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A.D. 1022-30.



Jumna, and took, plundered, and destroyed the as the breaker than as the seller of idols, he raised city of Muttra, one of the principal seats of Hindoo his mace and struck the image. Others followed devotion. He then returned to Ghuzni, laden with his example, and a large quantity of diamonds and spoil, and followed by captives.

other precious stones which had been concealed Mahmûd returned to India for the tenth time within it, poured forth to reward his zeal and (1022) to the aid of the rajah of Canouj, who had piety 2. been attacked by the rajah of Calinjer. But his The treasures obtained by the sultan were imally had been cut off before he arrived, and neither mense, and so delighted was he with the climate of in this expedition, nor in one which he undertook Güzerât, where he remained for some time, that the following year, was he able to exact vengeance he had thoughts of resigning Câbul to his son, and for him. As Jypal II., the rajah of Lahore, was making it his permanent residence. On reflection, so unwise as to oppose him, when on his way to however, he gave up this idea, and setting a Hinthe aid of Canouj, he deprived him of his do- doo prince over the country he prepared to set minions, and annexed them to Ghuzni. This was out on his march homewards. Finding his army the first permanent settlement of the Mohamme- somewhat reduced in number, and learning that dans to the east of the Indus, and led to their the rajahs of Ajmîr and of Anhalwâra had colfuture dominion over India.

lected a force to oppose him, he did not deem it In his twelfth and last expedition to India (1024), prudent to return by the route he had come. He Mahmûd, instead of directing, as before, his course resolved, therefore, to try a new one, along the eastwards, turned to the south. On a promontory sands eastwards of Sind. The hardships and sufof the peninsula of Güzerât stood a temple named ferings which his troops encountered in this region, Sômnât, dedicated to the god Seeva, and celebrated especially during three days in which their guides for its sanctity and its wealth. The intelligence of led them astray, are not to be described. Despair its treasures awoke the zeal of the pious sultân, seized on all, and many died raging mad; when at and he resolved to destroy this abode of idols. last they reached a pool of water, they saw in it the His army was assembled at Multân, and as the direct hand of Providence. At length their hardsandy desert was to be crossed in order to reach ships terminated, and they arrived once more at Güzerât, he collected 20,000 camels for bearing Multân, whence they returned to Ghuzni. But food and water, and directed his soldiers to furnish before the end of the year the unwearied Mahmûd themselves as abundantly as they could with all was again on the Indus, to chastise the people of things necessary. He thus marched without loss its west bank, named Juts, who had harassed his over a space of 350 miles of a soil, presenting now troops on their march from Gûzerât. They took tracts of mere sand, now of bare hard clay, and refuge in the islets of the river, but Mahmûd, who reached Ajmîr, on the east of the Aravalli hills, had provided himself with boats, pursued them to in safety. The rajah of this place, and his people, their retreats, and destroyed nearly the whole of Aed from the town, which Mahmûd plundered, and them. then, proceeding along the plain on the west of the Mahmûd returned no more to India. The disAravalli mountains, he at length entered Gûzerât, tracted state of Persia now attracted his ambition, and appeared before its capital, Anhalwâra, whose and in the three remaining years of his reign he rajah also fled at his approach. Without making succeeded in making himself master of nearly the any delay, he pushed forwards for Sômnât, the whole of that country. He died at Ghuzni, on the object of his wishes. He found the temple sur- 29th of April, 1030, after an active reign of thirtyrounded on three sides by the sea, and the isthmus on the land side strongly fortified. The garrison Sultân Mahmûd, of Ghuzni, is one of the most defended the works with that desperate valour, illustrious names in Oriental history ; where vigour, which the Hindoos have so often shown in the justice, and generosity, are the qualities that most maintenance of fortified places. On the third day attract praise in a sovereign. For though Mahmûd the adjoining rajahs appeared with a large force loved wealth, and was insatiable in the acquisition for the rescue of the temple, and Mahmûd was of it, he dispensed it liberally in the rewarding of obliged to suspend the siegé to engage them. merit, and the advancement of literature and While the battle was raging most strongly, the science. He founded a university in his capital, rajah of Anhalwâra arrived with his troops, and liberally endowed, and furnished with a museum the Moslems began to give way. Mahmûd threw and an extensive library. It is to him that Persia himself on the earth, imploring the Divine aid, and is indebted for the preservation of her mythic and then springing to horse, cheered his troops and poetic annal, in the Shâh-nâmeh of Ferdousi, to advanced ; his men, ashamed to desert their prince, whom he committed the task of clothing them in rushed forwards; the foe, yielding to the impetuo- verse. Unfortunately, his illiberal treatment of sity of their charge, fled with the loss of 5000 men, the poet is a stain on his memory. Mahmûd likeand the garrison, now hopeless of relief, took to wise adorned Ghuzni with piles of architecture, their boats, leaving the temple to its fate.

