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home-government to interfere, recalled Sir H. surrounded one night (Dec. 28) by a body of armed Jones, who was ordered by the ministry not to men, and on his going to the window he was fired obey; he also sent Col. Malcolm back to Persia, and at. Before they broke in, he managed to conceal both remained at Tehrân till 1810, when Sir Gore himself, and their search for him proved fruitless. Ousley came from England as ambassador. In the morning, they saw a vessel with British
Sir George Barlow was, as we have stated, at colours enter the harbour, and others standing for this time governor of Madras. He had here many it. At this sight they fled, and the resident got difficulties to contend with, and they were aug- safely on board the vessel, which proved to be one mented by his own arbitrary uncomplying temper. of those that were bringing troops from Malabar. The Nabob of Arcot's debts, that fruitful source of Col. Chalmers, who commanded at Quilon, lost mischief, was one of the principal. As the Com- no time in attacking the Nairs, who were in arms pany was now to discharge them, it was resolved in his vicinity. He was successful in his operations; to examine more closely into them, and in 1805, but they received such accessions from the south commissioners to sit in England, with others to that he found it necessary to remain on the defencollect evidence at Madras, were appointed. These sive, though joined by the king's 12th under Col. last were, for obvious reasons, selected from the Picton. On the 15th January, 1809, the dewan, civil service of Bengal. The commission sat for at the head of from 20,000 to 30,000 men, with 18 a period of five and twenty years, the amount of pieces of cannon, attacked the British lines before claims, real and fictitious, was upwards of thirty daybreak. But, after a conflict of five hours, he millions sterling ; that of those which were ad- was driven off with a loss of 700 men and 15 guns. mitted to be valid, little more than two and a half A few days after (19th), he made an attempt on millions ! A man named Reddy Râo, who had the post of Cochin, held by Major Hewitt. Being been the late Nabob's principal accountant, was again repulsed, he spread his forces on the landmuch in favour with the commissioners. When side, and covered the sea with boats, in order to he produced a bond which he himself held, ano- cut off supplies ; but a frigate, with the resident ther native creditor named Papia denied its au- on board, came and anchored off the town, and her thenticity, and a magistrate on his charge com- boats quickly destroyed his flotilla. mitted Reddy Râo for trial. As the commissioners The dewan, shortly after, was guilty of two atroregarded this as a mere trick to deprive them of cities, which deprive him of all claim to our symessential assistance, the government at their desire pathy. An assistant-surgeon, named Hume, being directed the law-officers of the Company to conduct taken as he was travelling by night, was brought his defence. On the trial the chief justice charged before him; and though he knew him personally
, strongly in his favour, but the jury found him and had been benefited by his skill, he ordered him guilty. Mr. Batley, one of his witnesses, was then to be put to death. A small vessel, with thirty prosecuted for perjury, and the jury convicted men of the 12th on board, having touched at Alepi, him also. Reddy Rão was now charged with they were induced to land by the friendly assuhaving paid a debt to another native with a forged rances of the people, and they were immediately bond, knowing it to be such, and he was again made prisoners, and were murdered, by order of found guilty
The chief-justice, fully convinced in the dewan. his own mind of the innocence of both defen- The government of Madras now found it necesdants, instead of passing sentence referred the sary to make more vigorous exertions. Col. evidence to the king, terming the defendants “not Cuppage, who commanded at Malabar, was ordered objects of his mercy, but suitors for his justice ;" to march his troops to Cochin, and join Col. Chalin fact as the victims of a conspiracy. A pardon mers; and Col. St. Leger was directed to move accordingly was granted; but ere it reached Madras, with a force from Trichinopoly, and enter TravanReddy Râo had poisoned himself. It appears that core on the south. As the most practicable passes the juries had been right, that his bond was a for- of the western Ghâts are near the southern extregery, and that he had been engaged in sundry mity of the peninsula, this officer selected one of fraudulent transactions.
