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was as faithful to Humayun as himself. Another who treated him with great liberality, according to Ômrah, who ventured to oppose him, was put to

his usual custom. death on some slight pretext; and the king's own There were many Uzbegs in high command in tutor, Peer Mohammed, narrowly escaped the the army of Akber ; and these men, offended by same fate, and was obliged to go on pilgrimage to the king's strictness, and also fancying he had a Mecca.

hereditary antipathy to their race, conspired and Akber soon grew weary of the state of pupillage revolted (1564). They were joined by other chiefs, in which he was held. Having concerted his plans particularly Asof Khân, who had lately reduced with some of his friends, he took occasion, when on the Hindoo kingdom of Gurrah, on the Nerbudda. a hunting party, to direct his course to Delhi, This country was governed by a queen, a woman under the pretext of his mother's illness. When of a high and noble spirit, who had led her own there, and out of Behram's reach, he issued a pro- troops to battle, and when she saw them routed clamation, announcing that he had taken the go- and herself wounded, sooner than fall into the vernment into his own hands, and forbidding obe- hands of the enemy, she ended her life with a dience to any orders but his own (1560). Behram dagger. Asof became master of her treasures, was thrown into perplexity ; he soon found himself which were considerable, and the desire to retain deserted ; his overtures to the king were rejected. them drove him into rebellion. He had then thoughts of trying to make himself The war with these rebels lasted for two years, independent in Mâlwa ; but he abandoned them, with various success. At length, when Akber had and set out for Najôr, with the intention of em- nearly succeeded in reducing them, he was called barking in Güzerât and making the pilgrimage to away to the Punjab, which was invaded by his Mecca. While at Najôr he received a message

brother Hakîm, who ruled in Câbul. During his from the king, dismissing him from his office, and absence the rebels recovered their ground ; but directing him to proceed on his pilgrimage. He on his return he marched against them, though it sent his standards, kettledrums, and other ensigns was the rainy season, and drove them over the of office to the king, and proceeded to Güzerất ; Ganges; and, while they thought themselves sebut meeting there with some further cause of irri- cured by the vast body of waters that river now tation, he assembled some troops and attempted to rolled, Akber swam over it at night-fall, with only seize the Punjab. Akber advanced against him in 2000 men, on horses and elephants, and, lying person, and Behram was defeated and obliged to concealed for the remainder of the night, fell on throw himself on his sovereign's mercy. Akber, them at sunrise. Taken thus unprepared, they who always acted with magnanimity, sent some of were thrown into confusion and routed, and they his principal nobles to meet him and conduct him fled in various directions. to the royal tent. Behram threw himself at the When Akber had attained his twenty-fifth year king's feet, and began to sob aloud. Akber raised (1567), he had reduced all the rebellious chiefs by him, seated him on his right, gave him a dress of force, or attached them by his clemency; and he honour, and offered him his choice of an extensive now was able to turn his thoughts to plans of congovernment, a high station at court, or an honour. quest. The Rajpût states first attracted his attenable pilgrimage to Mecca. Pride or prudence tion, and he turned his arms against the Rana of counselled him to choose the last ; an ample pen- Chitôr, a prince of a feeble character, who instantly sion was assigned him, and he set out for Gûze- fled to Güzerât, leaving the defence of the fortress rât ; but as he was preparing to embark he was to a chief of great courage and ability, named Jy assassinated by an Afghân, whose father had fallen Mal. Akber made his approach by trenches, and by his hand in battle.

ran two mines ; but when they were fired, only Akber, a youth of only eighteen years of age,

one of them exploded at once, and it was not till had now a difficult task to perform. He had to the soldiers were mounting the breach that the fire reduce refractory chiefs to obedience, to recover reached the other, and its explosion did so much the dominions of the crown, and to introduce order injury to the assailants that they were forced to into the internal administration of the state. To retire, and all the works had to be recommenced. accomplish this, he had only the revenues of the The siege might then have lasted a long time, were Punjab and of the country about Delhi and Agra, it not that, one night, as Akber was visiting the and a mercenary army of adventurers, collected trenches, hé happened to see Jy Mal, who was difrom various quarters, and consequently without recting the repairs of the works by torch-light. affection or attachment to his person and cause. He took aim at him with a firelock, and shot him But, like his grandfather Bâber, by the energy of through the head. The garrison lost heart at the his own character, his talents, and his virtues, he fall of their leader, and, giving up the defence of triumphed over difficulties beneath which another the place, they prepared to devote themselves in would have succumbed.