vying with those which he had admired at Canouj Mahmûd, on entering the temple, was dazzled and Muttra, and his nobles emulated each other in with its magnificence. Fifty-six pillars, it is said, richly carved and adorned with precious stones,

2 This is the account given by Ferishta. Wilson says that supported the roof; and from a massive golden chain

the earlier Mohammedan writers have none of these parhung the lamp which gave light to the temple. As

ticulars, and he therefore doubts the whole story. Somnât, he advanced to destroy the idol the priests flung image." Mahmad, it is said, carried away the gates of the

three years.

he says, was a mere Linga or stone cylinder, and not an themselves at his feet, offering an enormous ran

temple, and set them up in his tomb at Ghuzni; whence, of som if he would spare it. Mahmûd paused, his

late years, they, or their successors, have been brought back officers were preparing to advise him to accept it, to India-a measure, in the opinion of many, of no great when, crying that he would rather be remembered


the enemy.

following his example. His own tomb, and the whom they were confined in a castle for the rest of mosk named the Celestial Bride, are the most cele- their lives. brated of his buildings.

The rival Mohammedan power in India being After the death of Mahmûd, his descendants oc- thus at an end, Shuhâb-ud-dîn had now only the cupied the throne of Ghuzni for about a century native princes to contend with ; and the want of and a half; but they were almost continually en- union which prevailed among them, joined with the gaged in hostilities with the Seljûkian Turks, and inferiority of discipline and experience in their other tribes on the north and east of their do- troops, as compared with those hardy warriors minions, and devoted but little of their attention to whom he drew from the mountains beyond the India. Lahore, however, continued to be the seat Indus and the Oxus, appeared to give him greatly of their power in that country ; and the general of the advantage in the contest. Still the struggle one of these princes, on one occasion, led an army was severe, and none fell until after a gallant reover the Ganges (1098). The two last sovereigns sistance. of this house, when driven from Ghuzni by the His first attack (1191) was on Pritwî, the rajah Afghân chiefs of Ghôr, fixed their abode in of Delhi and Ajmìr. The battle was fought beLahore. The last of these monarchs, Khûsrû tween Tanêsar and Carnâl, on the great plain to Malik, was overcome by the Ghorians in the year the north of Delhi. The tactics of the invaders 1186, and the dynasty of Ghuzni terminated in his were those of the Turkish tribes at all periods of person.

their history, to charge with successive bodies of cavalry, and thus to keep up an unceasing series of attacks; those of the Hindoos were to keep togegether, and endeavour to outflank and surround

On this occasion the latter tactics CHAPTER IV.

prevailed. While Shuhâb-ud-dîn was assailing

the centre, he learned that his wings had given House of Ghôr-Shuhâb-ud-dîn - His conquests — Slave

way, and soon perceived that he was surrounded. kings - Khûtb-ud-dîn - Shems-ud-dîn Altumsh - India

He instantly made a desperate charge into the invaded by the Moguls-Rukn-ud-dîn-Sultana Rezia

thickest of the hostile array, and reached and Nasir-ud-dîn-Anecdotes-Bulbun-Ky Kobâd-End of the Dynasty.

