rights that peace rendered nugatory.- tion from those maxims of settled and inIt has been urged, indeed, that it would curable hostility. This treaty was concluded have been politic to have framed some set. in the true spirit of peace it was framed, tled system of maritime law for the govern according to the avowal of its author, for ment of neutral and belligerent powers in the express purpose of putting down that future wars. But supposing (which is very senseless animosity to foreign states, which likely) that both parties had maintained was the reigning delusion of those times ; their respective views of public law, what and a better pattern for the regulation of was to be done ? Were we to continue our policy will not readily be found. fighting for certain abstract principles in the In every view in which it can be considlaw of nations of no iminediate use in prac- ered, peace with America may be regarded tice ? Were we to involve ourselves in a as a great event for Britain. That war, and present war, that we might avoid a war at the interruption of commerce with which it some future period? And be it observed, was attended, must, in spite of the peace in that though we had even forced the Ameri. Europe, have operated as a serious obstacans to accede to our view of the question, cle to the advancing progress of the coun. what sccurity had we that they would not, try; while the expences of those distant the very next war in which we were invol operations to which it led, by preventing ved in Europe, seize the opportunity of re any rcduction of our expenditure, must have sisting the exercise of our maritime claiins ? tended still farther to irivolve our finances, In short, the propriety of waving the dis. and, at all events, must have been a serious cussion of those embarrassing questions, obstacle to the repeal of the property tax.
No one who bas not well considered the No exclusions of ours can possibly prevent endition of society in America can possibly it, and we do not therefore see the eminent appreciate the importance of her connection utility of such attempts. If the Americans, to this country. With other countries, however, accede to these exclusions, nothing indeed, we may maintain a very beneficial can be said : so that they do not interrupt intercourse in articles of luxury and conve the peace of the two countries, let them renience. But America in connected with us main, seeing that they do no injury. Reby the ties of necessity. The nature of strictions, indeed, we do not think benefithings, we may say, has decreed the unal- cial, in most cases, even to the parties for tcrable connection in commerce of Great whom they are established. It would be Britain and America, and the loss of that more perhaps for the benefit of all parties connection must have been deeply felt concerned, that the world, both by sea and by both countries, America is the great land, should be one great arena, to which agricultural nation of modern times. The the industry of all nations should have free mass of her capital is absorbed in the culti access, in order to fight out the battle of ration of the soil; and while she is spread- fair and honourable competition. ing civilization over remote deserts, she As to the question so eagerly contested wants capital and industry to clothe her in some of the London newspapers, which vast and increasing population, and to pro- of the two nations have done must mischief vide also the materials necessary to carry to the other in the war, we have really too on the work of civilized life. Her inhabi much respect for the good sense of our tants, bursting forward at all points, and readers to enter into such a controversy. chasing desolation before them, are fast ad It is not, as Mr Burke says, worth powder vaneing into the interior of the Continent, and shot. The war is at an end the work whose vast and fertile valleys afford an al of mischief has ceased. This is the thing mast unbounded field for the progress of to be rejoiced at, and the less mischief it has population. For centuries to come, there required to produce this happy result, the fore, the Americans will be a rising people. more ought we to be gratified. Peace is Agriculture will be their main pursuit ; and the great object of war. This object we for the produce of art and industry, they have attained, and it is surely not very hu. Dust chietiy depend on the capital of other mane to boast at what an expense of human nations. In the present state of the world, misery it has been purchased. As well this capital will in a great measure be sup- might a surgeon who amputates a limb, plied by Britain. The progress of America, boast of the pain his patient was put to by therefore, opens a vast market for the ma the operation. nufactures of Britain. America, carrying forvard her agricultural plans with unabated ardour, looks to this country for a sup Only a few days previous to the receipt piy of manufactures, while the capital of this of the intelligence from Ghent, a strong country, and the industry of her numerous sensation was excited in this country by the artizans, finds employment in supplying the arrival of American papers, containing a Fast and increasing market of America. letter from Mr Monroe, the Secretary at Thus the colonization of the New World War, to Congress, but sent under cover to goes on, and who that contemplates the Mr Troups, the Chairman of the Military Erilliant prospects of improvement which Committee. It is dated Department of are thus unfolded to our view, the wonder War, Oct. 17, and proposes that an addiful-the complicated process of civilization, tional force of 40,000 men be raised : so by which those results are accomplished, that the permanent military establishment but must deeply regret the interruption of shall comprize 100,000 regular troops; also that connection from which blessings ines that the corps of engineers be enlarged ; and Limable flow to so great a proportion of the that the ordnance department be amended. species. When we consider, also, how This letter was accompanied by explanatory many schemes of moral improvement may observations from Mr Monroe, which are be engrafted on this commercial counection, importiint. The observations are prefaced #e find new reasons for exulting over the by remarking, that the late dispatches from termination of the war.
