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The Maratta troops were about 10,000 horse, after the attack on the residency at Poona was and as many foot strongly posted, and with their known, he accepted from the Peishwa the title of centre protected by a large train of artillery. The Senapati, or Commander-in-chief; and on the day British troops, all infantry, were not quite 3000 in which he was publicly invested with it (Nov. 24),

We have more than once had occasion to he displayed the Zeri Patka, or golden banner of notice the culpable temerity of British officers in the Maratta empire. He had also the audacity to attacking forts with insufficient numbers, and in invite Mr. Jenkins, the resident, to be present at ignorance of their real condition; but in the open this ceremony, asserting that he saw no reason why field temerity had never failed to triumph. Acting it should give any offence. The resident, howon this principle, Mr. Elphinstone and Col. Burr, ever, viewed the matter in a different light; and who commanded the troops, resolved to be the as Apa Sahib's intentions were evidently hostile, assailants, and to advance without a moment's preparations were made for the defence of the delay. We need hardly add that their boldness residency. was crowned with complete success, and that, with The residency lay to the west of Nagpûr, beyond trifling loss on their own side, they put the enemy a low range called the Sitabaldi hills. As the subto flight. A few days after, Gen. Smith arrived sidiary force had moved against the Pindarries, with his troops; and the Marattas who had resumed the resident had only his escort of 400 men; as their former position retired in the night, when there happened, however, to be a small detachment they found the British preparing to attack them. under Col. Scott, only three miles off, it came to the The Peishwa now fled to Poorundur.

defence of the residency : but still the whole force During the month of November, the first, third, amounted to only 1300 men; while the rajah's and fifth divisions of the army of the Deckan crossed troops, which lay on the other side of the city, conthe Nerbudda, and occupied thewhole of the Pindarrie sisted of 12,000 horse and 8000 foot, 3000 of which territory. The Pindarries fled to the north and last were Arabs. As the Sitabaldi range was terwest, and the head-quarters of the army of the minated by two elevations, Col. Scott placed troops Deckar were now advanced a little to the north of on each of them, and the rest of the troops were Ojein Sindia's former capital.

disposed about the residency. Meantime Sindia, menaced on one side by the In the early part of the day of the 26th, the Governor-general, and on the other by Gen. Don- rajah’s cavalry was seen disposing itself in masses kin, and all his secret dealings with the Peishwa, to the west of the residency, while infantry with the Pindarrie chiefs, and the Nepalese being dis- guns were taking positions between it and the city. covered, was obliged to sign (Nov. 6) a new treaty, Still the rajah talked of peace; and two of his binding himself among other matters, to aid to the ministers were actually, toward sunset, in conutmost of his power in the destruction of the Pin- ference with the resident, when the Arabs assailed darries.

the troops posted on the Sitabaldi hills. The firing The very week in which the treaty was signed, was continued through the night ; in the morning the camp of Lord Hastings was assailed by an (27th) the Maratta army appeared, in dark dense enemy far more formidable than the troops of masses of horse and foot, to the south and west of Sindia, or the Pindarries. The disease, known by the British position; and the Arabs, after disabling the name of the spasmodic, or Indian cholera, had one of the only two guns the British had on the at all times committed its ravages in India at par- northern eminence, rushed up the hill, and drove ticular seasons, and in particular situations ; but them from that post, to which they then brought about the middle of this year, it assumed the ap- up guns, and commenced a cannonade on the right pearance of an epidemic, and commencing in the of the line below in the plain. They also advanced east of Bengal, it gradually advanced westwards, up to the other eminence; the main Maratta army and by the middle of November it overspread kept closing round, and their guns had already the whole camp of the centre division. Camp-begun to take effect on the small body of horse followers, native soldiers, and Europeans, all were posted at the residency, when Capt. Fitzgerald, swept away by it ; the deaths in the week of its

who commanded it, though his orders were to greatest intensity_were 764 soldiers and 8000 stand firm, made a dash at the foremost masses of camp followers. Fortunately it is the nature of the enemy, charged through them several times, this complaint not to remain long in one place; and dispersed them, seized their guns, and turned them either from this or from the circumstance of the against them, and then returned to his position. troops being moved to higher and drier ground, it The sight of this gallant exploit gave fresh courage disappeared early in December.

