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gerous, removed Mr. Wynch, the President, from did not approve. He therefore refused to sign the his office, and reprimanded the other members of instructions to Col. Stuart, and a letter to the comthe Council. Lord Pigot“, who, by a vote of the mandant at Tanjore. The majority hesitated, and proprietors, was appointed governor, was directed the Council was adjourned for two days. When to restore the rajah of Tanjore, and to carry out they again met (August 22), they resolved that the all needful reforms in the affairs of the Company. concurrence of the President was not necessary,

Pigot, like Clive, on his arrival at Madras, in and they wrote a letter to the secretary, directing the end of 1775, found, as he says, that “a general him to sign those papers in the name of the Counreform was necessary, to preserve the Company cil. The letter was written, and two of them had from ruin ;” and he knew, of course, that his signed it, when Lord Pigot snatched the paper, attempt to effect it would raise him a host of and produced a written charge against these two enemies. The first thing to be done was to restore members for the act they were committing. As the rajah ; to prevent this the Nabob made every this charge precluded them from voting, the goverconceivable effort, using every argument that could nor had now a majority by his casting vote, and it be devised, but all in vain.' In April, 1776, the was voted to suspend them. When the Council governor went in person to Tanjore, and put the met next day, the members of the late majority rajah in possession of his former dominions. The instead of attending, sent a protest declaring themCompany's troops were to protect the country, for selves the government, and claiming obedience which the rajah was to pay four lacs of pagodas a from all persons in authority. By a vote of the year.

Council they were then all suspended, and Sir One of the reasons assigned by the Nabob, why Robert Fletcher', the commander-in-chief, was he should not be deprived of Tanjore, was, that in ordered into arrest, in order to be tried by courtthat case he should not be able to pay the many martial. The opposite party then resolved on the Englishmen to whom he was indebted. While bold measure of arresting the governor himself. Lord Pigot was at Tanjore, he received a letter As Fletcher was ill, and so could not have the from a Mr. Paul Benfield, informing him that he gratification of executing the mandate, it was given had assignments on the revenues of Tanjore for to Col. Stuart. This officer next day breakfasted 405,000 pagodas lent to the Nabob, and on the and dined with Lord Pigot ; he was also engaged present crop, for 180,000 lent to individuals, in all to sup with him ; and as they were going home equal to the no small sum of 234,000l. To any together in his lordship’s carriage it was stopped one curious to know who this man of wealth was, by the troops, whom the colonel had appointed for it may be replied, that he was a junior servant of the service, and the arrest was made. It does not the Company, with a salary of a few hundred appear that the governor was treated with any pounds a year, and that he kept the finest horses harshness during the eight months that he was and carriages in Madras.

kept in custody, till released by death, brought on On the return of the governor to Madras, Mr. by wounded feelings, preying on a frame debilitated Benfield was called on to produce his vouchers, but by age and the climate. he had none to produce. “As to the debts of indi. As in all such cases, there were faults on both viduals, which had now dwindled down to 30,000 sides, but those of lord Pigot were venial in compagodas, he expected his bare word to be taken; parison. His last measures were all irregular and as to that of the Nabob, he referred to the and imprudent no doubt, but they did not justify books of the Cutcherry (which, however, were in any degree the violence of his opponents. There never produced), and he said the Nabob would is no proof of his having, as they asserted, urged acknowledge them. A majority of the Council, the appointment of Mr. Russell with the design headed by Mr. Stratton, decided that they could of drawing money from the rajah ; and his brother not sanction any of his claims. Five days after, Adm. Pigot asserted in parliament that he was however, Mr. Benfield, having in the interval em- offered 600,0001. to delay his restoration. On the ployed perhaps some arguments of known potency, other side were the supporters of Benfield and this very same majority resolved against Lord the Nabob ; and it was quite natural for them to Pigot, that the growing crops in Tanjore belonged desire to have a resident at Tanjore who would to the Nabob, and that Benfield's claims against not oppose their views. It is remarkable, howhim were public, not merely private, and were ever, that their courage failed them; and they did therefore to be maintained. The next question not venture to carry out their resolution that the was about a resident at Tanjore; Lord Pigot pro- growing crops belonged to the nabob. They were posed Mr. Russell, a friend of his own; the majo- left with the rajah, and Benfield's claim remained rity supported Col. Stuart, who was to command unsatisfied. the troops in Tanjore.

