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of the wings. Besides this, the vil. consideration, are malic acid, either lage contains a Relief and Burgher in a state of purity, or one of combichurch; the latter under the direction nation with potash (a circumstance of a man, whose eloquence and learn- not yet perfectly ascertained); vegeing entitle him to a more important table mucilage, or extractive matter; charge.
supertartrite of potash; sugar; water; This whole neighbourhood-fertile the sweet principle; the colouring in agriculture, yields ample matter for principle; tannin; super-oxalite of the investigations of the antiquary: potash; and the principle of flavour. but our limits forbid us from entering The proportions of these, vary much farther on this extensive field. in different fruits, and it sometimes
happens that one or more of them is entirely absent. In the white cur
rant, for instance, the colouring subOn the Processes of Wine-making. stance is often deficient, whilst it a.
By Dr MACCULLOCH, Woolwich. bounds in the elder-berry and red From Memoirs of the Caledonian Horticultu- grape. So the super-oxalat of potash ral Society, No. VI.
is rarely found ; and, on the contrary,
those salts to which the tartarous, or AMONG the many important sub- malic acid appertain, are more fre
jects to which the Horticultural quent. So likewise, the sugar is much Society have directed their attention, less abundant than the sweet princi. there is none which, both in a national ple, which is indeed the general cause and economical point of view, can of the sweetness of the greater number come into competition with that of Dr of our fruits. The vegetable mucilage Macculloch's Essay. The production, is, if any, the only principle whose within ourselves, of a commodity which presence is invariable; and this prinwe have so long derived exclusively ciple is one of the most essential in from abroad, would certainly be a the fabrication of a vinous liquor, as most useful and patriotic achievement. we shall see hereafter. The main diNor would the convenience be less, of versities of character, in the products obtaining at a cheaper rate, an article of the various fruits, is owing to the of which fashion has spread so widely varying proportions of the several inthe use, and of which the price has gredients which they contain. It is become so enormous. There are few, true, that difference of managetherefore, who will not heartily wishment may produce different effects; success to the laudable efforts of the but no contrivance can give to the writer : nor can we resist the oppor- gooseberry the constituent elements tunity of employing what means we of the grape, nor can any mode of possess to diffuse more widely the procedure extract the favour of knowledge of his plans.
champaigne from the juice of gooseThe object of Dr Macculloch is to berries, although many, who have reduce to regular principles an opera- not been much accustomed to the flation which has been hitherto a mere vour of the foreign wine, have been mechanical routine - a series of re- deceived by that made from our hum. ceipts founded upon no principle. ble fruit.
Dr Macculloch begins with analy. Among the principles enumerated, sing the constituent parts of the fruits tartar, water, sugar, the sweet princi. commonly used for this
purpose. ple, and the vegetable extract or mu
cilage, are the most essential in the * The constituent parts of the fruits conversion of fruits into wine. Coused in the experiments now under lour and flavour may be considered as
adventitious; and the principles which wine will be produced. If, on the yield them are in nowise essential to contrary, the leaven is in excess,
the the process
of wine-making. The ef- fermentation will be too great, and fect produced by the super-oxalite of vinegar will be the result. Imperfect potash is unknown, as it has not been fermentation and consequent sweetthe subject of experiment,'
ness is the defect to which British
wines are most liable. This can only Tartar is considered as one of the be remedied by some mode of increaobjects most essential to fermentation, sing the leaven. Dr M., however, and as one the presence of which most deprecates the use of the yeast of beer, strongly distinguishes the grape from which communicates a bad favour. If other species of fruits. Dr M. has any leaven is necessary, it should be found the best effects from mixing drawn from the lees of foreign wine, Tartar with those native fruits from or from the fermentation of former which wine is usually made.
parcels of domestic wine. The malic acid abounds. in all our pose, however, may be sufficiently annative fruits, and its presence is con- swered by agitating it in the manner sidered as one of the most irremedia- which is called 'reaking the head, ble obstacles to the forming of these thereby re-exciting the languid ferinto perfect wines.
mentation. Sugar is the most essential of all Besides
and leaven, tartar apthe ingredients, since it is upon it that pears to form an important principle; the strength of the liquor depends.- and one of the greatest defects in doOur fruits are eminently deficient in mestic wines arises from no attempt it but this is a defect which can ea, having ever been made to supply it. sily be remedied, by adding the pro- The wine of the grape seems saturaduce of the sugar-cane.
ted with tartar, so that no precise liVegetable extract is supposed to be mit seems assignable to its use. the leaven upon whose action the pro- Dr Macculloch has taken a very cess of fermentation depends; or that extensive survey of all the fruits used by which the sugar is rendered capa- in this country for the purpose of ble of undergoing this process. It is making wine, with a view to ascertain therefore the ingredient for the pro- their respective merits; and as this is duction of which fruit is indispensable. $0 universally interesting a subject,
Colour and astringency are not es- we shall endeavour to give it in his sentials of wine, and may easily be own words:supplied by artificial means.