to the Sepoys on the hill; they drove the Arabs During the remainder of the year the Pindarries back, and finally forced them down the hill again were hunted by the troops of the right division of with the loss of two of their guns. A fourth of the Bengal, and the fifth of the Deckan army, and the numbers of the victors, including seventeen their leaders now roamed about at the head of a officers, were killed or wounded; but Indian history few dispirited followers. Ameer Khân was also does not include a more gallant action 4. forced to disband his troops and. to ratify the When his troops had thus been routed, Apa alliance which had been arranged.

Sahib sent to express his regret for what had If there was any Maratta prince who had a right to remain attached to the British, it was

4 A part of this force was the 24th Madras infantry. As Apa Sahîb, of Nagpûr, for it was to their support

the first battalion of this regiment had been concerned in

the Vellore massacre, its name had been struck out of the he was indebted for his rank and power. He could

list. A petition was presented from the native officers and not, however, refrain from intrigue, and he was

men, praying, in lieu of any other recompense, for the regi soon engaged in secret negotiations with the

ment's being restored to its former number, and being allowed Peishwa, Sindia, and even the Pindarries. His

to resume its former facings. The prayer of these gallant presumption and infatuation were such, that even and loyal men was granted, of course.

A.D. 1817-18.



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occurred, and to say that they had acted without the British lines. The asylum was offered ; but his knowledge or consent. He was required to the military commanders, Roshan Beg and Ram remove his troops to their original position, as the Din, knowing that the consequence of this arrangecondition of the suspension of hostilities, and he did ment would be the disbanding of the troops, and as required. Reinforcements now came daily to the annihilation of their own power, seized (Dec. the British ; and finally (Dec. 13), Gen. Doveton, 19) Ganpat Râo and Tulasi Bai in the night, with the whole of the second brigade of the army and at dawn next day decapitated the latter. They of the Deckan, encamped at Sitabaldi. Prepara- then with Ghafur Khân and other leaders bound tions were now made for attacking the rajah's themselves by oath to be faithful to each other, army. If he wished to avert the attack, he was and by acting in the name of the young rajah, told that he must disband his troops, surrender prepared to engage the British army which was at his ordnance, put the British in temporary hand. possession of Nagpûr, and come to reside for a Before daybreak on the 21st Sir T. Hislop put time at the residency. He assented to these terms his troops in motion, and marching along the river late in the day of the 15th, and that night the Sipra, found the enemy drawn up on the other troops lay on their arms in the field in order of side of that river opposite the town of Mahidpûr. battle. In the morning he sent to say that the The banks of the river were high, and there was Arabs would not suffer him to leave the camp. The only one ford ; the troops, however, crossed without troops then prepared to attack; but before they much loss; but as they emerged from a ravine advanced, word was sent to Apa Sahib to say that leading up to the plain, they were exposed to a he still might come in, and soon after he rode into heavy cannonade. They however formed, and the lines. At noon, after making as much delay then attacking the enemy on the right and on the as he could, he sent one of his ministers to deliver left, drove them off the field. The centre was up the ordnance. An advance-battery was taken then attacked with equal success; and the pursuit possession of without opposition ; but when the was continued till dark. The loss of the British troops advanced to the main body they were re- was nearly 800 killed and wounded, that of the ceived by a fire of musketry and cannon. They enemy was said to be 3000 or more. rushed on, and soon carried a battery on the left ; The battle of Mahidpûr in effect broke the and the cavalry which had been in the action then power of the Holkar family ; but as the troops still carried another battery, and pursued the Maratta retained a hostile attitude, Sir J. Malcolm moved horse for a distance of three miles. Meantime with a division to disperse them. The Maratta the infantry had routed the right and centre of the ministers, however, made overtures of peace to Marattas, and captured their artillery.