Ghent prove that it is the intention of the As to the encouragement given to the British Governinent, by striking at the American navy, by the right of fishery on principal sources of American prosperity, to the banks of Newfoundland, it seems quite diminish the importance, if not to destroy inmuible, considering the vast extent of the political existence of the United States. the American cast, to prevent a great por. It proceeds, " if the United States sacrifice im of the people from becoming sailors. any right, or make any dishonourable con. Anterica must in time be a maritime power, cession, the spirit of the nation will be bro
ken, and the foundation of their indepen. One of these bills has been compared to a dence and union shahen. The United conscription, but in fact resembles our miliStates must relinquish no right, or perish tia laws. It enacts that the white male poin the struggle. There is no intermediate pulation of the United States, between 18 ground to rest on. A concession on one and 45 years, shall be classed---each class point leads directly to the surrender of every to contain 25 persons, who are to provide other. The result of the contest cannot be one man to serve during the war, or be doubtful. It is the avowed purpose of the fined: in the event of casualty the man is to enemy to lay waste and destroy our cities be replaced : the bounty in money and 160 and villages to desolate our coast-and to acres of land to be granted to each recruit: press the war from Canada on the adjoining five inhabitants furnishing a recruit are to States, while attempts are made on New be exempted from military duty during the York city, and other important points, with a view to the vain project of dismemberment or subjugation. His scheme also em
OPERATIONS IN CANADA. braces an attack on Louisiana State, the Canada papers to the 25th ult. have been forcible possession of New Orleans, and the received. A Gazette of the 17th contains mouth of the Mississippi, which is the inlet an official account from Kingston of the and key to the commerce of that portion of evacuation of Fort Erie by the Ainerican the Union, lying westward of the Alley gany troops on the 5th Nov. they having premountains. It is an object of the highest viously blown up the works of the fortress, importance to provide a regular force, inde and reduced it to ruins. The American pendently of the militia, with the means of troops immediately passed over to their own transferring them to the menaced points. side of the Lake; but Gen. Drummond Three times the nuinber of militia have at could make no use whatever of the fortress tines been in arms that would have been for winter quarters. The campaign on the required of the regulars: their periods of Canadian frontier may thus be considered as service are at present consumed in march. closed on both sides. Gen. Brown is gone ing to and from their homes. To bring the to visit his friend Chauncey at Sackett's war to an honourable termination, we most Harbour, and Gen. Drummond has returned not be content with defending ourselves.
to Kingston. DiTerent feelings must be touched and ap A Canada paper says, “ Every soldier prehensions excited in the British Govern. now serving in this country, who relinquishment. By pushing the war into Canadi, es the Chelsea pension, is entitled to 200 we secure the friendship of the Indian triles, acres of land, upon application to the Land and command their services, otherwise to Board at Quebec : he must, however, scibe turned by the enemy against 11s: we re tle on the soil. In fact, it is a standing lieve the coast from the desolation which is rule with this Government, to grant 200 intended for it, and we keep in our hands a acres to any person, who is a British subsafe pledge for an honourable peace.--If the ject, provided he settle thereon. As to of. United States makes the exertion which is ficers, we know of no fixed allowance propropo-ed, it is probable that the contest will vided for them. But this much we can say, 800n be at an end. It cannot be doubted that any gentleman retiring from the army, that it is in their power to expel the British by representing past services to his country. forces from this Continent, should the Bri. may have liberal grants. It was oficers tish Government, by persevering in its 10 and soldiers discharged at the peace of 1753, just demands, make that an object with the who settled the now flourishing province of American people.--It follows, from this Upper Canada. Oficers had from 500 lo view of the subject, that it will be necessary 12,000 acres, and soine by great lavour, to bring into the field, next campaign, not got much more. No soldiers, to our know. less than 100,000 regular troops. Such a ledge, got less than 200. The Government force, aided in extraordinary emergencies has yet many millions of acres 10 concede, by volunteers and miitia, will place [15 and when the army shall be reduced, liberal above all inquietude as to the final risuit grints will be made to our veterans of all of the contest. It will fix, on a solid and grades." imperishable foundation, our union and independence; on which the liberties and hap. Two vessels, which recently arrived at piness of our fellow-citizens so essentially Liverpool from Pensacola, have brought depind, and it will secure to the United intelligence of the Americans under Gen. States an early and advantageous percc.” Jackson having entered that place. It ap
In consequence of Monroe's letier, three pears that some time ago the Spaniards inbills were ten days after in progress through
vited the British to take possession of l'ensa. Congress for increasing the inilitary forces. sola, the capital of West Florida, and to