the usual Hindoo manner. The women were all A son of the late sultan Mohammed, having committed to the flames, with the body of Jy Mal, collected troops, advanced to Jûanpûr (1560), and the men then retired to the temples to await where he was defeated by one of Akber's generals. the besiegers, who were now mounting the undeBut the victor held back the king's part of the

fended breach. Akber, aware of their desperation, spoil, and Akber was obliged to march against him kept up a distant fire, till he had introduced three in person. In like manner, when Bâz Bahâdur, hundred war-elephants, in order to trample them the Afghân governor of Mâlwa, had been reduced to death ; and these animals, we are told, trod them by Adam Khân, another of Akber's generals, the

under their feet like grasshoppers, or, taking them revolt of the victor was only prevented by the

up in their trunks, tossed them into the air, or celerity of the monarch, who arrived in his camp

dashed them against the walls or the pavement. before he was aware of his approach. Bâz Bahâ

Between the garrison and the townspeople 30,000 dur afterwards entered the service of the emperor, persons, it is said, thus perished.

A. D. 1568–85.



In the course of the following year Akber took and made a prisoner. As many contended for the the forts of Rintambôr and Câlinjer. But, though | honour of having captured him, Akber asked him he thus employed arms against some of the Rajpût who had taken him : “No one,” he replied, “it princes, he adopted milder and more politic mea- was the curse of ingratitude that overtook me.” sures with others. Such was that of forming During the pursuit Akber remained with abcut matrimonial alliances with them. Thus he himself 200 horsemen on an eminence. Suddenly he saw was married to the daughters of the rajahs of Jy- a large body of horse advancing, and on sending pûr and Mârwâr, and his eldest son to another to inquire learned that they were the troops left princess of the house of Jypûr. This connexion to watch Ahmedabad. His men began to lose with the imperial family, instead of being looked courage and think of retiring ; but Akber, ordering on as a loss of caste, was regarded as an honour by the drums to strike up the royal march, charged all the Rajpût princes, except the house of Chitôr down upon the enemy, who, thinking that the or Oudipûr, which even renounced all affinity with whole of the royal army must be behind the emi. the other rajahs on account of it, affecting to view nence, turned and fled with precipitation. Their them as degraded by a connexion with the sove- leader fell from his horse and was killed by one of reigns of Delhi.

the king's guards ; Husun also was assassinated by The province of Güzerât, as we have seen, had a Rajpût chief, to whom he had been committed, been for many years in a state of independence. to avenge a former quarrel ; and the two leaders But now (1572), in consequence of the confusion being thus removed the rebellion was at an end. that prevailed' in it, Akber was invited by the Akber now (1575) deemed the occasion favourminister of the inefficient prince, in whose name able for re-annexing, the wealthy provinces of the government was carried on, to come and take Bahâr and Bengal to the empire. These had been possession of it. He accepted the invitation ; at independent and governed by Afghân princes for Patan he was met by the pageant king, who re- some years ; but the present king, named Daûd, signed his crown to him, and he thence advanced was of a feeble, vicious character. Akber had and laid siege to the sea-port town of Surat. Be- obtained a promise of tribute from him ; but the fore it was invested, some of the rebel chiefs who unsteady Daûd in a moment of prosperity had were in it retired from it, with the intention of try- re-asserted his independence. Akber marched from ing to join the main body of their forces. Akber Agra in the height of the rainy season, advanced pursued them with such precipitation, that one day and took Bahâr without opposition. Leaving then he found himself with only 156 men in presence of the task of conquering Bengal to his generals, he a force of at least 1000 men, With the native returned to Agra, and they obliged Daûd to retire chivalry of his character he fell on them, and to Orissa. The whole of Bahâr and Bengal was being repulsed, he took his station in a lane be- thus reannexed to the imperial crown (1576), and tween hedges of cactus, where only two horsemen the last remnant of the Afghân monarchy in Hincould advance abreast. Here he maintained him- dûstân was extinguished. But a rebellion, first, self, though he ran imminent risk of his life, fight of the Mogul chiefs when required to remit the ing like a common soldier, and at last succeeded in revenues of the province to the court, and then driving the enemies off ; but his project of pre- an insurrection of the remaining Afghans, gave the venting their junction with their troops failed. royal troops occupation for some years; and it was Surat, however, opened its gates, and the whole of not till 1592 that Bengal was finally reduced to Güzerât submitted.