them, named the Arambûli pass. This pass was Some unpleasant events occurred at this time in secured by strong lines passing from mountain to Travancore. The rajah, who had been taken into mountain, and fortified by redoubts. But in one a subsidiary alliance, had had four battalions of the night (Feb. 10) the British troops carried the company's troops quartered on him. The subsidy whole of them, and entered Travancore. They having fallen into arrear, he applied to have the met with little or no opposition : Col. Chalmers force reduced ; and it really was far beyond what (19th) sent out two columns under Cols. Picton was requisite. The resident, Col. Macauley, in and Stuart, which attacked and carried the enemy's return, called on the rajah to reduce a body of his fortified camp near Quilon ; Col. Cuppage entered troops, named the Carnatic Brigade ; but he looked from the north, and thus the whole country was on this as the annihilation of his dignity and au- now in the hands of the British. The resident thority, and declined compliance. In all this affair now proceeded to the capital, and formed a new the rajah's adviser and instigator had been his treaty with the rajah, by which he was to pay up dewan, Vyloo Tambee; and the resident therefore all arrears, and the expenses of the war, disband insisted on his removal. The dewan affected the Carnatic Brigade, and some Nair battalions that willingness to resign, but in secret he organized an he had, and leave the defence of his country to the insurrection of the Nairs, the military class ; he subsidiary force. A new dewan was appointed; engaged the dewan of Cochin also in the plot, and and he pursued his unfortunate predecessor, who wrote letters to the surrounding rajahs, to induce had sought a refuge in the mountains, with such them to share in it. The resident, aware of what vigour, that he was forced to betake himself to a was in contemplation, applied for reinforcements of pagoda, which was an ancient sanctuary. But his troops : but before they could arrive, his house was pursuers, though Hindoos, violated it, and forced
A. D. 1809.
MUTINY OF OFFICERS OF MADRAS ARMY.
their way to a chamber to which he and his brother The government now suspended Col. Capper and had retreated. They found the dewan expiring of Major Boles, the adjutant, and dep.-adjutant-genewounds, probably self-inflicted. The brother was ral, for having circulated the late general order. taken, and was hanged, in the presence of the 12th They pleaded the duty of military subordination ; regiment, in the murder of whose companions he but in vain. Capper then sailed for England, but had been implicated. The resident gratified a he also was lost on the passage. Boles refused to paltry feeling of revenge, and which was strongly acknowledge his error ; addresses were forwarded condemned by the governor-general, by causing
to him from the different divisions of the army, the body of the dewan to be exposed on a gibbet. approving of his conduct, and proposing to raise
The reader will recollect the mutiny of the offi- for him by subscription an income, equal to what cers in Bengal, suppressed with such vigour by he had lost. On the 1st May, the government Lord Clive. A similar mutiny now took place in issued a general order, containing a copious list of the Madras army. In this service, discontent had removals, suspensions, etc., in which appeared the prevailed for some time; the officers were dis- names of Cols. St. Leger, Chalmers, and Cuppage. pleased that the means of acquiring fortunes with The officers of the Hyderabâd force were inwhich to return to Europe, were now so limited ; vidiously praised in this document, for their refusal they were jealous of the favour which they fancied to participate in these proceedings ; but they was shown to those of the king's service, and pos- scorned the distinction, and to prove their sinsibly the recollection of the notorious Sir Robert cerity, published a letter to the army and the susFletcher, led them to think that they might mutiny pended officers, declaring their resolution to make with impunity.
common cause with them ; and an address to the As early as 1807 Col. St. Leger had distinguished Governor, calling on him to restore those officers, himself by exciting this spirit of discontent; but as the only means of preventing the loss of the an agitator of higher rank had lately appeared on British empire in India. The troops at Masulithe scene. Sir J. Cradock had been succeeded as patam were now in actual insurrection, and it was commander-in-chiefby Lieut.