It is remarkable also that Mr. Hastings, contrary Lord Pigot was now in the same condition as Warren Hastings, opposed by a violent, and appa- 5 This exciter of mutiny (see p. 93), who, if he had had rently unprincipled majority; but he did not act his deserts would have been shot, was actually some time with the same prudence as Hastings. Assuming before, by the influence of himself and friends in the Court that the President was an integrant part of the

of Proprietors, appointed to the chief command in Madras, Council, and that no act was valid without his

with a seat in Council. True to his character, he soon quarsanction, he resolved not to concur in measures he

relled with the governor, and being ordered to Trichinopoly, he demanded a passage to England to attend his duty in

Parliament, in which he, degraded as he had been, had a 4 The Mr. Pigot of the preceding pages. He had gone seat! He was told that he might perhaps have it, when he out as a writer to Madras, in 1736, and returned to Engiand had set an example of military obedience. He then did in 1763, with a fortune of 400,0001., almost wholly gained by obey, and soon the Council, out of respect to the House of private trade. He was first created a baronet, and then an Commons, permitted his departure. He had since returned,

and acted as might have been expected.

Irish peer.

A.D. 1778.



to what might have been anticipated, took a most the Marattas had long rankled in Hyder's mind ; decided part against Lord Pigot, readily acknow- the capture of Mahé further annoyed him; and at ledged the authority of Mr. Stratton and the majo- length, an attempt to march troops through a part rity, and declared it to be his duty to encourage of his territory further exasperated him. The them by every means in his power, from dread of occasion was as follows. the evils of civil dissension; though he owns that Basâlut Jung, who held the Guntoor circar, had he perceived that they “had personal interests to some French in his service which the government attend to, which might influence their public con- of Madras wished to have removed, and applied to duct," which probably means that he knew well Nizâm Ally for the purpose. He promised every the real state of things at Madras. But it is im- thing, and did nothing. When the war with France possible to account for many of Hastings' acts. broke out, a treaty was made with Basâlut Jung,

At home the deed was heard with both surprise by which he was to dismiss the French, and the and indignation. One-half of the Directors, how- Company were to send him some of their own ever, were on the side of the usurpers ; and it was troops. As it was apprehended that Hyder might only by a casting vote that the wish of the pro- make some attempt on his territories, a detachprietors for the restoration of Lord Pigot, and the ment was sent, under Lieut.-Col. Harper, which suspension of the majority, was carried

; and a vote was to proceed from Guntoor to his other doof censure was at the same time passed on Lord minions. He expressed great joy at its approach, Pigot. Orders were sent out for Lord Pigot and and pointed out the best route. But Harper soon the civilians the majority to return to England", discovered that this route led through Hyder's and the military officers concerned in the arrest dominions, whose officers refused a passage. He and confinement were to be tried by court-martial sent to Madras for instructions, and was ordered in India. Mr. Rumbold was appointed to succeed to advance; he proceeded till he was near being Lord Pigot, Mr. Whitehill to be second in council, surrounded, and he then fell back into Guntoor. and Major-General Hector Munro to be com- There was at this time, as envoy from Madras, mander-in-chief with the third seat in council. at the court of Nizâm Ally, Mr. Hollond, a civi

