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Fox's India Bill-Pitt's India Bill-Board of Control
Nabob of Arcot's Debts-Impeachment of Hastings-
His Character ........................................................ 125
BRITISH EMPIRE IN INDIA-SECOND PERIOD.
Interference with Native States - Expedition to the
Persian Gulf-Capture of Isle of Bourbon - Naval
Disasters - Capture of Isle of France-Of Java-
Decoity-Renewal of Company's Charter ................... 156
Origin of Nepalese War-Plan of the War-Failure at
Kalunga—Capture of that Fort-- Failure at Jytak-
Operations of Gen. Ochterlony-Of the third Division
-Of the fourth Division-Surrender of Malân-Inva-
sion of Nepal-Treaty of Peace.........
Lord Cornwallis appointed Governor-general-Affairs of
Oude-Tippoo's Invasion of Travancore - War re-
sumed with him-Operations of the Army under Gen.
Medows-Lord Cornwallis takes the Chief Command-
Advance to Seringapatam-Retreat from that City-
Reduction of Savandroog, and other hill-forts-Second
Advance to Seringapatam-Attack on Tippoo's Lines
- Preparations for the Siege—Treaty concluded with
Tippoo-Departure of Lord Cornwallis — Sir John
Shore Governor-general-Affairs of the Nizâm-Death
of Mohammed Ally-Affairs of Oude...........
Lord Mornington Governor-general-Intrigues of Tip-
poo-Arrangement with the Nizâm-Fruitless At-
tempts to treat with Tippoo-Invasion of Mysore-
Siege and Capture of Seringapatam-Death and Cha-
racter of Tippoo-Settlement of Mysore-Dhoondia... 135
Settlement of Tanjore-Of Surat-Of the Carnatic-Fate
of Vizir Ally of Oude-Embassy to Persia-Settle-
ment of Oude-Expedition to Egypt-Disunion be-
tween the Governor-general and Court of Directors,
College of Fort William....
Affairs of the Marattas–Treaty of Bassein-Commence-
ment of Maratta War-Sindia's French Troops—Cap-
ture of Ahmednugur, Baroach, and Alyghur-Battle
of Delhi, Delivery of the Emperor-Capture of Agra
-Battle of Laswaree-Of Assye-Capture of Asseer-
ghur-Battle of Argâm - Capture of Gawylghur-
Treaties with the Rajah of Berâr and Sindia ............. 142
War with Holkar-Col. Monson's Retreat -- Siege of
Delhi-Battle of Deeg-Rout of Holkar-Capture of
Deeg-Siege of Bhurtpore-Conduct of Sindia-Re-
signation of the Marquis of Wellesley.
Lord Cornwallis Governor-general a second time- His
System - His Death-Sir George Barlow Governor-
general - His Policy - Massacre at Vellore - Lord
Minto Governor-general-The Sikhs-Rise of Run-
jeet Sing-The Afghâns–Embassies to Persia—Case
of Ruddy Râo, at Madras-Insurrection in Travan-
core-Mutiny of Officers of Madras Army .............. 150
Maratta Affairs-Murder of Gangadhar Sastri-Attack
on Bhopâl-State of things at Maratta Courts—The
Pindarries-They ravage the British Territory- Pre-
parations for destroying them-Attack on the Resi-
dency of Poona- New Treaty with Sindia - British
Troops attacked by the Cholera Morbus-Attack on
Residency at Nagpur.....
