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A. D. 1814.
the Governors-general for uprightness, disinterest- with four divisions, on different points of the fronedness, and firmness, combined with moderation. tier. He was also a man of cultivated mind and taste, The first division, under Gen. Ochterlony, comand a zealous promoter of learning, both European posed of 6000 men, was to act against the extreme and Asiatic.
west of the Goorkha line. The second, of 3500 men, under Gen. (late Col.) Gillespie, was to move more eastwards, and advance against Jytak, one of the principal fortresses of the enemy in those parts; the third, of 4500 men, under Gen. J. S. Wood,
was to march from the frontier of Gorukhpûr for CHAPTER VIII.
the fortress of Palpa ; while the fourth, and largest, of about 8000 men, under Gen. Marley, was to
advance by Mawanpûr, direct on Khatmandu. Origin of Nepalese War-Plan of the War-Failure at Ka
The second division was the first to take the lunga—Capture of that Fort- Failure at Jytak-Operations field. On the 19th October, its advance marched of Gen. Ochterlony-of the third Division-Of the fourth Division-Surrender of Malân-Invasion of Nepål-Treaty
from Saharanpûr, and the main body followed on the 22nd. They moved through the Doon, or val
ley of Dehra, and came before the fort of Kalunga, LORD Moira reached Calcutta early in October, only five miles from that Doon, situated on a steep 1813. In the course of the following year he had detached hill. The fort was of stone, and quadto engage in war with a people with whom the rangular, and in the usual Goorkha manner British had as yet had few relations.
strengthened by stockades. Its garrison consisted The kingdom of Nepal is a valley, bounded on of 600 Goorkhas, under a gallant chief, who rethe south by the last and lowest range of the turned a bold defiance to the summons to surrenHimalaya mountains, by a loftier range of which der. Cannon having been drawn up, and a battery on the north it is separated from Tibet. Its peo- erected, it was resolved to storm (31st). The troops ple are mostly of the Bhôt, or Tibetian race; but were divided into four columns, and a reserve ; and Hindoo colonies had settled in it, and their rajahs it was intended to assail the four sides of the fort had made themselves sovereigns of the country. simultaneously. But three of the columns having About the middle of the 18th century, the chief of to make a circuit, had not arrived when the signal a mountain tribe named the Goorkha, taking ad. was given, and a sally of the garrison having been vantage of the feuds of the rajahs, made himself repelled by the remaining column, Gen. Gillespie master of Nepal, and transmitted the sovereignty thinking the place might be carried by escalade, to his family.
ordered the men to advance to the assault. But As the dominions of the Goorkha princes ex- the fire of the fort proved too severe, and they tended for a length of 700 miles along the British were forced to retire. Gen. Gillespie then crying frontier, from the province of Delhi to that of that he would take the fort or lose his life, put himPurneah, in Bengal, and they were of a restless, self at the head of the remainder of the column, encroaching disposition, they had so early as 1785 and advanced against the gate. The men, however, begun to appropriate portions of the British terri- hung back; and as their gallant leader was waving tory. Frequent remonstrances were made, but to his sword to encourage them, a ball from the fort little purpose ; and in 1809 it was found necessary shot him through the heart. A retreat was then to employ force, to drive them out of some lands ordered, and the troops withdrew to Dehra, to they had seized. The encroachments, however, wait for a battering-train from Delhi. When the were continued, and even on a greater scale ; all train arrived (Nov. 24), the troops, led by Col. attempts at negotiation failed; and in 1814 both Mawbey, marched once more for Kalunga. A sides prepared for war. Some of the wiser Goorkha breach having been effected (27th), a storin was chiefs advised accommodation; but Bhim Sah, who attempted, but it was repelled with loss, the numas regent governed for the rajah, who was a ber of the killed and wounded exceeding that of minor, was resolved to try the fate of arms. His the garrison. Recourse was now had to bombardreliance was on the valour of his regular troops, ment; and as the interior of the fort afforded no though only 12,000 in number, the strength and shelter, the garrison was reduced in three days to difficulty of the country, the ignorance of the seventy men, with whom the commandant fled British respecting it, and their want of experience from the place. The gallant defence of Kalunga in mountain-warfare.