tranquillity. Akber returned to Agra ; but he had not been During this time Akber's brother Hakîm, the there a month, when he learned that one of the governor, or rather ruler, of Câbul, invaded the rebel chiefs, named Husun Mirza, had re-appeared Punjab. Akber found it necessary to march in in Güzerât, and was besieging the royal governor person against him. At his approach Hakim rein Ahmedabad, the capital of the province. As it tired, and Akber, following up his success, took was now the rainy season, and it was therefore possession of Câbul. Hakîm fled to the mounimpossible to march a large army, Akber sent for- tains ; but on his making his submission, the magward a chosen body of 2000 horse, and then him- nanimous emperor restored him to his government, self and 300 of his nobles and officers, mounting and he ever after remained in obedience. on camels, followed them at the rate of eighty An insurrection followed in Güzerât, headed by miles a day. At Patan he was joined by another Mozaffer, the former prince of that country, which detachment, which raised his force to 3000 horse gave occupation to Akber's generals for a space of and 300 camels. With this inconsiderable force he advanced to within four miles of Ahmedabad, where he ordered the imperial drums to beat. This filled the insurgents with such terror, that it was with difficulty their officers restrained them from flight. Husun then leaving 5000 men to watch the town, advanced with 7000 horsemen

CHAPTER IX. against the king. Akber, who had now reached the banks of the river on which the town is built,

AKBER-Conquest of Cashmire — The Yûsofzyes — And

Recovery of Candahâr - Invasion of the finding himself deceived in his hopes of being

Deckan-Chând Sultâna-Prince Selîm-Death of Akber joined by the garrison, and seeing that he had

- His Character-His Religious System-Hindoo Villageonly his own troops to depend on, in order to cut System—The Revenue-The Army-Royal Magnificence. off all chance of retreat from his men, boldly crossed the river, and drew them up on the oppo- In the year 1585 the death of his brother Hakîm site bank. His temerity, as usual, was successful ; made it necessary for Akber to go in person to the enemy was repulsed, and Husun was wounded Câbul. This led to a series of conflicts with the

four years.


hardy tribes that dwelt in the mountains north of force, under two other generals, who by prudently that region. But Akber's first exploit was an un- not entering the mountains, but fortifying positions provoked attack on and conquest of the paradisal in various places, and thus preventing the Yüvale of Cashmire.

sofzyes from cultivating their portion of the plain, This region, which is described as a real para- reduced them to submission. One of them, Mar dise, is a valley.plain in the heart of the Himalaya Sing, then proceeded to act against the Roushenia mountains, about half way up them, enclosed on all of the southern hills. He had some partial sucsides by snowy ranges, and enjoying almost a per- cess ; but the next year (1587), while Mar Sing petual spring. The plain and the sides of the hills attacked them from the north, Akber sent a body are covered with various brilliant and fragrant of troops over the Indus to the south of the Khyflowers, and filled with trees laden with fruits. ber range, who took them in the rear, and their Copious rivulets descend from the hills to water leader Jelala was thus completely defeated. He, the plain, and they there form two lakes, on the bowever, kept up the contest till his death in surface of which may be seen numerous artificial 1600 ; and, in effect, the tribes of the mountains floating gardens. These waters are the origin of round the plain of Pêshâwer have never been the Jelûm, one of the rivers of the Punjab, which completely conquered by any dynasty of India or descends from the vale by a deep ravine. Cash-Câbul. mire can only be entered by difficult mountain- In consequence of this contest with these mounpasses. The road crosses rocky ridges, winds tain tribes, the abode of Akber in these provinces through narrow defiles, passes along the face of of the Indus was prolonged to a space of fifteen precipices overhanging rapid streams, and the years. It did not however solely engage his attensummit of the mountain when reached is often tion and his arms, for during that time he estafound impassable from the snow.