wounded the rajah's brother, when he himself re

ceived a wound, and would have fallen from his GHYAS-UD-Dîn, who succeeded to the Ghorian do- horse, had not one of his followers leaped up behind minions in the year 1157, swayed by that strong him and carried him off the field. The rout of family affection for which this house was distin- the Moslems was complete, and they were purguished, associated in the government his brother | sued by the victors for a space of forty miles. Shuhâb-ud-dîn, whose military talents were con- Shuhâb-ud-dîn returned to Ghuzni, where he siderable. It is pleasing to observe, that he never remained for two years, apparently engaged in had reason to repent of his generosity.

pleasure, but secretly brooding over his defeat, the The views of Shuhâb-ud-dîn, as soon as the memory of which deprived him of all rest ; for, as brothers had rest on the north and west of their he told an aged councillor, “he never slumbered dominions, were turned to India ; and his conquests in ease, or waked but in sorrow and anxiety.” At there were so extensive, that he may justly be length (1193), having assembled a gallant army, he regarded as the true founder of the Mohammedan set out once more to seek for conquest in India. empire in that country. In the year 1176 he com- Pritwî and his allies, aware of his approach, had menced his career of conquest by the capture of assembled so large a force, that, when Shuhâb-udthe city of Ūch, on the edge of the Desert, near dîn appeared, the rajahs sent to tell him, that if he the confluence of the rivers of the Punjab with was prudent they would permit him to retire unthe Indus. Two years later he invaded Gûzerât, molested. He feigned alarm, represented himself but was defeated, and in his retreat he encountered as only his brother's general, and spoke of sending toils and sufferings similar to those experienced by home for instructions. Having thrown them off Sultan Mahmûd. He then turned his arms against their guard by this conduct, he crossed at dayKhûsrû Malik, the Ghuznivide prince of Lahore, break one morning the stream which lay between and obliged him to give his son as a hostage. He the two camps, and fell with fury on the unprenext overran Sind as far as the sea-coast. Again pared Hindoos. Their camp, however, was of such he engaged in hostilities with Khûsrû of Lahore, extent, that a part of the troops had time to form ; who, having formed an alliance with the Guckârs, and while they held the assailants in check the appeared now so formidable, that Shuhâb-ud-dîn fugitives fell into the rear, and the whole army deemed it best to have recourse to stratagem. Pre- then advanced in four lines. Shuhâb-ud-dîn and tending alarms on the side of Khorasân, he made his men fell back, maintaining a running fight till proposals of peace to Khûsrû, sending him as a they had drawn the Hindoos out of their ranks, pledge of his intentions his son, who was a and then a furious charge was made by a body of hostage. Khûsrû, incautiously quitting Lahore, 12,000 select horsemen, cased in steel-armour, and advanced to meet him and Shuhâb-ud-dîn, placing “this prodigious army," says Ferishta, himself at the head of a strong body of cavalry, shaken, like a great building tottered to its fall, and marching with secrecy, contrived to get be- and was lost in its own ruins." tween him and his capital, and then, surrounding Many Hindoo chiefs fell in the fight. Pritwî was his camp, forced him to surrender (1186). Khûsrů made a prisoner, and was put to death in cold and his family were sent to Ghyas-ud-dîn, by blood. The town of Ajmîr was taken, a part of its

inhabitants were massacred, and the rest led into 3 The mountains of Ghôr are to the west of Câbul and slavery. Shuhâb-ud-dîn then returned to Ghuzni, Ghuzni, and eastwards of Khorasân.

leaving the command in India with his general,

66 once

A. D. 1202-15.



Khûtb-ud-dîn, who speedily made himself master had been the original condition of himself and of of the city of Delhi.

his successor, in whose family the line was conThe next year saw Shuhâb-ud-dîn again in tinued. India, where he defeated the rajah of Canouj 4, and Slavery in the East, it is well known, is not the took the city of that name, and Benares, on the degraded condition it was in the free states of anGanges, one of the greatest seats of Hindoo devo-cient Europe. The slave is considered to be a tion. He then returned to Ghuzni, and in the fol- member of the mily ; he is treated, when deserylowing year he descended anew into India, where ing, with consideration, is often married to a he laid siege to the strong fortress of Gwâliôr, to daughter of his master's, or succeeds to his prothe south of Agra ; but, being recalled by some perty in default of heirs, and when the master troubles in Khorasân, he left the conduct of the pursues the path of ambition and attains to domisiege to Khûtb-ud-dîn, by whom the place was nion, his faithful slaves, if possessed of abilities, reduced. It had scarcely fallen, when news ar- rise to civil or military dignities. Such was the rived that the rajah, whom Shuhâb-ud-dîn had set career of Klûtb-ud-dîn. He was a Turk by birth, over Ajmîr, was hard passed by the rajahs of and when a child he was brought to Nishapûr in Güzerât and Nagôr. Khûtb-ud-dîn hastened to Khorasân, and sold to a man of wealth.