-gen. Macdowal, of arranged that they should unite with those at the royal service. But the Court of Directors re- Jalna and at Seringapatam, and marching to fused to give him a seat in the council, which his Madras, compel the restoration of the officers, and predecessor had held, and, in consequence, he re- depose the Governor. signed his command, expressing himself on the Sir G. Barlow had brought matters to this danoccasion in terms of great bitterness ; and he lost gerous state, by his want of temper and of judgno opportunity of fomenting the discontent of the ment; for it was now a personal quarrel between officers. What the double batta question had been him and the officers. He was urged to rescind the in Bengal, an allowance, named the Tent-contract, orders, but he refused, and perhaps was right in so proved in the Carnatic. This was a permanent doing, for it would have been yielding to intimidamonthly allowance to the officers commanding na- tion. All the officers were not engaged in the tive corps, for which they were to provide their plot; he was sure of support from Bengal; the men with suitable camp-equipage whenever it king's troops could be relied on; and the native should be required. That this should have been troops in general had declared, that they would greatly abused can need no proof to any one con- obey none but the government. versant with the history of the English in India; The efforts made to separate their men from and its abolition had therefore been recommended them, so much irritated the officers at Seringapaby Sir J. Cradock. It had been approved of by tam, that they rushed into actual rebellion. They the governments of both Madras and Bengal, and drove the king's troops out of the fort, and preit now fell to Sir G. Barlow to carry it into execu- pared to defend it. Troops were marched against tion. The officers, unwilling to part with, yet them, and two battalions that were coming to their unable to deny the defects of, this system, sought aid from Chittledroog, were fallen on by the drafor some pretext to justify their opposition. The goons (Aug. 11), and dispersed with no small loss. matter having been referred originally to Col. J. In the night the fort cannonaded the cantonments Munro, the quarter-master-general, he had drawn of the troops, but without injury. In Hyderabad up a report on it, in which, beside the general ob- matters had come nearly to the same pass. Col. jections, he had stated some which were capable of Close, who had come thither from Poona, tried in individual application. Those who thought them- vain to bring the officers to a sense of their duty. selves meant, called on the commander-in-chief to They summoned the troops from Jalna and Masulibring him to a court-martial; but finding that it patam, and the former had actually made two could not legally be done, they resolved to appeal days' march, when the officers at Hyderabad at to the Court of Directors. Gen. Macdowal, just length saw their conduct in its true light. They before he left Madras for England, affecting to have wrote a penitential letter to Lord Minto, now at received competent advice, placed Col. Munro Madras ; they signed the test that had been prounder arrest. The government, on his appeal, posed, and wrote to the other stations, calling on commanded him to be liberated ; the commander- their brother officers to do the same. Their exin-chief did not dare to disobey, but, ere he sailed ample was every where followed, and tranquillity (Jan. 30), he published a general order, stating that was thus restored. Four officers were cashiered his departure alone prevented his bringing Col. by sentence of a court-martial, and sixteen were Munro to trial for various military offences. The dismissed the service; all the rest were pargovernment published next day a very intemperate doned. public order, in reply; and Gen. Macdowal, having fung the torch of discord, sailed for England, which he never reached, the vessel having gone down on the voyage (1809).
Bourbon. On the 6th July they reached the north CHAPTER VII.
side of that island, near St. Denis, the capital ; the
troops were divided into four brigades, of which Interference with Native States--Expedition to the Persian one, under Col. Fraser, was to land at Grande
Gulf-Capture of Isle of Bourbon-Naval Disasters-Cap-Chaloupe, some miles to the west of the town; and ture of Isle of France-Of Java-Decoity-Renewal of
the other three, under Col. Keating, at Rivières de Company's Charter.
Pluies, to the east of it. Owing to the violence of Though the system of non-interference with the
the surf, only a part of the last was able to effect a native states was now the avowed policy of the landing; they seized a battery, and secured them
selves for the night. Meantime, Col. Fraser had Company's government, Lord Minto had too much
landed without loss, and pushed on and occupied sense not to see the danger of too rigorous an adherence to it. Accordingly, when Ameer Khân, the heights
to the west of St. Denis. Next mornfor Holkar was now insane, made an irruption intó ing (8th), the greater part of the remainder of the Berâr, British troops were sent to the aid of the troops made a landing at Grande Chaloupe, but
before they could advance the prize had been won. rajah. In like manner, the government interfered to prevent the Peishwa from oppressing some of the bayonet the French, who were drawn up in
Col. Fraser had descended the hill, charged with his jagheerdars.