greatly raised the courage of the Goorkhas, and The first question with Lord Moira was, whether had a material influence on the future events of the war should be defensive or offensive; and for the war, which might have been averted had Gen. obvious reasons the latter mode was preferred. Gillespie acted with common prudence, instead of The next was, whether the British troops should headlong rashness. in one large body enter Nepál, and march direct The troops now moved westwards, and came for Khatmandu, the capital, or make simultaneous within a few miles of the town of Nâhan, to the attacks on the long line of the Goorkha conquests. north of which the fort of Jytak lay, on the point In the former case, great and almost insuperable where two mountain-ridges met. Here they were difficulties were apprehended in marching, and joined (Dec. 20) by Gen. Martindell, who took the obtaining supplies for a large body of men in so command; and having occupied Nahan, he adrugged a country ; while in the latter, it was to be vanced to the foot of the range on which Jytak expected that the chiefs and their people, who had stood. The ascent was extremely steep and rugbeen so recently subjugated, would take part with ged, and defended by stockades at various points. the British. The latter plan, therefore, was As it appeared that the garrison obtained their adopted; and it was determined to make the attack water from wells at some distance from the fort, it was resolved to attempt to deprive them of it, and posts, (Jan. 1) cut off one, and nearly destroyed at the same time to carry a strong stockade, erected the other. The troops now lost courage and began for the defence of the water. Two columns were to desert; and Gen. Marley having a most exaggeformed ; one under Major Ludlow, to move against rated idea of the numbers and courage of the the stockade, on the nearest side ; the other, under Goorkhas, made a retrograde movement to protect Major Richards, to make a détour, and attack it in the depôt at Bettiah, leaving a strong division the rear. Both, however, met with ill-success ; with Major Roughsedge to protect the frontier. the first was driven back by the enemy; the se- Lord Moira, though very indignant at the conduct cond, having taken a position near the wells, gal- of Gen. Marley, reinforced him so largely, that his lantly maintained it against all the efforts of the forces amounted to 13,000 men. But that incapagarrison, until their ammunition was nearly ex. ble officer, after spending the whole month of pended, when they retreated by orders of Gen. January in indecision, suddenly quitted his camp Martindell, though Major Richards was confident, one morning before day-break, without having that if furnished with supplies he could have held given any notice of his intention. About the end the post. All military operations were now sus- of February, Gen. George Wood came and took pended in this quarter.
the command, but he also acted on a timid policy, Gen. Ochterlony, who was opposed to Amar Sing and effected nothing. While, however, the fame Thapa, the ablest of the Goorkha leaders, was more of the British arms was thus tarnished by the cautious and judicious in his movements. This inefficiency of the commanders of these two divicountry being very mountainous, Amar Sing had sions, Major Latter, who commanded a small force constructed three strong stone forts on the moun- further eastwards, not only defended the boundary tain-ranges, each as usual supported by strong east of the Kûsi river, but formed a useful alliance stockades. The first which the British troops with the rajah of Sikim, a small hill-state eastcame before (Nov. 2), named Nalagurh, surren- ward of Nepal. At the same time Col. Gardner dered when cannonaded. They then advanced with a body of irregulars from Rohilcund had against Ramgurh, which stood on a higher range. entered Kamaon to the north of that province, and Amar Sing came to its aid with 3000 regular appeared before Almora, its chief town. Another troops, and encamped with his right on the fort, irregular force under Capt. Hearsey, also entered and his left and front protected by stockades. Gen. it from another side ; but it was routed and its Ochterlony deeming the front too strong, moved commander made a prisoner by the Goorkhas. A round their left to take them in the rear.