blished his authority in Sind * (1592), and he also Cashmire, after having been ruled from time recovered Candahår. For during the confusion immemorial by a succession of Hindoo princes, which prevailed in the commencement of Akber's fell, in the beginning of the fourteenth century, reign, Shah Tahmasp had succeeded in regaining into the hands of a Mohammedan adventurer, and that city, of which Humâyun had so treacherously was thenceforth ruled by a series of Mussulman deprived him, and Akber now, by taking advantage princes. Dissensions in the reigning family gave of the disturbances in Persia, on the accession of Akber the hope of making himself master of the Tahmasp's son Abbas, recovered it without a blow. inviting region, and he despatched an army thither The rule of Akber now extended from the fronfrom Attock, which he had lately built at the ferry tiers of Persia to the eastern limit of Bengal, of the Indus. After encountering many difficulties, from the sea and the Vindhya range to the lofty it at length penetrated through a pass which had Himalaya, the most extensive dominion that had been left unguarded; but its supplies had been been as yet held by any Mohammedan sovereign of exhausted, and so many difficulties remained yet India. It was also the most completely subject to to be overcome, that the commanders gladly agreed the royal authority, for with the exception of the to a treaty, by which the sovereignty of Akber was Rana of Oudipûr, and the mountain tribes of acknowledged, but on condition that he should not Afghanistân, all, Hindoo and Moslem alike, were interfere in the internal concerns of the country. submissive and faithful subjects or tributaries. But Akber spurned such limited dominion, and It only now remained for Akber to extend his he sent in the next year another army, which dominion over the Deckan, and here, as is generally reduced the whole country to submission. The the case in the East, the way was prepared for him king became one of the nobles of the court of by civil dissension. In the year 1595 there were Delhi, and was assigned a large estate in Bahâr. in arms no less than four claimants of the throne Akber paid an immediate visit to his new con- of Ahmednugur. One of them called in the aid of quest. He visited it twice more during his reign ; the imperial forces; and one army from Gûzerât, and it became the favourite summer residence of led by the emperor's son Morâd, and another from his successors.

Mâlwa, entered the Deckan and rendezvoused near Cashmire being thus reduced, Akber turned his Ahmednugur, of which city the chief who invited arms against the tribes that occupied the fertile them had been in possession, but while they were valleys on the north of the plain of Pêshậwer, and advancing he had been obliged to abandon it, those of the Solimân and Khyber ranges on the and it was now held by the princess Chând Sultâna, south of that plain. The ruling tribe in the former or Chând Bîbî, as guardian of her infant nephew. were the Yûsofzyes, who, being driven from the She immediately called on the king of Bejapûr, neighbourhood of Candahâr about a century before, who was her relation, and on the chiefs of the had come to these mountains, and reduced the ori- three rival parties, to lay aside their enmity for a ginal inhabitants beneath their dominion. The time, and unite against the invaders. They attended religious sect of the Roushenîa, or Enlightened, to her call ; one of the chiefs, an Abyssinian named who rejected the Korân, and taught that nothing Nehang, cut his way through the imperial troops existed but God, and who despised and rejected all and entered Ahmednugur, while the other two worship and all religious exercises, prevailed in joined their forces with the king of Bejapûr, who the southern mountains. Akber sent two of his best generals against the

4 “ It is mentioned," says Elphinstone, (ii. 261,) "in the

Akbernâmeh, that the chief of Sind employed Portuguese Yûsofzyes ; but by advancing too far into the

soldiers in this war, and had also 200 natives dressed as mountains, they got entangled in the gorges and

Europeans. These were, therefore, the first Sepoys in India. defiles, and one of the leaders, a Rajpût rajah

The same chief is also said to have had a fort, defended by and great favourite of the emperor, was slain,

an Arab garrison, the first instance in which I have observed and the troops of both destroyed; the other es

any mention of that description of mercenaries, afterwards caped alone and on foot. Akber sent another so much esteemed."

A.D. 1596-1603.



was marching to its relief. Meantime, Chând Bîbî dûstân. He failed in his attempt on Agra, but defended the town heroically; she directed the having made himself master of Bahâr and Oude, works and encouraged the workmen, shunning no he assumed the title of king. Akber wrote to exposure to danger. Prince Morâd having run remonstrate with him, warning him of the danger three mines under the ramparts, she countermined of the course he was pursuing ; at the same time two of them, but the third was successful, and assuring him of forgiveness if he returned to his effected a large breach in the walls. The storming duty. When the emperor returned to Agra, a kind party advanced, and the soldiers were retiring in of reconciliation was effected, and Bengal and dismay, when Chând Bibî in full armour, a naked Orissa were granted to Selîm. Shortly after Abûl sword in her hand, and a veil on her face, flew to Fâzl, who had been recalled from the Deckan, was the breach and checked the assailants. The gar- fallen on, as he was on his way to Gwaliôr, by a rison then hastened to the spot, every kind of mis- Hindoo rajah, and he and his attendants were sile was employed ; the contest lasted till the slain. His head was cut off and sent to Selîm, evening, when the Moguls retired, intending to re- who was his mortal enemy, and at whose instigation new the assault in the morning. But at dawn the rajah had acted. Akber was deeply affected they beheld the breach repaired so, that without by the fate of his minister ; he shed abundance of the aid of new mines it could not be mounted. tears, and passed two days and nights without sleep. Meantime, the confederated army was approach- | He either was ignorant or dissembled his knowing, and though the Moguls were superior in num- ledge of his son's share in the murder ; but he bers, they deemed it more prudent to listen to the made, though to no purpose, every effort to take terms which Chând Bîbî proposed, which were vengeance on the rajah. that the king of Ahmednugur should surrender to Selîm soon after (1603) came to court, where the emperor his claims on Berâr, which he had his father gave him permission to use the insignia recently conquered (1596).