An Arab tribe, named the Joasmis, who dwelt two columns in the plain, supported by a strong on the coast westwards of Cape Musendom, along afternoon a flag of truce was sent from the town;
redoubt, and routed them. At four o'clock in the the Persian gulf, had long been notorious for
and when the rest of the troops had come up, and piracy. They had hitherto avoided attacking British ships ; but of late they had begun to attack preparations were made for storming, a surrender
of the island, with the troops and public property, them also, and it was now deemed expedient to
was made to the British. administer some chastisement. In the month of September an expedition sailed from Bombay, hardly any loss ; but the British naval force was
The Isle de Bourbon was thus captured with which, after dispersing a fleet of their daos, or small vessels, attacked and took their principal French frigates having run into the harbour of
now to experience some unusual disasters. Three town, Ras-el-Khaima. All the houses, the ware
Grand Port in the Isle de France, four English houses filled with valuable goods, and a great number of their largest daos were burnt. Their other frigates resolved to attack them
there. But from forts were also destroyed, and the navigation of the being exposed to the fire of both the French ships
want of pilotage, the vessels having grounded, and gulf became secure for some years to come 8. A still more distant and important expedition
and batteries, one was forced to strike her colours
, was soon undertaken. To those who are not
two were burnt by the British themselves, and the aware of by how little wisdom the world is go
fourth was obliged a day or two after to surrender
to a squadron that came round from St. Louis, the verned, it may seem strange that the French had
capital. been suffered for so many years to hold undis
On the 29th Nov. an expedition composed of turbed possession of the Isles of France and Bourbon, into which their vessels of war continually 11,000 men, commanded by Gen. Abercrombie,
troops from Bengal and Madras, counting about carried the English Indiamen, or vessels engaged landed in Grande Baye, about fifteen miles north in the country-trade. On the contrary, strict injunctions had been given to the authorities in
of St. Louis, and immediately commenced their
march for that town. Having made their way India not to attempt their reduction, on account of the expense. The value of the captures had, how- for the night, and next morning resumed their
with difficulty through a wood, they bivouacked ever, of late opened the eyes of the ministry a
march. But the excessive heat and the want of little, and they gave permission for more active The blockade of the ports was first Louis, in the bed of the Pamplemousse river. In
water obliged them to halt five miles from St. thought of, and the little isle of Rodriguez was
the morning (31st) the march was again resumed. seized, and made a depôt for the supply of the
Gen. Decaen, the governor, though he had only blockading squadron. But this plan proving useless, it was finally resolved to make an attempt to
2000 Europeans including the crews of ships, bereduce the Isle of Bourbon. A small force, under
side the colonists, and the blacks, resolved to give
them battle. But one charge of the English flank Lieut. col. Keating, sailed from Rodriguez, and landed in that island (Sept. 20) near St. Paul, the battalion put them to flight. Before evening the
formal surrender of the island was effected, and chief town on the western side. They seized, un
thus terminated the last rempant of French domiperceived, two of the principal batteries ; at the
nion in the East. third, they encountered a resolute resistance, but they were finally successful, and became masters of
As Holland now formed a part of the French the town, and the shipping in the harbour, includ- empire, it became necessary to reduce her oriental ing a frigate of forty-six guns. A convention was
possessions also. The home-government had, with now concluded, by which all the public property Lord Minto and Adm. Drury deemed it both wiser
its usual wisdom, only sanctioned blockade, but was surrendered to the English, who then departed and safer to attempt their conquest. In February with it, and the captured shipping. The success of this expedition induced Lord Minto to attempt and after a brief resistance it capitulated. In the
1810, a small expedition arrived off Amboyna, the reduction of the whole of the French islands.
course of the year, the Banda islands and Ternate Early in 1810, a large reinforcement was sent to Col. Keating, for another attempt on the Isle of the Dutch in the East but Java, which it was
also were reduced, and nothing now remained to 8 During the government of Lord Hastings, it was found
determined to attack as soon as the troops should necessary to send another expedition against Khaima.
have returned from the Isle of France.
A. D. 1811.
CAPTURE OF JAVA-DECOITY.
On the 1st June, 1811, the troops intended for to the Whitefeet, Ribbonmen, and suchlike of Irethe expedition were assembled at Malacca under land, with the exception that their chief object the command of Sir Samuel Achmuty ; Lord was plunder. They formed a society, the chief Minto had accompanied those from Bengal, but members of which were fully known only to their only, as he expressed it, as a volunteer. On the sirdars or chiefs. During the day they worked 4th August it anchored in the bay of Batavia. like the rest of the people at trades or agriculture; It consisted of 12,000 men, half English, half In- at night they repaired with arms to the place dian; the Dutch troops in the island, native and appointed : the number of a gang varied from ten European, were about 17,000, of which Gen.Jansens, to sixty, according to circumstances. Having made the governor, bad posted 13,000 in the lines of an offering to Durga, the goddess of thieves, they Cornelis, a strong position eight miles from Ba- blackened their faces or put on masks, and then ta via.
marched with lighted torches to the village where The landing was effected without opposition, they proposed to rob some money-changer or and the city of Batavia submitted (7th); and shopkeeper, or to take vengeance on some one thence on the third day the troops marched for who had given information against a member of Cornelis. On the way they found a portion of the their society. On entering the village they fired Dutch army strongly posted ; but they were un- a shot as a signal for the villagers to keep at home. able to withstand the charge of the British, and They then surrounded the house of their victim, they broke and fled, their loss being very severe.