His mashis relief, but was defeated, and severely wounded, ter, finding him a boy of talent, had him instructed and with difficulty he made his escape to Ajmîr. in the Persian and Arabian languages. On his Being reinforced from Ghuzni, he forced the rajahs death, Khûtb-ud-dîn was sold, and he was purto raise the siege, and he then carried his arms chased by a merchant, who presented him to Shuinto Güzerât, where he took and garrisoned its hâb-ud-dîn, under which able and discerning prince capital, Anhalwâra. Meanwhile, another of Shu- his advancement was rapid. We have seen how hâb-ud-dîn's generals had reduced Oude and North exemplary his fidelity was to his prince ; to the Bahâr, and, having waited on Khûtb-ud-dîn to honour of Shuhâb-ud-dîn it is to be recorded, that inform him of his success, he returned and sub- his attachment to his servant was equally firm, dued the rest of Bahâr, and also the greater part and that he never showed the slightest want of of Bengal.

confidence in him, or made him feel the caprice of Shuhâb-ud-dîn, on the death of his brother a despot, (1202), succeeded to the sole monarchy. He was Khûtb-ud-dîn had married the daughter of at that time engaged in a war with the shah of Eldôz, another of his late master's slaves, and who Khârism, who had lately risen to power on the now ruled in Ghuzni. The latter, heedless of this ruins of the Seljûkees; and, though victory smiled connexion, asserted a claim to dominion over India, at first on his arms, he at length met with a total and, advancing with an army, made himself master defeat. As a report was spread of his death, many of Lahore. He was speedily, however, driven over of his officers threw off their allegiance. One the Indus by Khûtb-ud-dîn, who, in his turn, made declared himself independent in Multân, and the himself master of Ghuzni. But Eldôz soon after Guckars descending from their mountains ravaged expelled him, and he returned to India, where he the Punjab, and seized on Lahore. Khûtb-ud- spent the remaining brief period of his reign in dîn, however, remained unshaken in his fidelity, tranquillity. His reign only lasted four years, but and the indefatigable sultan was soon in a condi- he had governed India during twenty years as the tion to reduce all the rebels. The Punjab was vicegerent of Shuhâb-ud-dîn and his successor. recovered, and the Guckars were even induced to He was succeeded by his son Arâm, a prince of embrace the Mohammedan faith. Shuhâb-ud-dîn no capacity, who, after reigning only a twelvethen set out on his return to Ghuzni. When he month, was dethroned by his brother-in-law Alcame to the Indus, he ordered his tent to be tumsh (1211). pitched close to the stream, that he might enjoy Shems-ud-dîn Altumsh had also been a Turkish the cool air from its waters. During the night slave. It was said that he was of a noble family, some Guckars, who had lost relations in the late and, like the patriarch Joseph, was sold out of envy engagement, and who were on the watch for venge- by his own brethren. He was purchased by Khûtbance, swam across the river, and, entering the ud-dîn for 50,000 pieces of silver—a proof of his tent unobserved, despatched the king with several great talents and capacity. He rose rapidly through wounds (1206).

different stations, and at the time of his revolt he The dominion of the house of Ghôr ended with was governor of Bahâr. Though a good number Shuhâb-ud-dîn ; for though he was succeeded by of his brother officers had invited him to occupy his nephew, Mahmûd, the authority of that prince the throne, many others were opposed to him, and was merely nominal, and he died after a reign of his elevation cost him a battle. Eldôz also, being only five or six years.