War 'having broke out between France and lian. As that prince complained that the tribute England in 1778, it was resolved to lose no time for the circars had been withheld, Hollond was in reducing the French possessions in India. directed to ascribe it to Basâlut Jung's encourageChandernagore in Bengal offered no resistance, ment of the French, but to assure him that it and in August Gen. Munro led his troops against would be punctually paid in future. This was in Pondicherry ; a small fleet under Sir Edward Ver- the end of February, 1779; and in the beginning non was to aid the attack. A French fleet under of the following June, Governor Rumbold gave it M. Tronjolly engaged that of_Vernon, and having as his opinion that Nizâm Ally had no right to it, had the worst of it, retired to Pondicherry; but its that it was disgraceful to them to pay it, and that commander feared to stay, and soon after, in the they ought now, as the time was favourable,“ to usual French way, stole away to the Islands. Munro throw off so heavy a burden.” The council gave having taken the boundary-hedge, erected his a cheerful assent, and Mr. Hollond was instructed batteries, and played on the fort: the governor, to break the matter to Nizâm Ally as gently as M. Ballecont, made a gallant defence ; but the possible. But Nizâm Ally stormed, and would English, though impeded by the weather, still not be pacified, and menaced war if he were not gained ground, and Munro at length determined on paid. a general assault. The governor, however, offered To any one who recollects the situation of the to capitulate. Very favourable terms were granted; Company's affairs in India at the time, this conthe Europeans of the garrison were to be sent to duct will appear little short of insanity ; but cupiFrance, the Sepoys to be disbanded. All marched dity is often blind. Hastings now resolved to out with the honours of war; the regiment of Pon- interfere. He wrote to soothe the Nizâm, assuring dicherry was allowed to retain its colours. The him that he misconstrued the propositions made to fortifications were afterwards destroyed.

him, and that the Company had no idea of receding Caracal and Masulipatam had already surren. from their treaty. When this was communicated dered ; and nothing remained to the French in to the government of Madras, Sir Thomas RumIndia but Mahé, on the coast of Malabar. Though bold (for he was now a baronet), who was just Hyder Ally declared that he would resent an departing for Europe, proposed to recall and susattack on this place, it was resolved to make it. pend Mr. Hollond. Mr. Whitehill, his successor, The command was given to Col. Braithwaite; the did 80 ; but Mr. Hastings directed Hollond to European troops were sent by sea, the Sepoys over remain, as representing the general government. land; they both reached safely the place of ren- When Basalut Jung, in awe of Hyder and the dezvous, and Mahé surrendered (March 19, 1779, Nizâm, demanded the restoration of Guntoor, the before a shot was fired. As Braithwaite was government of Madras refused, but that of Benordered to join Gen. Goddard at Surat, the fort gal gave orders to restore it. was blown up in November. But just then Up to the day of his leaving India, Sir Thomas Braithwaite was summoned by the chief and the Rumbold kept assuring the Directors that there factory of Telicherry to their defence, against some was no danger of war in the Carnatic ; and in his native chiefs incited by Hyder, and other troops last minute in council, he declared that all was were sent from Madras to Bombay.

calm, and likely to remain so. Yet he must have The refusal of the English to aid him against known that all this was delusive ; for he had al

ready sent privately the celebrated missionary, 6 Stratton and three others were afterwards brought to Schwartz, and afterwards Mr. Gray, to Seringapatrial in England, found guilty, and fined 10001. each! a tam ; and he knew that Hyder's thoughts

were mere trifle to men of their property.

any thing but pacific; and the Nabob, who usually had good intelligence, had informed him in No- sembled near Conjeveram under the command of vember that Hyder, the Nizâm, and the Marattas, Lord Macleod ; for the general was to remain at had formed a treaty to oppose the English. He, Madras to keep up the majority in the committees. however, gave no heed, and he sailed home to en- But that officer declined the responsibility of exjoy his wealth”, leaving others to reap the harvest ecuting a plan of which he did not approve, and of war whose seeds he had sown (1780).