Flavour is a principle so uncertain • The fruits chiefly in use are the and fugacious, that it is difficult to es- quince, cherry, strawberry, sloe, el. tablish any general principles respect. der-berry, damson, mulberry, black ing it. When the fermentation is or bramble berry, raspberry, orange, perfect, the original flavour of the lemon, gooseberry, and the three vafruit is entirely obliterated. The only rieties of currant. Dried raisins, almode of cominunicating this princi- though not ranking among our fruits, ple is to throw in some portion towards are extensively used, and require also the close of the fermentation.
to be noticed. Dr Macculloch observes, that the “A wantonness of experiment seems quality of the wine depends most es- to have, in some measure, led to this sentially upon the proportions between great and superfluous number of artithe leaven and the sugar. If the for- cles as the nominal bases of wines, al. mer is deficient, a part of the sugar though the practices have also been, will remain unchanged, and sweet in a great degree, founded on falsė
views of the real nature and objects kernels in quantity, as, however agreeof this manufacture. It is evident, on able a slight flavour of the bitter may the principles already laid down, that be, a taste amounting to bitterness is when no peculiar and agreeable flavour always unassimilating and injurious to follows the adoption of any individual the wine. fruit, it can have no legitimate claim . From the Strawberry, wines of for use, beyond that which is founded agreeable quality, both dry and sweet, on its several proportions of sugar, may be produced; but the peculiar leaven, acid, colour or astringency.- favour of the fruit is generally dissiAs the two last of ihese can be com- pated in the process. The cautions Imunicated with the greatest certainty which I have given respecting flavour, by adventitious ingredients, it is bad will suffice to point out in what way policy to have recourse to weak expe- that is most likely to be obtained. dients for the same, and particularly, " I make the same remark on the if, for the sake of these minor objects, Raspberry, with this additional hint, we must sacrifice others of greater im. that as very little in point of flavour portance.
or produce is gained by the use of Such also the sugar is, confessedly, these fruits, which are in most places and in all cases, an adventitious ingre- of a high price, it behoves the operadient, capable of being proportioned tor to balance the advantages against with the greatest nicety, completely the disadvantages, before he enters on in our power, and of a moderate price, the undertaking. A simple infusion it is unnecessary to consider that in- of this fruit, in any flavourless currant gredient in fruits, as the one which is wine, will, with greater cheapness and to guide our choice. It is to the due certainty, produce the desired taste. admixture of acid, and of leaven (the 'Having no experience in the Bramfermenting principle), that we are bleberry or Mulberry, I am unable chiefly to look for the causes which to say whether any flavour can be are to determine us in our selection. communicated by their use. The If a good flavour can be obtained cheapness of the former is a reconfrom any fruit of our own growth, mendation; and there is no doubt we have then the whole data which that they both contain the substances, should rule our determinations. The leaven and acid, most essential for object of price, is a consideration this purpose. They also afford what which will naturally be added to so few fruits do to the same degree, these more important ones.
the colouring principle. In mana• The Quince appears to have ging them, so as to derive the greatest usurped a place in the foregoing list, advantages from their colour, it is ne. to which it properly bas no title. Iis cessary that the fermentation le alsimilarity in principles to the apple lowed to go on with the skins, until and pear is sufficient to assure us, that the colour is extracted, which will alits produce can only be a species of so be accompanied by a slight degree cyder, characterised, according to cir- of astringency, whichi, at a certain cumstances, by the astringency and period of ripeness, accompanies both flavour which distinguish it from these these fruits. two fruits. Its price and rarity also • The Sloe and Damson are so 2550increase the objections to its use. ciated in qualities, that nearly the
• Vinous liquors, of no very particu- same results are produced from both, lar character, may be made from the -a bitterish and astringent liquor, ca. şeveral varieties of Cherry; but the pable of being converted into rough operator should be cautioned against wine of a good character, care being the common practice of pressing the taken duly to proportion the quantity
of fruit to the sugar, or to modify on Mr Oldacre's plan, being producthat liquor by the addition of other tive at all seasons of the year, might fruits of less decided properties. This amply' repay such of the market is a case, in which it is necessary to deners as should choose to take the protract the fermentation, so as to trouble of forming them. A premium, make a dry wine, as the peculiar we understand, has very properly been astringency of ihese fruits forms a offered by the Caledonian Horticultuvery discordant association with sweet ral Society for the greatest quantity of wines. By a due admixture of cur fresh mushrooms, fit for stewing or rants or elder-berries, with sloes or roasting, exposed for sale in the Edin. damsons, and with proper care, wines burgh market in the course of the not much unlike the inferior kinds of year 1816. Port are often produced. Since re
We now wish to call the attention ceipts are in the hands of every one of that numerous and enterprizing I need not detail the proportions, which association to another edible fungus, ought, in fact, to vary, both according which, though indigenous to Scotland, to the ripeness of the different fruits, is very little known to its inhabitants, and the particular views of the artist. —which is pretty regularly carried to
• In naming the Elder-berry, I have Covent-Garden market, but in this mentioned a fruit whose cheapness and country has hitherto been confined to abundance have long recommended the shops of a few of the principal it to notice; and from which, with confectioners and grocers, who have attention, excellent red wine can occasionally imported a small quantireally be made. It seems to possess, ty:-we mean the TRUTFLE, or subin great perfection, that portion of the terraneous puff-ball, (Tuber cibarium extractive principle which is required of naturalists,) considered by good to produce a free and full fermenta- judges as among the best of the estion; and its admirable colour, com
culent fungi. municates to the wine a tint as rich
So little is it known here, that a as can be desired. It appears to be description may not be improper. It deficient in acid; and its produce is is nearly of a globular shape, generally consequently much improved by the about the size of a small orange; it addition of tartar as an ingredient in has no evident stem or root; and the the artificial must. Its natural sugar surface is rough with tubercles. What is so small in quantity, that it requires is most remarkable in its history is, an ample addition of this fundamental that it grows entirely under the suringredient. If it has no good flavour, face of the earth, at ihe depth of from it is at least free from any bad one, four inches to half a fost or more, aca virtue which does not appertain to cording to the openness or compactmany of the fruits of current applica- ness of the soil. Trutlles are genetion in wine-making.'