him ; and on the 6th January, 1818, a treaty was The Arabs now joined by some Hindustânees, the concluded, which virtually, though not formally, whole amounting to about 5000 men, threw them- was one of subsidiary alliance. selves into the palace and occupied the approaches The Pindarri chiefs, Karim Khân and Wasil to it. Batteries were erected against it with such Mohammed, had been present with their Durras guns as were at hand ; and an attack was made on at the battle of Mahid pûr. As all the Maratta the principal gateway, which however failed. It powers had now been reduced, the pursuit of was then resolved to wait for heavy artillery ; but them, and Cheetoo, and the other leaders, was the Arabs now offered to capitulate on being resumed with vigour. It would be wearisome to allowed to depart with their families and property, relate the details of the several hunts that were and receiving 50,000 rupees in addition to their kept up after them ; suffice it to say, that with the arrears of pay. These terms were granted, and exception of Cheetoo, who sought refuge in Berâr, they departed. Apa Sahib was restored to his all the leaders had surrendered before the end of throne, though it had been Lord Hastings' firm February, and the Pindarri system and power determination to depose him ; but as Mr. Jenkins was brought to its close. They were removed to had guaranteed him his rank, his Lordship would Gorakhpûr, where they obtained grants of lands not interpose. It is needless to give the terms for their subsistence. Karim Khân became there of the treaty now concluded with him, as he after- a peaceable, industrious farmer; but Wasil Mowards violated them, and brought on his deposi- hammed, impatient of restraint, attempted to make tion,

his escape, and took poison, and died, when he found that he could not effect his purpose.

There now remained only the Peishwa to be reduced. Being followed to Poorundur by Gen. Smith, he moved thence to Sattara, the abode of

the descendant and representative of Sevajee, and CHAPTER X.

carrying that prince and his family with him, he

went on southwards ; but fearing to fall in with Battle of Mahidpûr-Final Reduction of the Pindarries

the reserve, under Gen. Pritzler, he turned back, Pursuit of the Peishwa-Affair at Korijaon-Deposition

and being joined by Trimbak with some troops of Peishwa-Battle of Ashti-Deposition of Apa Sahib Surrender of Peishwa-Concluding Adventures of Apa trating into Malwa, and inducing Sindia and Hol

from Candeish, he pushed on, in the hope of peneSahib, and Cheetoo, the Pindarri-Settlement of IndiaHouse of Palmer and Co.-King of Oude-Departure of

kar to aid him. Finding this course impracticable, Lord Hastings-Bishop Middleton.

he turned westwards, and made for Poona, in the

hope of reaching it before Gen. Smith could arSir T. Hislop was meantime engaged with the rive ; and on the last day of the year he was at troops of Holkar. Tulasi Bai, and her favourite Chakam, within eighteen miles of that city. Ganpat Râo, anxious to escape from the violence Col. Burr, on hearing of the approach of the of their soldiery, had solicited an asylum within 1 Peishwa, sent for reinforcements to Seroor. A