regular force under Col. Nicolls, joined Col. Gardreceiving intelligence of the second repulse at ner before Almora (April 8), and when everything Kalunga, fearing its moral effect on the troops on had been prepared, a general attack was made both sides, he resolved to wait for reinforcements, (25th) on the stockades in front of it. After employing himself meantime in gaining informa- a brief resistance they were carried, and the tion, and preparing for further operations. When troops established themselves in the town. Next the expected troops arrived (Dec. 27) he resumed morning, after a discharge of mortars on the fort, the the offensive, and by judicious movements in the garrison capitulated, on condition of being allowed direction of Malân, he drew the enemy from Ram- to depart with their arms and personal property. gurh, and other posts, which were then occupied by Gen. Martindell was at this tirne engaged in a the British. The severity of the weather and the blockade of the fort of Jytak, patiently waiting for ruggedness of the country impeded him so much, the effects of famine on the garrison. Meantime that he was not able to attempt any thing against Gen. Ochterlony was acting with more vigour Malân till the spring.
against the Goorkhas at Malán. The third division did not move till the middle In the month of April the British troops were of December. The way to Palpa lay through a encamped on the banks of a stream in the valley difficult mountain pass, which the Goorkhas had under the ranges on which Malân stood, while the strongly stockaded. The stockade was attacked, Goorkha posts extended along the ridge from and would probably have been carried, but Gen. Malân to the fort of Surajgurh,
most of the peaks Wood thinking that it would be impossible to being occupied and stockaded. In the centre of drive the enemy from the thickets in the rear of the line were two points named Ryla and Deothal, it, ordered a retreat. He then confined himself to which seemed to be assailable, and the possession the defence of the frontier till the spring, when at of which would cut Malân off from most of its the express command of Lord Moira, he advanced outworks. These Gen. Ochterlony resolved to to the town of Bhotwal, from which, however, he attack ; and he sent (14th) a column against the soon retired again to the plain ; and as his troops former under Major Innis, and one against the were becoming unhealthy, they were placed, in latter under Col. Thomson. Another body led by May, in cantonments at Gorukhpûr.
Capt. Showers, was to move from Ratangurh, a The fourth and largest division having assem- post to the right of Malân occupied by the British, bled at Dinapore near Patna, marched (Nov. 23) and attack the enemy's cantonments under the for Bettîah. Meantime a force under Major fort. These attacks proved, on the whole, successBradshaw was succesfully employed in clearing ful, though Capt. Showers was repulsed and killed. the frontier forests of the Goorkhas. When the Next day (15th) every effort was made to main army reached the frontier (Dec. 12), Gen. strengthen Deothal, as it was certain to be soon Marley, instead of advancing without bis guns, as attacked ; more troops and two guns were sent up he had been directed, spent the rest of the month to it, and stockades were formed. As was ex waiting for them, and this gave the enemy time to pected, Amar Sing, knowing that if he let the recover from the alarm into which Major Brad- British remain on the mountain, they would soon shaw's success had thrown them.
reduce Malân, resolved to make every effort to quence was that they attacked two British out- drive them down. He, therefore, placed the troops
A. D. 1815.
INVASION OF NEPÅL-TREATY OF PEACE.
under the command of Bhakti Sing, a leader of At noon, however, the Goorkhas returned in
The Goorkhas advanced in a semicircle, o'clock the Goorkhas were repelled with a loss of
ing officers been like Sir D. Ochterlony, it would
Maratta Affairs-Murder of Gangadhar Sastri-Attack on
Bhopal-State of things at Maratta Courts-The Pindarseek to penetrate to Makwanpûr by the Churia
ries--They ravage the British Territory-Preparations for
destroying them-Attack on the Residency of Poona-
New Treaty with Sindia-British Troops attacked by the
Marattas capable of disturbing its tranquillity.
or less re-
presence of the subsidiary force, still fondly clung
to the hope of seeing himself once more the indeposition had been turned. On the 27th the British pendent chief of the Maratta nation ; and what he troops encamped within two miles of the fortified
feared to attempt by force, he hoped to compass heights of Makwanpûr, and the following morning by intrigue ; he therefore maintained secret agents they took possession of the strong village of Sek
at the courts of Nagpûr, Gwalior 3, and Indore. har-Khatri, which its garrison had evacuated.