A series of civil commo- driven out of Ghuzni by the Khârismians, attempted tions ensued, and all the dominions west of the to obtain possession of India, but he was defeated Indus fell eventually to the monarchs of Kharism. and captured by Altumsh (1215), and he ended his Mahmûd, on his accession, had sent the insignia of days in captivity. royalty, and the title of king, to Khûtb-ud-dîn, In was during the reign of Altumsh that the who remained faithful to him, as he had been to celebrated Chingiz Khân, having united the various his predecessor, as long as he lived. On the death tribes of Moguls and Tatarsó, under his dominion, of Mahmûd, he assumed independence, and became the

founder of a sovereign dynasty in India.
The dynasty of which Khûtb-ud-dîn was the

5 There has been great confusion made between the

Mongols or Moguls, and the Tatars. The difference has founder is named that of the Slave Kings, for such

been explained by Schmidt: see Bohlen Das alte Indien,

i. 101.-The terms originated with Chingis Khân, who 4 The rajah fell in the battle, and his body, we are told, named the broad-faced, flat-nosed, yellow-skinned race, who was recognized by his false teeth.

conquered China and other countries, Kökä-Monghöl, to Bagdad to be sold as a slave. He was there i. e. Heavenly People ; and those tribes of Upper Asia, who purchased by a man of piety and learning, who, on were subject to them, Tatar, i.e. Tributary. These last were chiefly Turks, a portion of the fair Caucasian race. Turk 6 Mill seems to doubt the truth of this statement; but, as and Tatar are, therefore, nearly equivalent. In our Outlines Wilson observes, it is not long since Nepâl was invaded by of History (p. 305), following Klaproth, we asserted the a Chinese army. As we proceed, we shall find an Indian direct contrary.

began to spread devastation over Asia. He burst however, that she indulged liim in any improper like a storm over Kharism, whose sultan had mur- familiarity; the only charge made against her is, dered his ambassadors, defeated his troops with that she allowed him to lift her to her horse. immense slaughter, and reduced all his dominions. A Turkish chief named Altûnia was the first to In the pursuit of that sultan's gallant son and rebel. The queen marched against him, but her army successor Jellal-ud-dîn, the Moguls, we are told, mutinied. Jummul was slain and herself made a passed the Indus, and on their return, with the prisoner, and delivered into the hands of the rebel. barbarity characteristic of them, as provisions were Her brother Behram was then placed on the throne, running short, they massacred 10,000 Indian pri- but the captive empress, meanwhile, became the soners rather than give them their liberty.

wife of Altûnia, and at the head of an army they Altumsh reduced to obedience all the Moham- advanced to Delhi to recover the throne. Fortune, medan chiefs in India who aimed at independence. however, proved adverse, and they were forced to In the course of his reign he subdued Malwa, seek safety in flight. At the head of a second army which had been hitherto unassailed, and he thus Rezia again advanced to Delhi; but her troops, was paramount lord of the whole of India north of composed of Indians, were, as Ferishta observes, no the ocean and the Vindhya mountains, with, of match for the Tatars in the service of Behram; course, more or less of authority according to local they were defeated, and the queen and her husband and other circumstances. He died in 1236 after a being taken in the pursuit were barbarously put to reign of twenty-five years

death (1239). Altumsh was succeeded by his son Rukm-ud- The reigns of Behram and his successor Masâûd dîn. Unlike his gallant sire, the new monarch offer little to interest. During the reign of the gave himself up to the society of dancing women, latter (1244) the Moguls made an irruption from players, and buffoons, leaving affairs of state to his the north-east through Tibet into Bengal, the only mother. This woman, who had been a Turkish invasion of India on that side which history reslave, acted with such cruelty, putting, for ex

cords 6. ample, to death the females of Altumsh's harêm The throne now came to Nasîr-ud-dîn, a grand(probably her former rivals), that a rebellion son of Altumsh (1246) who had been thrown into speedily broke out, which ended in the deposition prison on that monarch's death, where he remained and death of Rukm-ud-dîn after a reign of only till released by Masâûd, who sent him as governor seven months, and (an event almost unique in the to Baraj. The wisdom and policy which he exhiMohammedan East) the elevation to the throne of bited in this office recommended him, it is said, to Rezia the eldest daughter of Altumsh.