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native battalion 600 strong, with two guns and having been ascertained, beyond a doubt, Lord twenty-six European artillerymen, and a body of Hastings was resolved to deprive him of his power. 350 native horse, were sent, under the command of Accordingly, he was formally deposed, and was Capt. Staunton. On New year's day, on reaching sent a prisoner to Hindustan. But on the way, he some high ground, they beheld the Peishwa's army contrived to make his escape, and he found refuge of about 20,000 horse and 8000 foot, lying beyond with one of the Gond chiefs, of the Mahadeo hills, the river Bhima. Capt. Staunton immediately re- who refused to give him up, though offered a large solved to throw himself into a village named Kora- reward. gam, on the banks of that stream. His purpose The Peishwa himself, weary of a life of flight when he began to move thither being guessed, and terror, and aware of the utter hopelessness of strong body of infantry, mostly Arabs, was sent to the contest, made a voluntary surrender of himself occupy it, and both parties entered the village at (June 1) to Sir J. Malcolm. He struggled hard the same time at opposite ends. Each party pre- to be allowed to retain his dignity; but on being pared to dislodge the other, and at noon the con- solemnly assured that compliance was impossible, flict began. The British were at first the assail- he at length accepted the terms offered, which ants, but being repelled by superior numbers, they were an allowance of not less than eight lacs of were in their turn obliged to act on the defensive. rupees a year, and a liberal attention to his reThe Arabs, though blown away by the cannon, or quests in favour of such of his followers as had driven off by the bayonet, still rushed on like lions, been ruined by their devotion to his cause. He and toward evening they succeeded in capturing was to reside at Benares, or some other sacred one of the guns. They then got into a Choultry, place in Hindustân. Lord Hastings ratified these in which the wounded had been placed, and began terms, though he regarded them as too favourable, slaughtering them ; but a party of the British and likely to be of injurious consequence; but Sir rushed in, and bayoneted every man that had J. Malcolm vindicated his policy, and none of the entered: the rest were then driven off, and the apprehended dangers have since occurred. At all gun was recovered.

events, if an error, it was on the right side. The The British had had two officers, twelve gun- deposed Peishwa has lived ever since in peace and ners, and fifty native infantry killed ; and three tranquillity. Trimbak, who was excepted from officers, eight gunners, and 103 natives wounded ; pardon, was taken some time after, and was kept a and there were near 100 of the horse killed, wounded, prisoner at Chunar till he died. and missing. Some, therefore, spoke of surrender- The Maratta power, once so formidable, was ing ; but Capt. Staunton diverted them from this now at an end. The two great armies which Lord course, and at nine the Arabs quitted the village. Hastings had assembled had been dissolved in the Preparations were made during the night for re- month of January, and only small divisions of them newing the defence ; but before daylight next remained in the field. These were employed in morning the Peishwa marched away, on hearing reducing such fortresses as still held out, and in of the approach of Gen. Smith. Capt. Staunton bringing under obedience the Bheels, and other led his gallant little band back to Seroor in tri- aboriginal tribes of the Vindhya mountains and umph.

forests. The Arabs, who had been in the service The Peishwa was now hunted backwards and of the Maratta princes, being dangerous from their forwards by the divisions of Generals Smith and valour and ferocity, were gradually reduced in Pritzler. These joined (Feb. 8) at Sattara ; and number; and most of those that remained were the fort having surrendered, the flag of the rajah forced to quit India, and return to their own was hoisted, and a proclamation issued, announcing wilds. the deposition of the Peishwa. The pursuit was It was now found necessary to take active meathen renewed ; and at a place named Ashti, Gen. sures for the reduction of Apa Sahib. The MahaSmith came up early one morning (20th)

with his deo hills, in which he had taken refuge, are a clusarmy, as it was preparing to march. The Peishwa, ter lying to the south of the Nerbudda, about according to his custom, mounted his horse and eighty miles from Nagpûr. They were covered fled; but his faithful general, Gokla, made a stand, with thickets, and they contained a great place of in order to cover his flight. In the action which pilgrimage temple of the god Mahadeo, or ensued, Gen. Smith was wounded, and Gokla Seeva. Hither resorted to him Marattas, Arabs, slain ; and the whole of the camp, with much Pindarries, and other adventurers, to the number valuable property, fell into the hands of the Bri- of 20,000, as is supposed; and they carried on a tish. The rajah of Sattara and his family, who desultory kind of warfare against the British. In were in the camp, claimed the British protection. the commencement they had some partial success,