Of all the Maratta princes the Guicowar of
Güzerât, whose capital was Baroda, was the one
3 Sindia had made this his residence.
most under British influence. He was in fact in- A gallant defence was made by the Nawab and his debted to them for his political existence ; and the son, and all the assaults of the besiegers were exertions of the very able resident, Major Walker, repelled; but famine at length began to prey on had disentangled and arranged the embarrassed the garrison, and death and desertion reduced system of his finances, and restored him to inde- their number to about 600 men. Still they did pendence and respectability. In 1804, the lease not yield ; and at length the retirement of the Nagby which the Guicowar held of the Peishwa, a pûr troops, for what cause is unknown, obliged portion of the revenues of Ahmedabad having ex- those of Sindia also to withdraw. pired, the former, with the approbation of the The rajah of Nagpûr died in 1815; and as his British, applied for a lease for ever, in order to heir was delicate and of weak intellect, it was found put an end to all cause of future dispute. But the necessary to appoint a regent. After the usual views of the Peishwa were quite different, and he struggle of parties the office was, with the consent refused to renew. In order to try to effect an of the resident, conferred on Apa Sahib, a nephew arrangement, the court of Baroda sent to that of of the late rajah. As the opposite party were Poona a man named Gangadhar Sastri, and the hostile to the British power, Apa Sahib deemed guarantee of the British government for his safety a close connexion with it his surest policy, and he was obtained. He met with a very cool reception signed the treaty of subsidiary alliance for which at Poona, while some agents sent thither from a they had so long been anxious. rival party at Baroda were listened to with favour. Sindia, after his disappointment at Bhopal, Aware that he could accomplish nothing, he was remained quiet, but brooding over plans of venanxious to depart; but he remained at the earnest geance which he did not perhaps even dream of desire of the resident. The Peishwa's ministers executing. His great object was to establish the now altered their conduct toward him ; and Trim- supreme authority of the Peishwa and consolidate bakjee, that prince's chief favourite and adviser, the Maratta empire ; and he secretly had agents held several private interviews with him, in which at Poona and Nagpûr, and received cakeels from he assailed him on his weak side, his vanity, and Nepal and from Runjeet Sing the Sikh. The not without some success. A marriage also was leaders of the Pindarries had pledged themselves concerted between his son and a sister of the obey his orders. Peishwa's wife ; and he accompanied the court to a sacred place named Nasik, where the ceremony cities and profligacy. On the death of Holkar was to be performed. But in consequence of the Tulasi Bai, a woman of low rank but of beauty and refusal of his court to ratify a treaty which he had ent, whom he had made his wife, having no chilconcluded, he deemed it incumbent on him to dren of her own, placed on the throne his son by decline the proffered honour ; and he still further a woman of inferior rank whom she had adopted, offended the Peishwa by refusing to let his wife and she reigned in his name as regent. She was visit at the palace, in consequence of the licentious assisted by Balaram Seth as minister, and by orgies of which it was the scene.