the general himself was obliged to take the comMr. Whitehill partook of this security. At mand. To maintain the majority still in comlength, about the middle of June, he was induced mittee, the novel plan was adopted of appointing a to make some slight exertion, and he sent orders locum tenens for him till his return; and when a to Col. Baillie, who commanded the troops in member made some severe remarks on such conGuntoor, to recross the Kistna. On the 17th July, duct, the majority suspended him, and the general two members of the Select Committee urged to sent him a challenge. prepare against the danger of invasion, which they Sir Hector Munro soon found that he was wrong said was imminent; but the governor and the in making Conjeveram the place of rendezvous, general, who acted together, and who formed the and St. Thomas' Mount near Madras was fixed on. majority by the casting vote of the former, de- Here a force of upwards of 5000 men, of which clared these apprehensions groundless. On the about a third were English, was collected by draw21st, intelligence came from Amboor that Hyder ing troops from the garrisons; but instead of waitand the greater part of his army had descended ing for Col. Baillie, who, it is asserted, could have the pass ; on the 23rd, Lord Macleod, who com- joined him there with safety, he marched (Aug. manded a regiment lately come from Europe, 26) for Conjeveram, directing Baillie to join him represented to the governor that that report might at that place. The swelling of a river had, howbe true, and that some measures for defence should ever, stopped that officer's march ; and Hyder, be adopted. “What can we do? we have no leaving Arcot, which he was investing, came (Sept. money," was the reply. “We mean, however, to 3) and encamped within five miles of Munro's assemble an army, and you are to command it." army. On that very day, Baillie got over the Next day came news of Conjeveram, only fifty river, and when he had come to within about fifmiles from Madras, and Porto Novo, on the coast, teen miles of the main army, he was attacked by a having been plundered by the enemy.

large force under Hyder's eldest son, Tippoo Saïb. The army of Hyder counted 100,000 men. Of After sustaining its assaults for several hours, he these, 20,000 were infantry, mostly commanded by finally repelled it; but judging himself too weak to Europeans; and he had also 10,000 Carnatic be able to force his way, he wrote on the 8th to cavalry, who had been disciplined by the English | Munro, asking him to advance to his aid. The for the Nabob, but had deserted or been dis- latter, though he ran imminent risk of having his banded. His artillery of 100 guns was served by whole army destroyed by dividing it, sent Col. Europeans, or by natives who also had been Fletcher forward that very night with a detachtrained by the English ; and the corps of 400 Eu- ment of 1000 men. Hyder, whose information ropeans, commanded by M. Lally, which Basâlut

was most accurate, prepared to intercept them; Jung had been made to dismiss, was now in his but Fletcher, who, distrusting his guides, had service.

taken a different road, eluded him, and joined His ravages were carried on in the same man- Baillie in the morning. Hyder's European officers ner as in the preceding war. His cavalry spread were quite confounded at this movement, which in all directions; the towns, villages, and houses they regarded as a consummate piece of generalwere burned, the crops were destroyed, and the ship with a view to a simultaneous attack in front people forced to fly to the woods with their cattle, and rear, and they advised an immediate retreat. or to seek refuge in Madras and other towns. Yet, But Hyder, whose spies assured him that the main though such devastation was committed, so much army seemed to have no intention of moving, was had the people suffered under the joint misgovern- of a different opinion, and he prepared to attack ment of the English and the Nabob, that they Baillie on his march. almost looked upon Hyder as a deliverer, and con- At nine o'clock in the evening of the 9th, Baillie veyed to him the most accurate intelligence of the commenced his march. He soon fell in with the movements of the English troops.

light troops of the enemy, who annoyed him for The governor and general resolved that the some way. The enemy at length brought some troops recalled from various parts should be as- artillery to bear on them, but their guns were

soon silenced by the superior firing of the English.