The defeat at Ashti, and the death of Gokla, and Capt. Sparkes, and two companies of native proved the utter ruin of the affairs of the Peishwa infantry, were cut to pieces by them ; they also in the south. All the chiefs hastened to proffer took the town of Multai, and came within forty their allegiance to the British, or to the rajah of miles of Nagpûr. Throughout the remainder of Sattara. The Peishwa, as the rajah of Nagpûr the year, the British had to continue this harasshad sent secretly offering to join him, endeavoured ing species of warfare ; but early in the following to get into Berâr ; but his troops were met, and year (1819) it was abandoned, and preparations scattered, and he fled with only a small party were made for a concentrated attack on Apa Sahib's towards Burhanpûr. In the beginning of April, head-quarters, But that chief, knowing his inthe rajah of Sattara was formally installed in the ability to make an effectual resistance, would not principality which he was to hold under the British await the attack. Accompanied by Cheetoo, the protection.

Pindarri, and a few horsemen, he set out for The communications of Apa Sahib with the Aseerghur, a strong fortress of Sindia's, the killiPeishwa, and his inveterate hostility to the British dar of which he knew to be friendly. Though the

A.D. 1819-23.



British, when aware of his flight, had guarded all tive order from the Court of Directors to withdraw the roads leading to that fort, he contrived to enter the exemption given to the house of Palmer and it; but the killidar would not admit Cheetoo and Co.; and when Sir Charles Metcalfe, who now behis followers. When, however, the British had came resident, instituted an inquiry into the state driven them under the walls, a fire of matchlocks of affairs, it appeared that no reduction of expenfrom the fort repelled their pursuers, and enabled diture had been made by Chandu Lal; that the them to escape.

debt to the house of Palmer and Co.,-who it Apa Sahib did not remain long at Aseer. In appeared had acted on the approved Madras the disguise of a religious mendicant, he made his principle in the days of Paul Benfield,—now way first to Burhanpûr, and then to Malwa. He amounted to nearly 1,000,0001. bearing interest at was proceeding to Gwalior ; when, finding that Sin- 25 per cent. ; and that large pensions were settled dia would not receive him, he went on to the Pun- on the members of the firm, their relations, and jâb, where Runjeet Sing gave him shelter. He dependents. The countenance of the government then went, and stayed some years with a petty was immediately withdrawn from the firm, and rajah, in the Himalaya ; and, finally, he was money was lent to Chandu Lal to enable him to allowed to return, and reside in Jodhpûr, the rajah close his account with it. being security for his good conduct. Cheetoo This affair gave afterwards occasion to bitter having lost all his followers, endeavoured to escape attacks on the Marquis' character in the Court into Malwa ; but finding a pass of the Vindhya of Proprietors; for it happened that a leading mountains guarded against him, he took shelter in partner the firm was Sir W. Rumbold, who had an adjacent thicket, and he there was devoured by married a young lady for whom the Marquis a tiger.

avowed he had the feelings of a parent. This In consequence of the conduct of the governor partiality blinded the eyes of him who was the of Aseerghur, siege was laid to that strong fortress, most disinterested of men, and he defended the and it soon was forced to capitulate. Abundant house of Palmer and Co. much longer than was proofs were found in it of Sindia's secret dealings consistent with a proper regard for his own high with Apa Sahib, and of its having been by his character; but his honour and his integrity came secret directions that he had been received in the out scatheless from the ordeal. fortress, which, to punish him, it was now deter- Sadat Ally, the Vizîr of Oude, died in the first mined to retain.

year of Lord Hastings' administration. His son The consequence of the war, undertaken simply and successor, with the approbation, and even by for the suppression of the Pindarries, had, through the advice of the Governor-general, assumed the the madness of the Maratta princes, been to es title of king. This, though it appears, and problish the British dominion directly, or indirectly, bably is, a trifling circumstance, has made him to over the whole of India. The entire dominions of

a certain extent independent; for he is no longer the Peishwa, with the exception of the small ter- a mere Sûbahdâr who can be at any time deprived ritory granted to the rajah of Sattara, and the of his authority. large cessions from Berâr, came directly under the