the Ômrahs, by whom he was placed on the vacant “Sultana Rezia,” says Ferishta, “was endowed throne. He gave the office of vizîr to Ghyas-udwith every princely virtue, and those who scruti

dîn Bulbun, a man of great talent, who had taken nise her actions most severely, will find in her no an active part in all the commotions of the late fault but that she was a woman.” Her father had

reigns. The reign of this prince, which lasted perceived and fostered her talents, and he used twenty years, presents the usual series of insurrec. even to commit the regency to her during his ab- tions of vassals, intrigues of courts, and Mogul insence in war. He saw his sons,” he said, "giving vasions. He died in 1266, without heirs, and the themselves up to wine, women, gaming, and the throne was occupied by the vizîr Bulbun. worship of the winds (i.e. flattery), and therefore We are told of Nasir-ud-dîn, that when he was thought the government too heavy for their shoul

a prisoner he used to support himself by copying ders to bear, while Rezia, though a woman, had books, and that he even continued to do so when the head and heart of a man, and was better than seated on the throne. One day, as he was showing a twenty such sons.

Korân of his own writing to one of his Ômrahs, The sultana changed her dress, assumed the

the latter pointed out a word which he said was royal robes, and each day sat in public, giving

wrong, the king assented and drew a circle round audience and administering justice. A party the word. When the Ômrah was gone he began headed by the late vizîr, however, opposed her ele

to efface the circle. “I knew,” said he to one who was vation, and even defeated a body of her troops ; but she succeeded in sowing discord among the

present, “ that the word was right, but I thought it

better to erase it than to touch the heart of a poor chiefs, and the confederacy dissolved and melted

man by bringing him to shame." away. She might now, perhaps, have enjoyed a

This prince had no concubines, and only one long and prosperous reign, had she not been sub

wife, whom he made do all the housewifery herself. ject to a defect which seems inherent in women

One day she complained to him that she had burned invested with sovereign power-she had a favourite.

her fingers baking bread, and requested to have a This man, named Jummul, had been originally an

maid to assist her ; but he replied, that he was Abyssinian slave, and was consequently dark of only a trustee for the state and would burden it hue as compared with the Afghần and Turkish officers. She made him first Master of the Horse,

with no needless expenses. He exhorted her to and then elevated him to the important post of persevere in her duty, and God would reward her.

Ghyas-ud-dîn Bulbun was a Turk by birth, and Amîr-ul-Områ (Commander of Commanders), or related to the emperor Altumsh. When a youth Commander-in-Chief of her army. It is not said,

he was taken a prisoner by the Moguls, and carried

army sent to invade China.

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A. D. 1266–88.



discovering who he was, brought him to Delhi and excesses; and, in order to alienate the affections of presented him to Altumsh, by whom he was libe- the Turkish soldiery from him, by infusing into his rally remunerated. Altumsh gave Bulbun one of mind doubts of their fidelity, he persuaded him to his daughters in marriage after he had advanced invite their chiefs to a banquet and there to mashim through a series of offices, civil and military.

sacre them. On the throne Bulbun proved a tyrant. In the Bakarra Khân, hearing how matters were going time of Altumsh forty of the principal slaves, of on at court, advanced at the head of his army, in whom he was one, had entered into a compact for order to put things on a better footing. The emmutual support, and most of them had attained to peror, induced by his vizîr, advanced to oppose him. high stations. He now wished to put an end to When the armies were in presence, the father such a system, and he contrived to make away with sought an interview with his son, which was granted his surviving confederates. He laid it down as a in spite of the efforts of the vizîr, who resolved, rule to confer office only on men of family, and he however, to make it as humiliating as possible to even avoided all converse with men of low origin. Bakarra Khân. This prince submitted to every He also made it a rule to exclude Hindoos from thing till, having come into the royal presence and office. He established rigorous game-laws, and, as made several obeisances, he saw the king still sitin his youth he had exceeded in the use of wine, he ting unmoved on his throne. Overcome by this now prohibited even moderate indulgence in it. In uttermost mark of filial disrespect, he burst into cases of rebellion le punished not merely the tears. Ky Kobâd, whose nature, like that of most leaders, but even their meanest followers.