which some of them entered. Unless it was a The British followed them to Cornelis. Here the case of vengeance, or that they met with resistance, main body of the enemy lay in an entrenched they seldom committed murder; but the tortures camp between two rivers, protected in front and which they inflicted in order to get information rear by batteries and redoubts mounting 280 pieces where property was concealed were appalling and of artillery. The situation was so strong, that often caused death. They then retired, and in the Gen. Jansens had no doubt but that he would be morning were seen about their usual avocations. able to hold out till the rainy season should arrive, Though the peasantry often knew well who were and sickness oblige the English to retire,
Decoits, they feared to give information, and fear Ground was broken as before a fortress (20th), or corruption also restrained the police. The and batteries were erected and a heavy cannonade government, by improving the efficacy of the police, was carried on for some days ; but it soon became and by rendering more certain the rewards for apparent that the place must be carried by storm, information, succeeded in giving a great check to if a tedious course of warfare was to be avoided. Decoity. In the province of Bundwân, of which It was, therefore, resolved that a division under Mr, Butterworth Bayley was made magistrate in Col. Gillespie should make an attempt to carry the 1810, the practice was almost totally suppressed bridge over the river Slokan, and the redoubt in within a few months by having recourse to the front of it, while two other attacks should be made ancient police system of the country: but this on the enemy's lines in front and rear. On the example was not followed, for our Indian governnight of the 26th, Col. Gillespie set out; as he had ments are in general too full of their own wisdom to take a round through an intricate country it to adopt the usages of the Hindoos. was almost daylight when he came near the re- While such was the course of affairs in India, doubt. He then discovered that the rear division the question of the renewal of the Company's had fallen behind; but instead of waiting for it charter was agitated in England, and the cupidity he resolved to advance at once, trusting that the and selfishness of the various parties was displaynoise of the firing would bring it up. The redoubt ing itself under the garb of philanthropy, and and bridge were speedily carried, the rear-guard regard for the public interest. came up as was expected ; other redoubts to the Toward the end of 1808, Mr. Dundas wrote to right and left were carried also; the division which the Directors, to know if they wished the question was acting in front forced their way in ; all resist of the Charter to be brought before Parliament. ance was. speedily overcome, and the enemy fled, In their reply they asserted the right of the Compursued by Col. Gillespie with the dragoons and pany to its territorial possessions, and expressed an horse artillery for a space of ten miles. The expectation that they would be allowed to increase British loss was nearly 900 killed and wounded, their dividends, and that the country would aid including 85 officers. The enemy had, it is said, them to liquidate their debt. They said nothing upwards of 1500 slain, and 6000 were made about their exclusive privilege, but seemed to take prisoners. That day decided the fate of Java ; it for granted that it would be continued. We for though Gen. Jansens attempted to make another thus see that they had a view to their peculiar stand in the eastern part of the island, he was interests. Mr. Dundas in reply denied their right forced to capitulate, and Java became a British to the territory of India ; thought that any surplus possession. Lord Minto then returned to Bengal, revenue should go first to the liquidation of the having committed the government of Java to Mr. debt rather than the increase of dividends, and (afterwards Sir Stamford) Raffles, under whom added that the charter would only be renewed on it attained a degree of quiet and prosperity, such condition of the merchants and manufacturers of as it had never before enjoyed.
Great Britain being allowed to trade in ships of During the remainder of the period of Lord their own to all places within the limits of the Minto's government, his attention was devoted to Company's exclusive trade, China excepted. This the internal improvement of the country. Of the system the Directors pronounced to be ruinous to measures adopted we can only mention those for the Company and country alike, and hinted that they the suppression of Decoity, or gang-robbery, which would not seek a renewal of the Charter. had of late increased to an alarming extent.
Matters remained thus till toward the end of The Decoits bore an extraordinary resemblance | 1811, when the court, in reply to a letter from Mr. Dundas (now Lord Melville), agreed to open the as hard a battle as they could ; Warren Hastings, trade, and in April 1812, they petitioned for a and many other distinguished men who had been renewal of their charter, on these terms. It is in India, asserted the danger of the proposed meaprobable that the chief opponents of the Company sures : but the pressure from without was too had on this, as on former occasions, been the mer- strong for the ministry to resist it, and by the bill chants of London ; for though exports were to be passed in July, 1813, for the renewal of the Compermitted from all the ports, the imports were all pany's charter, the trade of the East, with the exto be brought to the capital, the merchants and ception of that to China, was thrown open to the shipowners of which expected to derive thence merchants of Great Britain. As most of the witgreat advantages. But Liverpool, Bristol, and nesses had expressed their apprehension of the the other out-ports as they are named, claimed the evils likely to arise from the great influx of Euroright of import also, and sent up delegates to pean colonists into India, and their oppression and London; and petitions to parliament against the robbery of the natives, the power of granting licenses Company's monopoly poured in from every trading for residence was reserved to the Company and manufacturing town in the empire.