Lord Hastings quitted India (Jan. 1, 1823), dominion of the Company. Ajmeer, in Rajpûtana, after an administration of upwards of nine years, also became a British possession; and all the the longest there has been except that of Warren Rajpût rajahs, even including the rajah of Udy- Hastings. He carried with him the respect and pûr, who had never acknowledged the supremacy esteem of all classes both European and native. of Mogul, or Maratta, placed themselves cheerfully His foible had been vanity; but with it were united, under British protection. This system of depen- as is often the case, the high courtesy and urbanity, dence and protection also extended to Gûzerât and which win the heart and control the feelings. Cutch, and Sindia remained the only prince in The thanks of the Court of Directors and ProprieIndia, with whom there was not a subsidiary al- tors had already been voted to him, and a sum of liance. Henceforth, war in India has been nearly 60,0001. to purchase him an estate, for his liberal unknown, and the allied states, though not free disposition had greatly impaired his circumstances. from the evils of misgovernment, have advanced It was in the time of Lord Hastings that the steadily in prosperity and happiness.

Church establishment of India was formed. In In all public affairs the Marquis Hastings had Nov. 1814, Dr. Middleton, the newly-appointed displayed a high and noble spirit; it is therefore Bishop of Calcutta, reached his see. But he was to be regretted that in a matter of a somewhat

a bishop without a clergy, for in the whole of private nature his domestic feelings should have British India at that time there were little more led him to act with imprudence. À Mr. W. Pal- than thirty chaplains. He was a man of learning mer, who had been in the military service of the and piety, and good intentions ; but he was defiNizâm, had become a banker and merchant at cient in knowledge of the world and human nature, Hyderabad. He was joined by some of the officers and too full of the idea of the dignity of the episof the residency; and in 1814 the house of Palmer copal office. He attached perhaps too much imand Co. obtained the sanction of the Bengal portance to things of inferior consequence in the government. In 1816, they applied for and ob

eyes of people of more enlarged views; and he tained exemption from the law interdicting loans evinced a somewhat too captious disposition which to native princes by British subjects; and they impaired his influence. But he effected much immediately engaged in extensive pecuniary trans- good notwithstanding. He organized the clerical actions with Chandu Lal, the Nizâm's minister. body, increased the number of chaplains, caused In 1820, they made, with the sanction of the resi- churches to be erected in various parts of India, dent, a loan of sixty lacs of rupees to the minister and founded an extensive missionary college named to enable him to pay off arrears and other incum- | Bishop's College at Calcutta, which, however, he brances. Just at this time there came out a posi- did not live to see completed, and which has as yet by no means answered the high expectations | the Burman dominions into contact with those of of its founder.

the British. The Burmans, insolent with success, Bishop Middleton breathed his last on the 8th committed sundry acts of aggression ; and they July, 1822. His successor was the pious and ami- even had the audacity to claim of Lord Hastings able Reginald Heber.

the surrender of Chittagong, Dacca, and Moorshedabad, in Bengal, as having been originally dependencies of Aracan, with a menace of hostilities in case of a refusal. Lord Hastings treated the demand with cool contempt, and there the matter

rested when he left India. Soon, however, after CHAPTER XI.

the arrival of Lord Amherst, the Burmans made

preparations for the conquest of Cachar, whose Lord Amherst Governor-general— The Burman Empire-- rajah applied to the British for protection. As it War with the Burmese--Capture of Rangoon-Progress

must either be given, or the Burmans be allowed to of the War-March for Prome-Reduction of Donabew

extend their frontier along the whole east of Ben. Occupation of Prome-Reduction of Aracan-Successive Defeats of the Burmese-Conclusion of Peace-Mutiny at

gal, the government saw it was no time for hesita

tion. Barrakpore-Affairs of Bhurtpore-Capture and Demoli

Accordingly, troops were marched from tion of the Fortress.