For this purpose a halt had necessarily been made, 7 During the brief period of his government he remitted to England 164,0001., though his salary was only 20,0001. a

but now, instead of seizing the opportunity of year, the sum now given to Presidents. He endeavoured

making a rapid advance so as to get within reach to show that he had had for some years property to a large

of the aid of the main army, Baillie committed the amount in Bengal; but, according to the new regulations,

fatal error of prolonging the halt. This gave the he should have given an account of that property on oath enemy time to remove their cannon to another when he entered on his office, which he did not du. Mr. point, and enabled Hyder to bring his whole force Wilson undertakes his defence in some measure, but he down on them. cannot show that he had more than 40,0001. in Bengal, in

At daybreak the march was resumed. A fire 1778; and as the whole salary which he received was only

was opened on them from fifty pieces of cannon, 49,0001., from which his living and other expenses were to

while masses of horse and foot kept pressing on all be deducted, a large sum remains unaccounted for. The

sides. Directors dismissed him from their service; and he, Mr.

Nothing could exceed the steadiness of the Whitehill, and a Mr. Perring, were threatened with a bill of British troops; they repelled all the attacks of the pains and penalties ; but the proceedings were suddenly enemy, and Hyder was even thinking of drawing stopped, he himself perhaps could best tell how.

off his troops, when the blowing-up of two of their A.D. 1780—1781.



tumbrils deprived them of ammunition, and broke the sea, were to proceed by land ; a fleet took Sir their line. Still the enemy feared to close, and Eyre Coote and the Europeans on board, and they kept up a perpetual discharge of cannon and rockets. reached Madras on the 5th of November. Arcot At length when they had thus greatly diminished had surrendered to Hyder just two days before, their numbers they began to charge them with and his troops now cut off all communication becolumns of horse, while bodies of infantry kept up tween Madras and such places as still held out. a constant fire. When the Sepoys had been nearly Coote found the troops in want of almost every all destroyed or dispersed, and the Europeans were thing, so that immediate action was out of the reduced to about 400, Baillie advanced waving his question. The rainy season, however, formed a handkerchief as a demand for quarter, and sup- good excuse for delay, and by the end of the year posing it granted, ordered his men to lay down the necessary preparations had been made. He their arms.

But the savage troops of Hyder then held a council of war composed of himself, rushed on them now defenceless, and slaughtered Munro, Stuart, and Macleod, and laid a paper bethem whole and wounded, sick and weil alike ; and fore them containing his plan of operations, and but for the exertions of the French officers, not a requesting their opinions separately in writing. man would probably have been spared. Of eighty-six His plan was approved unanimously by these offiBritish officers thirty-six were slain or died of their cers, and also by the Select Committee, to whom wounds, among the former was the gallant Flet- also he communicated it; and it was resolved to cher, and only sixteen were unhurt. The whole proceed at once to the relief of the fortresses that number of Europeans who survived was about were invested. Amboor, one of them, however, two hundred.

fell before the troops were able to take the field, In Hyder's bosom there dwelt no nobleness or which was not till the 17th January, 1781. The generosity. The treatment of the prisoners was whole army did not exceed 7000 men, of whom barbarous in the extreme. The wounded, after not more than 1500 were Europeans. being left lying on the field for hours, were all On the 19th, Chingleput was relieved ; and the crowded together in one tent and got no relief. next night, a false report having reached the geneThe prisoners were then marched to Banga- ral that the enemy's garrison was quitting Caranlore and other places, where they were kept till goly, thirteen miles distant, and carrying off the the end of the war, exposed to every indignity, grain, he sent 1000 men, under Capt. Davis, to insult, and degradation that could be devised, in stop them, while he himself advanced with the order to force them to enter the tyrant's service main army. Davis, on coming to the fort, found and fight against their country. The only allevia- the report false and the garrison ready to receive tion of their sufferings arose from the kindness him ; but as there was no drawbridge, he ran a and humanity of the French officers, without whose twelve-pounder up to the first gate, and blew it aid they must have perished.