of royalty. He soon, however, relapsed into disThe parties however were at war again in the obedience, and returning to his residence at Allacourse of the year. Chând Bibî's prime minister habâd”, gave himself up to debauchery, and to the formed a plot against her, and called on the Moguls practice of the most horrid cruelty.

He now for aid. Morâd, who was still in the Deckan, also exhibited the utmost antipathy to his own son, agreed to give it, and he was joined by the king prince Khusru, a young man of a light mind and of Candêsh ; on the other hand, the king of Gol- a violent temper, and whom he fancied Akber conda joined the allies of Chând Bibî. The armies designed for his successor. After some time Selim encountered on the banks of the Godaveri, and the returned to court, where he was at first placed in engagement lasted for two days. Though the confinement, but was speedily restored to favour. Moguls claimed the victory, they made little effort Akber's second son Morâd had been dead some to follow it up, and Akber saw that his own pre- years; he now received intelligence of the death of sence was requisite in the Deckan. On his reach- his third son, prince Dâniâl. Iutemperance, the vice ing the Nerbudda (1559), he found that Doule- of his family, had also caused the death of this prince. tabâd and other places had been taken by his troops; He had pledged his word to his father to abstain and from the banks of the Tapti he sent a force from the use of wine, and he was so surrounded by under his son, prince Dâniâl, to invest Ahmednugur, persons belonging to the emperor that he could not in which Chând Bîbî was now besieged by Nehang openly indulge in it. His resource then was to the Abassinian Chief. Nehung retired at the ap- have wine secretly conveyed to him in the barrel proach of the Moguls; but while Chând Bîbî, seeing of a fowling-piece, and he thus soon brought his that under the actual state of things in the town days to a termination. His death greatly affected defence was hopeless, was negotiating a treaty, the the feeling heart of the emperor, whose own health, soldiers, instigated by her opponents, burst into the in consequence probably of his domestic afflictions, women's apartments, and murdered her. She now began to give way. Intrigues with respect to thus perished, like almost every woman of superior the succession were instantly set on foot, as there talent in the East, but her death was not un- were many persons who thought it for their advanavenged ; in a few days a breach being practi- tage that Khusru should occupy the throne. cable, the Moguls stormed and gave no quarter to Akber, however, having in the most explicit terms the fighting men. The young king was sent a declared Selîm his lawful successor, all opposition prisoner to the fort of Gwaliôr; but another was to him ceased, and at the desire of the dying moset up, and the contest was continued for some years. narch, Selîm and all the principal Ômrahs asAkber returned to Agra, leaving prince Dâniâl, sembled in his chamber. He there addressed them, who had married a daughter of the king of Bejapûr, praying them to forgive him any offences he might viceroy of Berâr and Čandêsh, which he had an- have committed against them. Selîm in a flood of nexed to the empire, and committing the prosecu- tears threw himself at his feet ; Akber pointing to tion of the war in the Deckan to his celebrated his favourite scimitar, made signs to him to ird it vizir, the able Abûl Fazl (1601).

on him in his presence. He commended to his The departure of Akber from the Deckan, was care the ladies of his harem, and charged him not caused by the undutiful conduct of his eldest son, to neglect his old friends and dependents. Having prince Selîm. This prince, who was now past thirty then repeated the Moslem confession of faith in the years of age, was a man naturally not devoid of talent ; but he had impaired his faculties by the 5 This city, at the confluence of the Jumna and Ganges, immoderate use of wine and opium. Akber, on

was built by Akber. setting out for the Deckan, had declared him his

6 On one occasion he caused a man to be flayed alive.

Akber was horrified when he heard of it. He said he wonsuccessor, and made him viceroy of Ajmeer, but

dered how the son of a man, who could not even see a dead Selîm, not content with the prospect of the succes

beast flayed without feeling pain, could commit such an sion, thought to seize at once on the whole of Hin


presence of a minister of religion, the truly great with months bearing Persian names, and comemperor Akber breathed his last (Oct. 13, 1605), mencing from the vernal equinox nearest to his in the fiftieth year of his reign.