Dacca to Sylhet, on the frontiers of Cachar; and

when the Burmans invaded that country from The person appointed to succeed Lord Hastings Assam and Manipûr, the British acted against had been that brilliant orator and statesman, them. The immediate cause of war, however, be. George Canning ; but the sudden death of his

tween the two powers was the invasion by the rival, Lord Londonderry, just at this conjuncture, Burmans of the little island of Shahpoorea, off the had opened to his view a career much more suited coast of Chittagong, on which the British had to his taste, and he declined the pomp of Indian placed a guard of thirteen Sepoys, three of whom sovereignty. The high office was then conferred were killed, and the rest driven off. As the Buron Lord Amherst, and he reached Calcutta on the

man court would give no satisfaction for that out1st August, 1823, eight months after the departure rage, and still advanced its claim to Chittagong, of his predecessor.

and the other districts, no alternative remained Though the whole of India was under British but war; and on the 5th March, 1824, war was sway, and no internal commotions were to be ap- declared. prehended, there was a power on the confines The plan adopted for the ensuing campaign was, which had not yet experienced the British prowess, that while a force, under Gen. McMorine, should and with which causes of quarrel had been for move along the banks of the Brahmapútra, and some time accumulating. This was the Burman enter Assam, where the people were known to be empire in the eastern peninsula, which, being of ill-disposed toward their Burman masters, a recent formation, still retained the vigour to which much larger force, under Sir Archibald Campbell

, it owed its origin.

should attack Rangoon, on the southern coast of The peninsula, named by the ancients the Golden Pegu. The former moved from Goolpoor on the Chersonese, by the moderns India beyond the 13th, and after encountering much difficulty from Ganges, is watered by three great rivers, running the state of the country over which they had to nearly parallel from north to south. They are march, entered Assam ; but the Burmese retired named the Irrawaddy, the Menam, and the Cam- as they advanced, and the gradual reduction of bodia. The first runs through the kingdoms of the whole country was effected without much diffiAva and Pegu ; the second, through that of Siam; culty. and the last through Cochin China. From be- The great expedition was to be composed of tween the mouths of the Irrawaddy and the troops from Bengal and Madras ; and Port Corn. Menam, stretches the long narrow peninsula of wallis, the Great Andaman Isle, was the place of Malacca ; on the western coast of the great penin- rendezvous. The whole number of troops to be sula, and joining India, lies the country named employed, European and native, exceeded 11,000 Aracan. Further north is a state named Cachar, men, all of which, but about 2000, were to come and above it the valley of Assam, through which from Madras. In the beginning of May, all the flows the upper course of the Brahmapûtra.

troops, except the second division of the Madras Ava, the people of which are named the Bur. | forces, having arrived, the expedition sailed, ac, mans, seems to have depended on the kingdom of companied by the Liffey, Commodore Grant, and Pegu. In the first half of the last century, the three other small king's ships, some of the ComBurmans revolted and reduced Pegu ; but they pany's cruisers, and the Diana steamer, the first of were soon after brought back to their former state these vessels ever employed in war. On the 9th, of subjection. This, however, did not long con- they were off the mouth of the Rangoon river, and tinue; a Burman, named Alompra, who commenced at noon, on the 11th, the feet reached the town operations with only a couple of hundred followers, itself. The Liffey quickly silenced the fire of the and augmented his forces as he prospered, even- enemy, the authorities and the inhabitants fled tually succeeded in erecting the Burman dominion from the town, and at four o'clock the British flag on the ruins of that of Pegu, the whole of which was waving over it. As the Burmans, like the he conquered. He also subjugated Aracan and Nepalese, made great use of stockades in war, and Manipûr, in the eastern part of Cachar; and Assam were very expert in the construction, and coufell under the power of the Burmans, in conse- rageous in the defence of them, the attacks on quence of their being called in by rival claimants these defences gave employment to the British of the throne.

troops for the remainder of the month, and many The occupation of Aracan and Assam brought I brilliant actions, though of course

on a small

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