Battle of Mahidpůr-Final Reduction of the Pindarries
-Pursuit of the Peishwa-Affair at Korijaon-Depo-
sition of Peishwa-Battle of Ashti-Deposition of Apa
Sahib-Surrender of Peishwa-Concluding Adventures
of Apa Sahib, and Cheetoo, the Pindarri-Settlement
of India-House of Palmer and Co.--King of Oude-
Departure of Lord Hastings-Bishop Middleton......... 165
Lord Amherst Governor-general—The Burman Empire
- War with the Burmese-Capture of Rangoon-Pro-
gress of the War- March for Prome-Reduction of
Donabew-Occupation of Prome-Reduction of Ara-
can-Successive Defeats of the Burmese-Conclusion
of Peace-Mutiny at Barrakpore-Affairs of Bhurtpore
-Capture and Demolition of the Fortress............... 168
Lord William Bentinck Governor-general-His Reforms
-Abolition of Suttee-Renewal of Company's Charter
-Opening of the China-trade--Favour shown to the
Indian Usurers-Disputes about Governor-general-
ship - Lord Auckland appointed-Disputed Succes-
sion in Oude-Deposition of Rajah of Sattara............ 172
Page 4, col. 2, line 29, for diameter read circumference.
6, chap. ii. line 6, dele the inhabitants of.
HISTORY OF INDIA.
MOHAMMEDAN DOMINION IN INDIA.
the Garrâh, or united stream of the rivers Beyah CHAPTER I.
and Sutlej, extends a wide sandy desert, like those
of Africa or Arabia, as far as the Aravalli hills, Situation of India-Its Divisions-Hindustan-The Deckan which run northwards from the western extremity Rivers - Climate - Natural Productions
Animals - of the Vindhya range towards the city of Delhi. Minerals.
The whole of this tract, however, is not desert ; its
south-eastern portion is remarkably fertile ; it conThe country which, following the ancients, we name India', lies in the eastern hemisphere, be- and watered by that stream, which overflows an
tains many oases, and the region along the Indus, tween the eighth and the thirty-fourth degrees of nually like the Nile, is rich and well inhabited. To northern latitude, and the sixty-eighth and ninety: the south of the Sandy Desert lie the two peninsulas second degrees of eastern longitude. Its length of Cutch and Gûzerât ; and to the north, and exfrom north to south is about 1900, and its greatest tending to the northern boundary of India, lies the breadth from west to east about 1500 miles. It is fertile region named the Punjab, i. e. Five-rivers, bounded on the north by the lofty range of the from the five tributaries of the Indus, by which it Himalaya a mountains, on the west by the river
is watered. Indus, on the east by the high lands eastwards of
Eastwards of the Aravalli range the country rises the Brahmapútra river, while its whole southern
into an elevated plain, or table-land, to the height coast is washed by the waters of the Indian ocean.
of about 2000 feet above the level of the sea. This region consists of two distinct parts, sepa
the south-east it is supported by hills proceeding rated by a mountain range. The northern portion from the Vindhya ranges, north-east it slopes into is a large oblong plain, the southern a triangular
the basin of the Ganges. It is now known by the peninsula ; the former is named Hindûstân, the
name of Central India. The country thence eastlatter the Deckan 3; the mountain range which di
wards is the basin of the Ganges, including in it vides them is called the Vindhya mountains. They
Bengal, which is not usually reckoned a part of commence near the peninsula of Güzerât, and run eastwards to the river Ganges. The only island of extensive plain, though in some places the land
Hindústân. It may be regarded as one great and any magnitude on the coast of India is the great
rises above the general level. This region appears island of Ceylon, to the east of its southern ex
to have been the original seat of the civilization tremity.
and power of India. The portion of India which we denominate Hin
In the Deckan, on the west, the valley of the dûstân, comprises the following regions. Eastwards of the Indus, from its mouth to its junction with river Nerbudda lies between the Vindhya and
another parallel range named the Injâdree or Sat
poora, south of which range is the valley of the 1 India is only the Latin name, the Greeks called it river Tapti. The land then rises into a table-land, η Ινδική sc. γή Or χώρα. It was derived from that of the
extending to the extreme point of the peninsula ; river named in Sanscrit Sindhu, i. e. river, of which the it is of varied and undulating surface, in general Persians made Hindhu, the Hebrews, ejecting n, as usual,
fertile, but displaying at times tracts of sandy Hodu (Esther i. 1), and the Ionian Greeks dropping the
desert. This table-land is supported on the west aspirate 'Ivdos, and the people ’Ivool. The Sanscrit name of the country between the Himalaya and the Vindhya moun.