rally found in small clusters of three (To be concluded in pur next.)
or four ; sometimes solitary or detached. When cut, they are observed to be solid, or nearly solid ; the
flesh of a dirty white colour, and HISTORY.
grained with serpentine lines like a
nutmeg. They are either used fresh, IN N the Scots Magazine for April being roasted like potatoes, or are
last, we commented on the defi- dried and sliced down for ragouts. ciency of the supply of fresh mush. In some of the downs of Kent, rooms for the Edinburgh market, Wiltshire, and Hampshire, dogs are and suggested, that mushroom beds, trained to scent out truffles; they
MONTHLY MEMORANDA IN NATURAL
bark and scratch at the spot, and, on remarkable for the success with which digging, a cluster of truffles is ge- he propagates champignons, bas stated nerally found.
his readiness to undertake the culture On the Continent, truffles are of truffles, if he meet with suitable much esteemed as an article of food. encouragement. The two plants difIn Germany, they are gathered and fer very much in their habits of sold in great numbers. It is remark- growth; but it is certainly possible to ed that they abound chiefly in those accommodate the soil and other cirparts of the great forests that have cumstances to the peculiar nature of at some former period been accidental- the fungus. It has been said, (and ly burnt down ; and the truffle-gather. the opinion is alluded to by Dr Marers have often been accused of firing tyn in the new edition of the Garthe woods with the view of bettering dener's Dictionary,) that the tubercles their harvest. In Italy, truffles ac. of trules are analogous to the eyes of quire a large size compared with those potatoes, and that they have been of Britain : instead of weighing two propagated, like potatoes, by means of or three ounces, they perhaps weigh cuts furnished with tubercles. It may, as many pounds. In place of dogs, however, be suspected that the fragthe Italian peasantry sometimes avail ments thus planted contained ripe themselves of the fine sense of sinell- seeds. By means of these we cannot ing possessed by their pigs: turning doubt that truffes may be propagated them into the truffe-grounds, they as well as mushrooms; for the wellwatch their beginning to root keenly, known direction to break down fulland seize the prey.
grown mushrooms in the garden-pan Lightfoot in his Flora Scotica men- before watering the mushroom-bed, is tions, that truffles are found in the just equivalent to sowing mushroom woods near Mignerney, in Glenlyon, seed. Truffles, we may remark, seem Perthshire, in the greatest perfection to delight in a mixture of clay and in the autumn and winter months. sand, and are generally found in woods The late distinguished Mr George or in shaded situations. Don, in trenching a part of his bo.. CANONMILLS,
N. tanic garden at Forfar *, fell in with Oct. 30. 1815. several clusters.
Three years ago, several detached specimens were ob.
MEMOIRS OF THE PROGRESS OF MAserved in a bank at Bellevue, in the immediate neighbourhood of this city.
NUFACTURES, CHEMISTRY, SCIENCE,
AND THE FINE ARTS. It appears therefore that truffles, tho' perhaps not plentiful, are pretty wide. M. DOBEREINER of Jena, the same ly distributed thro' Scotland; and if a gentleman who metallized cardemand were established in the large bon, has succeeded in seizing upon hy. towns, it seems not unlikely that a very drogen in the metallic form. He galconsiderable supply might be obtained vanizes water put in contact with from different parts of the country. mercury, and obtains at the positive
But we ought not to be discoura- pole oxygen; and at the negative ged from attempting to cultivate them. pole, where the mercury is placed, inW- have even heard that a native of stead of hydrogen, he obtains an amalFrance, now residing in this place, gam consisting of this metal. We
may knead this amalgam, and make * It is much ti be regretted that this ad- it take different forms without its bemirabie collection of hardy plants, particu: ing decomposed; but when exposed larly rich in aline rarities, has since Mr Don's death been entirely dissipated and
to heat it takes off the hydrogen, and destroyed.
the mercury once more becomes fluid.