open so far as to admit a single man. He did the Had Munro advanced and attacked Hyder's same with the second and third gates, though army while engaged with Baillie, the probability under a severe fire, which caused much loss of is, that it might have been totally routed and The garrison then made their escape by Baillie's detachment saved. But fear of losing ladders on the opposite side. Much grain was some imaginary stores of paddy 8 (for there really found here, and this gallant exploit revived the were none) paralyzed his movements ; and after fame of the English. The army marched thence advancing some way and ascertaining at last (for to the relief of Wandewash, twenty-three miles he would not credit any account he got) the de- distant. When Hyder entered the Carnatic, he struction of that force, he moved to Chingleput had easily induced the Nabob's officers to surand thence to Mount St. Thomas, leaving behind render their trusts. To prevent this, English him the sick and part of his baggage. At Madras officers were sent to these places with small deall was grief and consternation, and had Hyder tachments. Lieut. Flint was the person sent to advanced with the whole of his army, there is no

Wandewash with 100 men. The Killidâr, who saying what might have been the consequence. had already made his bargain with Hyder, threat

When intelligence of these disasters in the Car- ened to fire on him if he approached ; but he still natic reached Bengal, Hastings resolved at once to advanced, and when a native officer came to stop make every effort to retrieve them. He moved him, he persuaded him he had mistaken his orders, that fifteen lacs of rupees, and troops, both Euro- and sent him back for explanations. He did the pean and native, should be sent to Madras, and same with others; and when within musket-shot Sir Eyre Coote be requested to take the command. of the ramparts, he halted and demanded admisHe was also to have the control over the money sion for himself and a few attendants, to deliver a that was supplied, and Mr. Whitehill was sus- letter from the Nabob. The Killidâr, after some pended for not having restored the Guntoor Cir- hesitation, agreed to receive it between the gate caro. The Sepoys, as they had a prejudice against and the barrier, where he seated himself on a car

pet, surrounded by thirty swordsmen and one

hundred Sepoys. Flint advanced with only four 8 Rice in the husk.

Sepoys. He told the Killidâr he had no letter 9 The Directors dismissed him their service, and he was from the Nabob ; but, what was the same, he had afterwards included with Sir Thomas Rumbold and Mr.

one from his own government. Of this, however, Perring in a bill of pains and penalties. He was also concerned in what is called the Noozeed affair. This related to

he made light, and was preparing to retire, when a debt, said to have been due to him and some others by the

Flint sprang on and seized him, and the four zemindar of Noozeed, and which, by what Thornton styles Sepoys pointed their bayonets at his breast. His “one of the most iniquitous acts ever passed," and of which he adds, "the cause is not easy to explain,” parliament in India to pay to the representatives of one of them, Mr. 1832, in spite of the Company, compelled the people of Hodges, who had died in 1794.


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men stood paralyzed ; for Flint declared that his doubts. Orders were given for the troops to march instant death should follow any attempt to rescue by that road, and the Sepoys, unbarnessing the him. Meantime the rest of the detachment wretched oxen, drew the artillery themselves. The entered ; and the gates were opened. That very first line, led by Munro, passed the hills, and then day the Killidâr was to have sealed the act of turning, faced the enemy who had marched paralsurrender. Hyder, in consequence, invested Wan- lel with them on finding their stratagem discodewash, which Flint gallantly defended. He was vered. When Coote had ascertained that the now anxiously looking for succour, when, long second line under Stuart had occupied the sandbefore daybreak on the 17th, a heavy firing of hills, he gave orders to advance and open a fire musketry and cannon was heard in the direction from all the guns. Hyder tried to force a division whence relief was expected ; and at daybreak, a of his army between the two lines, and he sent body of about 3000 Sepoys, with English colours, another division against the second line. During appeared, and began firing their cannon at bodies six hours the battle raged in every part; at length of horse that seemed preparing to charge them. victory crowned the exertions of the English. The At the same time the besieging troops quitted enemy fled with a loss of 10,000 men, while the their trenches, and marched for Arcot. The gar- killed and wounded on the side of the victors did rison became confident of relief; but Flint had not exceed 300, and not including any officer of his doubts. He observed that the Sepoys fired rank. The relative numbers of the troops engaged from a greater distance than was usual with the are said to have been 8000 and 80,000. Tippoo British artillery, and that they fired wide of the soon after raised the siege of Wandewash, and bodies of horse ; and he thence suspected some joined his father at Arcot. stratagem. He, however, sent some troops to In August the corps of Sepoys from Bengal destroy the abandoned works; and the smoke reached Madras, greatly diminished in number by which arose revealed the truth, by calling forth to disease and desertion. As the recovery of Arcot their defence large bodies of men who had been was greatly desired, it was resolved to try to obplaced in ambush. On the 23rd, the besiegers tain the requisite stores by reducing Tripassore, retired; and on the following day—the anniversary where Hyder was supposed to have laid up great of his victory on that spot twenty-one years before quantities. Thither Cuote led his forces, and the -Coote arrived. The garrison had only ammu- place had just surrendered, when Hyder's army nition for one day remaining.