and east by ranges named the Ghâts, of which the
western is the higher, and approaches nearer to tains is Yambudwîpa or Bharatakhanda. 2 Snow-mountains; from hima snow, and alaya abode.
the sea-coast. On either side of the peninsula Hence the Greeks named a part of the range Imaüs.
between the Ghâts and the sea, are strips of land 3 The South; in Sanscrit, Dakshina.
varying in breadth and in fertility. From that
part of Hindústân where the eastern end of the ordinary food of the people of Hindústân being Vindhya range sinks into the plain, an immense wheat, and that of the people of the Deckan the tract of forest stretches away southwards into the grains named Jowar, the Dûrra of the Arabs Deckan, till it reaches the river Godaveri.
(Holcus sorgum), and Bajra, small grains which The rivers of India are numerous and copious. grow in bunches on reedy stems. Mangos, melons, Those of Hindústân have their sources in the and all sorts of gourds, plantains, pine-apples, and Himalaya and Vindhya mountains. From the other sweet fruits grow in the greatest plenty. former descend the Indus and its five tributaries, Among the animals of India the elephant is the namely, the Jelûm, the Chenâb, the Râvi, the most famous. It was formerly employed much in Beyah, and the Sutlej *; the Jumnah, the Ganges, war, but now is only used for the carriage of bagthe Cusi, and the Brahmapâ tra, and their tribu- gage. Camels are also numerous in India, but the taries. The latter sends forth the Chumbul, the Indian horses are small, and of inferior quality ; Betwah, the Sôn, and others, all of which are they are only used for riding. The beast of draught received in the Jumnah and the Ganges. The rivers is the ox, which is used alike for the plough, the of the Deckan, inferior in magnitude to those of cart, and the carriage. Its colour is white, its Hindústân, pour their waters into the sea on either form is slender, and it can travel nearly as fast as coast of the peninsula, having their sources chiefly a horse. in the Vindhya and the western Ghâts. On the India does not produce the precious metals, but west coasts are the mouths of the Nerbudda and its iron has always been famous. Diamonds, and the Tapti, the only streams of magnitude on this other precious stones, are found there in great side ; on the east coast are those of the Mahanuddi, quantities. The finest pearls in the world are obthe Godaveri, the Kistna, the Palar, the Pannar, tained from the beds near the isle of Ceylon. Rockthe Caveri, and others of less dimensions.
salt is found in the Punjâb, and saltpetre is obThe climate of India is of course various, owing tained in great quantities in various places. to its extent and its difference of elevation ; but it is in general hotter than that of any part of Europe. The annual quantity of rain that falls in India is far beyond that of any country in this continent. The rain is periodical, and is brought by the monsoon, or south-west wind from the Indian ocean. On the west coast and in Hindústân the rainy
CHAPTER II. season is from May till October, the hottest part of the year, and it is introduced by tremendous Early Inhabitants of India - Hindoos — Their Colonies
Religion - Sects - Morals – Transmigration of Soulsstorms. At that time the Ganges and other rivers
Buddhists-Jains-Sciences and Arts-Laws of Manuoverflow and flood the country, the greater part of
Castes--Government. Hence in the history we shall often find military In our inquiries into the history of any ancient operations interrupted by this season. The height country, one of the first questions which presents of the Ghâts and of the table-land prevent the itself, and one which rarely can be answered satiseastern coast from feeling the early effects of the factorily is, who were its original inhabitants, and monsoon, and it is not till the month of October, whence did they come? With respect to India, when the monsoon blows from the north-east, that this question cannot be answered more satisfactorily it receives its supply of rain.