voluptuaries, was weak rather than bad, was overThe ravages of the Moguls had extended so far come. Regardless of his vizîr's injunctions, he and wide, that there were few royal houses in Asia sprang from the throne, and ran to cast himself at of which there were not members reduced to his father's feet; his father caught him, and they poverty and driven into exile. Many of these fell weeping on each other's neck, and all present princes sought refuge, where almost alone it was to were affected at the sight. But this effect was only be found, at the court of Bulbun. The men of transient, and Bakarra Khân, áfter several interletters also repaired thither, and by their presence views, finding the vizîr's influence not to be subgave lustre to the palace of his eldest son, Moham- verted by peaceful means, returned to Bengal, med, who loved and encouraged literature. But the leaving his son to his fate. emperor's second son Kera was a man of pleasure, That fate was not long delayed. Ky Kobâd and his palace was the resort of players, musicians, speedily destroyed his constitution by debauchery, and buffoons.

and, viewing his vizîr as the cause of his ruin, he The Hindoo population of the region between the had' him taken off by poison. The reins of governJumnah and Ganges, and southwards, had never ment, which he was unable to hold himself, became been completely subdued, and their plundering ex- the subject of contest among the leading Ômrahs, cursions had now become very serious evils. Bul- of whom there were two parties, namely, the Turks bun directed his forces against them, and slaugh- and the Afghâns; and it ended in the triumph of tered them without mercy, and he cut dowu, to the the latter, the assassination of Ky Kobâd, and the extent of a hundred miles, the forests which afforded elevation to the throne of Jellal-ud-dîn Khilji them a retreat. Tôgral, the governor of Bengal, (1288). The unfortunate Ky Kobâd had reigned having assumed independence, was at first success- only two years. ful against the troops sent to reduce him. But the emperor, though nearly in his eightieth year, took the field against him in person (1285), and the rebel was speedily defeated and slain. The vengeance of Bulbun was poured forth unsparingly on his adherents, and people of all ranks were exe

CHAPTER V. cuted. While Bulbun was engaged in suppressing rebel

House of Khilji — Jellal-ud-din - First Invasion of the lion in the east, his gallant son Mohammed had the

Deckan-Alâ-ud-dîn-Story of Dêwal Dêvi-Massacre of charge of defending the west against the invasions

the Moguls-Mobarek-House of Tôghlak-Ghazi Khân of the Moguls. One army he defeated and drove

-Shâh Mohammed-Attempt to invade China-Fictitious

Money-Mohammedan Kingdom in the Deckan-Fîrûsoff, but soon another appeared ; and, though the

ud-dîn-Invasion of India by Timûr--The Syuds-House prince gained a complete victory over it, he was

of Lôdi--Behlôl-Secunder-Ibrahim-End of the Afghân slain in the pursuit by a party of the enemy's horse. Dominion in India. The loss of this his best and ablest son, joined with the cares and anxieties of state, proved too much JELLAL-UD-Dîn was seventy years of age when he for the nature of Bulbun, stern and rugged as it was placed on the throne of India. Mildness and was, and he sank beneath the stroke of fate (1286). benevolence, almost vices in an Eastern monarch, The Ômrahs placed on the throne Ky Kobåd, the distinguished his character. He pardoned rebels, son of Bakarra Khân the governor of Bengal, one he lightly punished offenders ; hence the frame of of the sons of Bulbun.

government was relaxed, governors withheld their Ky Kobâd, a youth of eighteen, was devoted to tributes, bands of robbers were collected, and the pleasure; "he delighted in love and in the society roads became insecure. of silver-bodied damsels with musky tresses.” The It was in the reign of this monarch that the nobles, swayed by the example of the monarch, Moslem conquests were extended into the Deckan, gave a loose to enjoyment, and dissoluteness and which, during the three centuries that the Mohamluxury every where prevailed. The vizîr Nizâm- medans had been in India, had remained hitherto ud dîn, hoping eventually to secure the crown for unassailed. The emperor's nephew, Alâ-ud-dîn, himself, encouraged his young sovereign in all his was of a very different character from himself.

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