Ghapur Khân, the brother-in-law of Ameer Khân, No signs of displeasure were, however, let ap- as commander of the forces. But when the forpear; and Gangadhar was induced to accompany mer reproached her with her licentiousness, she the Peishwa to another place of devotion at Pun- caused him to be murdered. The latter then took derpur, though the resident was not invited as arms to punish her, and after making a gallant usual. One evening, when he had gone home charge herself in person at the head of the Marather unwell from an entertainment, a message ratta horse, she was obliged to take flight. A came from Trimbak inviting him to repair at once reconciliation was then attempted between her and to the temple to perform his devotions, as it would Ameer Khân, under whom Ghapur Khân only be engaged for the Peishwa next morning. After acted ; but events of greater importance just then repeated solicitations he went at length, and as he occurred which attracted the attention of all was returning from the temple escorted by some parties. of Trimbak's soldiers, five men rushed on him from During all this time, Ameer Khân was at the behind and murdered him. As neither Trimbak head of a large freebooting party in Rajputana, now nor the Peishwa would make any efforts to dis- aiding one Rajpût chief against another, and now cover and apprehend the assassins, and as Gangad- plundering on his own account. har had been under the protection of the British, We have more than once had occasion to menthe resident felt it to be his duty to insist on tion the Pindarries. These were bodies of irregular satisfaction. The actual assassins, there is little light-horse, which served without pay, receiving in doubt, were the people from Baroda ; but there is lieu of it license to plunder. They had originated, as little doubt of Trimbak and even the Peishwa it is said, in the time of the Mahommedan kinghaving been concerned in the deed. They refused doms of the Deckan ; they had always served with when called on to institute any inquiry, and the the Marattas; and when Holkar and Sindia obtained resident then, from prudential motives, taking no territory themselves, they assigned portions of it notice of the Peishwa's share, insisted on the arrest on the Nerbudda to bodies of these marauders, and delivery of Trimbak. The Peishwa, after which were named the Holkar Shahi, and the making every effort in his power to avoid it, Sindia Shahi Pindarries ; of which, the latter were was forced to comply, and Trimbak was confined by far the more numerous.
The Pindarries were in the fort of Tanna in the isle of Salsette.
divided into several Durras, or companies, and The territories of the Nawab of Bhopal, which their principal leaders at this time were Cheetoo, a lay between those of Sindia and the rajah of Nag- Ját, Karim Khân, a Rohilla, and Dost and Wasil pûr, were an object of cupidity to these chiefs. Mohammed, the sons of an officer of rank in the In the end of 1813, each sent an army to the field ; Nagpûr service. There was, as we may observe, and the united forces laid siege to the capital. no distinction of religion made among them : any
A. D. 1815-17.
THE PINDARRIES-PREPARATIONS FOR WAR.
een the wind the death o' b sok but de beam
wife, harmoni be throne to om she is as regent
one who would might join their bands. In their | accurately ascertained. At all events, there applundering excursions they presented an anomalous peared no proof that Apa Sahib was concerned in appearance ; the leaders and a portion of the men it ; and he therefore succeeded to the vacant dig. were well armed and mounted, while the rabble nity. The other was the escape of Trimbak from rode ponies, and had all sorts of arms, from the Tanna. He immediately set about collecting troops; matchlock and sword down to the club and pointed and though the Peishwa affected to be making stick. They moved with great secrecy and cele- exertions to take him, it was ascertained that he rity, avoided encounters with regular troops, and had had secret interviews with him, and had sent carried off every thing of value that they could lay him supplies of money, and that he was strengththeir hands on.
ening his fortresses. Mr. Elphinstone, the resiFor a long time they shunned the British terri- dent, directed the subsidiary troops of both Poona tory, confining their ravages to those of the Peishwa, and Hyderabad to act against Trimbak's levies. the Nizâm, and the rajah of Berâr, which they They were accordingly speedily dispersed ; and the plundered regularly every year. At length, in Peishwa, in consequence of his duplicity, was comJanuary, 1812, a body belonging to the party of pelled to sign at Poona a treaty, far more strinDost Mohammed, ventured to penetrate through gent than that of Bassein. He was obliged to Bundelcund into Bahar, where they spread great renounce all claims of supremacy over the other alarm. They retired at the approach of the troops, Maratta states, and all territorial rights and claims but with so much booty as held out a strong in- in the countries north of the Nerbudda. ducement to repeat the attempt. The following Toward the end of 1817, Lord Hastings having year Cheetoo plundered in the district of Surat; matured his plans, prepared to act against the but a conflict between him and the leaders of Pindarries. The troops of Bengal, about 61,000 in Karim Khân's party, in which he was worsted, and number, were formed into four main and two forced to fly, prevented any thing more from being minor divisions. The centre division, under Lord attempted that year. At the end of 1815, the Pin- Hastings himself, was at Cawnpore; the right, darries entered and plundered the district of Ma- under Gen. Donkin, at Agra ; the left, under Gen. sulipatam, and in the following spring a large body | Marshall, in Bundelcund, and on its left were the of them committed fearful ravages during ten days two smaller divisions, one under Gen. Hardyman, in that district, and those of Guntoor and Cudipah. near Mirzapûr ; and the other, under Gen. Toone, In December they appeared in the northern Cir- on the frontiers of South Bahar; the fourth divi.