than elsewhere. From its nature and position, it is The vegetable productions of India are nume- manifest that it must have been one of the earliest rous and valuable. The teak used in ship-building, abodes of the human race; and we appear to have the wonderful banyan-tree (Ficus Indicus), the some reason to think that here, as in so many cocoa, the various palms and acacias, the bamboo other parts of the world, its first occupants were which attains to such a prodigious size, and many an inferior race, who were invaded and overcome other useful trees, are abundant. Numerous mul- by a more highly endowed portion of our species. berries yield food to the silk-worm, the cotton-tree In the forests and dales of the Vindhya mounand cotton-shrub are every where to be seen, the tains, in the great forest district stretching from ebony, the sandal, and other ornamental woods Bahar in Hindústân into the Deckan, and along its grow abundantly. India has also, from the most eastern coast, are still to be met tribes differing remote
ages, been famed for its ginger, pepper, and essentially from the more cultivated inhabitants of other spices; the indigo derives its name from India. They are known by various names. In India ; it is the native country of the sugar-cane. the west of Bengal and Bahar they are called Côls,
Rice ranks among the most celebrated of the in the great forest and in the part of the Vindhya natural productions of India ; but it is an error to mountains adjoining it, they are named Gonds; suppose that it is the principal food of the bulk of thence westwards in that chain, Bheels; and towards the people. Such it is, no doubt, in engal, part | Güzerât, Coolies. In the southern woods of the of Bahar, and the coast of the peninsula ; but rice Deckan they are known by the name of Cólarees, cannot be cultivated without abundance of mois- and a general name for them is Parias, that is, ture; and on the high lands of Central India and Mountaineers. They are of small but active forms, the Deckan, for example, it is only a luxury; the and dark complexion, with something of the negro
in their features. They go nearly naked, are armed Hydaspes, Acesines, Hydraotes, Hyphasis, were the
with bows and spears, and plunder wherever they names given by Alexander's Greek followers to the four of
can. They have a superstition of their own, though these rivers which they saw; for they did not come to the
they worship one or two of the Hindoo gods. SpiSutlej. The Sanscrit names, from which three of those are rituous liquors are sought by them with avidity ; formed, are Vitastâ, Chandrabhaga, Acrôvati, and Vipasa. they eat the flesh of oxen and of animals that have
died a natural death. They are objects of horror that every thing, “the substance as well as the and detestation to the genuine Hindoos 5.
form of all created beings, was derived from the A very different race meets the view in Hin- will of the self-existing Cause." dûstân, and along the coasts of the Deckan. These The next authority is the Code or Institutes of are tall and slight, with handsome oval counte- Manu, of which we shall presently say more, whose nances, long eyes and eyebrows, dark, smooth, date is the ninth century before our era. In this lank hair, an olive skin, but in the cooler regions, there is an account of creation, in which the Suand when not much exposed to the weather, even preme Being produced a mundane egg, whence all fair, like that of more northern nations. In a things, the deities included, arose mediately or imword, every thing tends to show their connexion mediately. This creation, however, only endures with the Persians, and to prove them to be a por- for a limited period, when all will be reduced to tion of the Caucasian or Japhetian, thence named nothing, Brahma, its support, being absorbed in the Indo-German family. Their language, the an- the divine essence. The inferior deities named in cient Sanscrit, and its modern dialects, is clearly it are Indra, air ; Agni, fire ; Varuna, water ; akin to the Zend or ancient Persian, the Greek, Prithivi, earth; Surya, sun ; Chandra, moon; and the Latin, the German, and many other western some gods of the planets ; Dherma, justice, and tongues, while the Tamul, the Telinga, and the other personifications. other dialects of the Deckan, are as clearly of a totally The two great epic poems, the Ramayuna and different family. The more general opinion is, that the Mahâbhârata, with the numerous Puranas, as this superior race came with the Persians from a they are named, come next in order, and present common country, the high lands of Central Asia, the copious and variegated system of popular beand migrated into India where they subdued the lief and mythology which is known to have preaboriginal tribes, and reduced them to a servile vailed for more than 2000 years in India. In this condition. For a long time the Vindhya chain system the Deity is resolved into three persons formed their southern limit; but at length they (the Trimûrti, i. é. Three Forms), according to his invaded the Deckan also, and spread their religion three great acts of creation, preservation, and deand institutions over it. They also sent colonies struction, named Brahma, Vishnoo, and Seeva, to to the isle of Ceylon, and gradually diffused them each of which is joined a female principle to denote over the isles of the Indian Archipelago 6. There is his active power. These are Seraswati, Lakshmi, also reason to suspect that Hindoo colonists settled and Parvati. This last, the power of Seeva, is on the coast of Africa, and thence proceeding down also named Deva, Bhavani, and Durga. Beside the Nile, gave to Egypt those institutions so similar these deities and those above named, we meet to those of India. But this, as will easily be seen, Pavani, wind ; Cuvera, wealth ; Cama, love ; Carmust have occurred at a time long prior to the tikeia, war; Yama, the judge of the dead; and commencement of history.