But there was another party in the country who It is actually amusing to view the brilliant pros acted on far purer and higher motives than merpects that are held forth by commercial men, when chants, and whom the ministers found it necessary their object is the extension of their own trade ; to conciliate. The greater part of the last century and how utterly heedless they are of the interests, had been a period of extreme religious laxity; but not merely of strangers, but of other classes of the serious tone induced by the awful war in which their countrymen ; they drive on their free-trade England was engaged with the French republic, car like that of Juggernâth, crushing all before it had led men's minds to think more deeply on the But their anticipations are rarely, or never veri- subject of religion; and numbers, both of the clergy fied; they have not in general accurate notions of and laity, had returned to the sterner faith held by the real condition of other countries, and of the the reformers, and from which the Church of disturbing causes likely to arise ; and, strange as England in general had departed. This party now it may appear, they are as much under the in- held many seats in parliament; and as their prinfluence of imagination as poets or lovers. Owing, ciples led them to regard salvation as confined to perhaps, to want of regular education, and of cor- the holders of certain tenets, they became anxious rect taste, they love to indulge in figures of speech, for the spiritual welfare of their brethren in India, and their language teems with personifications. and for the conversion of the benighted natives. The following extract, which Thornton gives from Their cause was ably advocated by Mr. Wilbera petition from Sheffield at this time, will illustrate force in the House of Commons; and by a clause in what we have stated.
the bill, it was resolved to appoint a bishop and “ If the trade of this United Kingdom were per- three archdeacons, to superintend the chaplains of mitted to flow unimpeded over those extensive, the different settlements in India ; and the enluxuriant, and opulent regions, though it might in trance of missionaries into that country was to be the outset, like a torrent repressed and swoln by facilitated. obstructions, when its sluices were first opened Lord Minto had written in 1811, expressing his break forth with uncontrollable impetuosity, de- wish to leave India in January, 1814. The minisluging, instead of supplying the district before it ; try, who with wonderful self-denial had allowed yet that very violence, which at the beginning one connected with the party opposed to them in might be partially injurious, would in the issue politics, to retain for so long a time so high and prove highly and permanently beneficial : no part | lucrative an office, could refrain no longer. The being unvisited, the waters of commerce that Earl of Moira, a nobleman high in the favour and spread over the face of the land, as they subsided confidence of the Prince Regent, partly from ambiwould wear themselves channels, through which tion, and partly, we believe, from narrowness of they might continue to flow ever afterwards, in circumstances, was covetous of the government of regular and fertilizing streams." The simple India, and the Directors were forced to appoint meaning of this sonorous rhapsody is, that though him. As he was a military man, he was, like Lord they might at first glut (as they know they would) Cornwallis, made also commander-in-chief, to inthe new markets, yet things might end in the esta- crease his authority and his emoluments. blishment of a regular trade. But such high-flown Lord Minto quitted India toward the close of language from the cutlers of Sheffield !
1813, and he died the year of his return to EngWhatever we may think of the language, the land. His character stands high among those of reasoning, and the motives of the members of commercial leagues of this kind, it seems certain that
1 European colonisation is a great panacea with Mill for in this country they are tolerably sure to carry
the evils of India. He expatiates on the advantages which their point ; and there only remains for those who
might be derived “from a body of English gentlemen, who, see their objects, to smile at their disappointed ex- if they had been encouraged to settle as owners of land, and pectations. The Company, on this occasion, made as manufacturers and merchants, would at this time have
been distributed in great numbers in India."
" The per
mission,” says Wilson, "has been now granted them for 9 As an instance of the justice and philanthropy of manu- several years, and where is the numerous body of respectable facturers, we may take the trade in cotton-goods. While English landholders, who are to render inestimable services Manchester and other towns were struggling in the forma- to the government, in preserving the peace of the country?" tion of silk and cotton-manufactories, they were protected by -one of Mill's predictions. On another place Wilson oba duty of seventy or eighty per cent. ad valorem, in some
“An importance is here attached to the admirable cases by a total prohibition, against the competition of India, effects of colonisation, which it is safe prophecy to foretel on which their goods have since been forced without any will never be realised; for colonisation never will, never can duty at all, nearly to the ruin of the native artizans.