The population was every where flying to sion, the reserve, under Sir D. Ochterlony, was to the hills and woods for safety; and it was feared cover Delhi. The army of the Deckan, under that they would have plundered the far-famed Sir T. Hislop, Commander-in-chief of the Madras temple of Juggernâth.
army, formed five divisions, respectively comLord Hastings had seen clearly from the very manded by Sir T. Hislop, and by Gens. Doveton, beginning the absolute necessity of exterminating Sir J. Malcolm, Lionel Smith, and Col. Adams. the Pindarries, if the peace and tranquillity of India These, with the troops from Gûzerât, under Gen. were to be preserved. But the timid policy with Keir, formed a force of 52,000 men ; and the entire respect to the East which was now in vogue in British force thus called into action, amounted to England, their own ignorance, and their dread of 113,000 men, with 300 pieces of ordnance. the senseless clamour of the opposition, deterred Before any of these troops had commenced the British ministry from sanctioning the states- acting against the Pindarries, the Peishwa madly man-like views of the Governor-general. Accord- rushed into war. He had hardly signed the treaty ing to the usual practice of giving places of high of Poona, when he renewed his intrigues with the trust and confidence to those who have most other Maratta chiefs ; he commenced a levy of power and influence, not to those best qualified to troops, of which he collected a large number about fill them, the celebrated Mr. Canning was now Poona ; and he made every effort to seduce the President of the Board of Control, and certainly native officers and men in the British service from no one more ignorant of the real condition of India their allegiance. Though Mr. Elphinstone knew ever occupied that position; and the feeble timid of his practices and intentions, he did not stop the policy which he enjoined, would speedily have lost march of the troops that were to act against the that empire to England. Fortunately, the audacity Pindarries; and the principal precaution which he of the Pindarries came to the aid of Lord Hastings, adopted, was to move the quarters of the troops and he was suffered to pursue his own plans. which had been cantoned on the east of the city
His first measure was to inform Sindia that the to Kirki on the north, where there could be a British government would no longer continue to ready communication with the residency which observe that article in the treaty of 1805, which was on that side. To this the Peishwa, who knew precluded it from forming alliances with other the cause, strongly objected, but to no purpose ; native states. As soon as this determination was the troops moved to their new quarters, where they made known, nearly all the Rajpût rajahs, and were joined by some reinforcements. other minor powers, applied to be taken into al- The Peishwa now sent to the resident to say, liance; and though treaties were not immediately that unless the newly-arrived troops were sent concluded with all, they became allies in effect. away, and the rest cantoned in a place which he Ameer Khân, too, offered the services of himself should point out, he would leave Poona. The and his troops, if guaranteed in his actual posses- resident declined compliance; and as bodies of the sions. Sindia remained tranquil.
Peishwa's troops were now moving to get between Two events occurred at this time, which proved the residency and Kirki, he set out and joined of future importance. The young rajah of Nag- the troops. The Marattas then entered the grounds pûr died suddenly, and whether his death was of the residency, where they plundered and burned natural or otherwise could not at the time be the buildings.
docasian bodies of its ut pas, moto her hader lahomari /wars stats od Sindas ved these mu