Ganesa, who presides over entrances and comThe religion and the political institutions of a mencements. These, too, have their wives and atpeople always most justly attract the principal at- tendants, and the whole number of the denizens of tention of the inquirer. The Hindoo religion, as it the Hindoo Olympus, gods, genii, celestial singers is now and has been since the commencement of and dancers, and others, is said to exceed three history, is one of the most intricate and degrading hundred millions. Each of the great deities has a systems of polytheism and idolatry that can be heaven, or celestial abode of his own ; those of conceived ; yet, like every other system, it seems Seeva and of Indra are the most renowned, and to have been in its origin pure and simple, and are luxuriantly described in Hindoo poetry. gradually to have been corrupted. This appears Unlike the gods of Greece, the deities of India from the examination of the Hindoo literature, for are often represented as strange or hideous in this people seem always to have possessed the art form. Ganesa has the head of an elephant ; Seeva of writing, and their books claim an age beyond has a necklace of skulls, so also has his wife, whose that of the literature of almost any other people. form is still more direful than his own. A multi
At the head of the literature of the Hindoos tude of heads or arms is given to a deity to denote stand the four (or rather three) Vedas, each of his wisdom or power ; for we may notice that all which contains hymns and prayers, moral precepts, these deformities have arisen from art following and theological arguments. From the directions too closely the language of poetry and devotion. which they contain respecting the calendar, it is The Hindoos are divided into two great sects, inferred that the lowest date which can be assigned the adorers of Vishnoo and of Seeva. The latter for their reduction to their present form is the are by far the most numerous, but the literature of fourteenth century before the birth of Christ. The India belongs chiefly to the former. The ten religious system which these venerable monuments Avatars or incarnations of Vishnoo, in which he present, is that of a pure monotheism, joined with took flesh for the good of mankind, form an imthe worship of beings superior to man, presiding portant part of the religious legends of the priestover the elements, the stars and planets. Per- hood. The subject of the great epic poem, the sonified virtues and powers likewise appear in them, Ramayuna, is his conquest, in the form of a king but not prominently. Their general principle is, named Rama, of the Deckan and Ceylon. A more
celebrated, if possible, appearance of Vishnoo 5 There is every reason to suppose that our gypsies were (though not one of the ten Avatars), was that in originally Bheels. These last are smiths and horsedealers,
which he was a king's son, like Cyrus, brought up thieves, jugglers, and dancers; and they are passionately fond of gold and silver. In all these points they correspond by a herdsman under the name of Crishna to conwith the gypsies, whose Indian origin is historically certain ;
ceal him from a tyrant that sought his life. He but the gypsies are remarkable for sobriety.
afterwards overcame and slew the tyrant, and in G It is probable that the Mysoreans, and the other civilized the great poem, the Mahâbhârata, which celebrates inhabitants of the Deckan, are descendants of the aborigines. 'the wars of the kindred families of the Pandûs and