came in view. On seeing that the place was taken, A French squadron now anchored at Pondi- he fell back a few miles to the spot where he had cherry, and Hyder came with his army quite close defeated Baillie. His position was remarkably to the English, who were encamped near that strong, the ground on his front and flanks being town. Coote marched parallel with him to near intersected with ditches and watercourses, and his Cuddalore, and then, for three successive days, guns placed in embrasures cut in mounds of earth, offered battle ; but Hyder declined the challenge, behind which his troops sheltered. Here he was and the French fleet made sail as usual for the attacked by Coote at ten o'clock on the morning of Islands. Hyder now reduced the fort of Thiagar; the 27th August, and the cannonade was contihis cavalry ravaged Tanjore ; and Tippoo invested nued throughout the day, the enemy retiring to Wandewash.

the shelter of the ditches and banks as the British On the 14th June, Adm. Sir Edw. Hughes, advanced. At sunset they were driven from them came with reinforcements from Bombay. Čoote all, and fled in confusion. But as the victory was then proceeded to Porto Novo, with the intention not very decisive, the Mysorean accounts termed of marching to the defence of Trichinopoly. On it a drawn battle. The total British loss was bethe 18th, he headed in person an attack on the tween 400 and 500 men. fortified pagoda of Chilambram, but was repulsed Such was the want of provisions experienced by with great loss. This elevated Hyder's hopes, and the army, and so much were all operations thereby he resolved to hazard a general engagement. With impeded, that Coote, quite wearied out, proceeded this view he occupied and strongly fortified a posi- to Madras in order to resign the command. But tion on the road by which the English must march Lord Macartney, the new governor, prevailed on to Cuddalore. On the 1st July, they marched from him to retain it; and stores being collected for the Porto Novo, keeping close to the sea; and, after relief of Vellore, he undertook to convoy them advancing for about an hour, they saw a large thither. He found (Sept. 27th) Hyder encamped body of cavalry drawn up in the plain. Coote at the pass of Sholingur. The Mysorean was taken formed his army in two lines, and advanced in quite by surprise, and his only thought was how order of battle. A heavy cannonade dispersed the to save his guns. For this purpose he resolved to cavalry, and then the redoubts of the enemy, com- sacrifice his cavalry by making them charge in manding the road, and their troops stretching away three bodies on the English army, where they as far as the eye could reach to the right and left, were mowed down by grape and musketry. He came in view. At this sight the general ordered thus carried off his guns with the loss of 5000 a halt, and called the principal officers to council. That of the English was about 100. Coote The situation of the army was critical; in front then relieved Vellore, and captured Chittore, and as were numerous batteries, the sea enclosed them on the rains were now coming on, he put his troops the right, and a high range of sandhills on the left, into cantonments. while the men had only four days' provision, which Lord Macartney is the first example of a goverthey carried on their backs. But while the council nor sent to India, who had not been in the service was deliberating, an officer, walking toward the of the Company. The conduct, in fact, of most hills, discovered a road which Hyder had cut governors, had of late been so shamefully corrupt, through them, in order to be able to take the Eng- that many even of the Directors and Proprietors lish in flank while engaged in storming the re- saw the necessity of selecting some man with a



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