accession. With respect to the Hindoos, his reguAkber was in person strong-built and handsome, lations were more of a political cast. He forbade and very fair, owing to his northern origin. In his the trial by ordeal, the burning of widows against youth he indulged in wine and good living, but their will, and marriage before the age of puberty. afterwards become sober and abstemious. He He allowed Hindoo widows to marry a second time, delighted in the chase, especially where there was contrary to the preceding usage. He abolished all hazard and danger, as in that of the tiger and the taxes on Hindoo pilgrims, as, in his tolerant eyes, elephant. He was fond of making long journeys every one had a right to serve the Deity in the on horseback, and would even sometimes walk manner most agreeable to his own views. He also thirty or forty miles a day. His valour was abolished the Jezeeah, or poll-tax, which, in all chivalrous, like that of Alexander the Great ; yet Mohammedan states, is imposed on those whom the he was not fond of war for its own sake, and car- Moslems term infidels. It was the aim of Akber ried it on chiefly from an idea that he had a right to make all his subjects equal, and from the very to restore the limits of the empire. In temper, commencement of his reign he had employed Akber was mild and magnanimous, humane and Hindoos and Mussulmans alike in his service. generous. He was fond of religious and philoso- These innovations of the emperor naturally gave phical disquisitions, and was most perfectly tolerant great offence to the bigoted Moslems. His reliof all who differed from him in opinion.

gious system was besides of too pure and spiritual Akber was a reformer in religion, in the reve- à character to make much progress, and it died nue, and in the army.

away on the death of its founder. It, however, had · The religious views to which Akber seems to some effect in promoting the progress of liberal have finally come were either pure deism, or a inquiry in India. Mohammedanism so modified as to differ little In the revenue department of the government, from that system. The way in which he proceeded Akber made great improvements in the mode of was to examine and hear the arguments in favour assessing and collecting the land-tax. As this is of every form of religion. His assistants in these intimately connected with the village-system of inquiries were two brothers, named Feizi and India, this is perhaps the best place for giving a Abûl-Fazl, sons of a man who had taught law and view of that ancient and celebrated institution. divinity at Agra ; but who had been obliged to The property in the soil in India, from the most leave that place on account of the freedom of his remote ages, seems not, as in some countries, to religious sentiments, which had drawn on him per- have lain in the sovereign, or, as in others, in the secution. Feizi was the first Mussulman who occupant; but to have been a joint-possession, a applied himself to Hindoo literature. He learned certain portion of the produce belonging to the the Sanscrit language, and by himself or by others former and all the remainder to the latter, whose under his direction, translations were made of the title to his share was as indefeasible as that of the two great epic poems, of one of the Vedas, and of sovereign to his portion. But these proprietors did several other works. Akber was also anxious to not stand singly į union in the East is of absolute have versions made from the Greek, and a Portu- necessity for mutual defence and protection. The guese priest, who is called Padre Farâbatûm, was land, therefore, was in certain determinate and wellinvited to come from Goa, and instruct some youths, limited proportions, and all the proprietors belongwho were then to be employed in making transla- ing to it were collected into one town or village, tions from the Greek language. Feizi himself was generally about the centre of the land. Each, accorddirected to translate the Gospels.

ingly, formed a little republic in itself, and the agThe other brother, Abûl-Fazl, though also a gregate of these republics formed the state ; and man of letters, and author of the Akbernâmeh, or whether this last was ruled by a Hindoo or a MoHistory of Akber, which is still extant, was a hammedan prince was a matter of comparative statesman and a general. Akber raised him to the unimportance to the village-republic, which had office of vizir, and we have seen his unhappy fate. only to render to it its share of the annual pro

Beside his confidential discussions with Feizi duce. and Abûl-Fazl, Akber used to hold meetings on The village collects the revenue it has to pay to Fridays, which were attended by the learned men the crown and the sums required for local purof his court, and he often sent for Bramins and for poses; it maintains its own police, and it adminisMohammedan Sûfees, and heard them explain their ters justice in a variety of cases among its members. different tenets. He invited Catholic priests from For these and for other purposes various officers Goa, and caused them to dispute with the Moham- are required, and the following are therefore to be medan doctors in his presence. He manifested a found in a Hindoo village. great respect for Christianity, and it is not unlikely The Headman (called in the greater part of India that, had he known it in its purity, he would have Patil), is, as his name denotes, the head of the embraced it.

village, and is its representative in all transactions The creed of Akber was, as we have stated, a with

the government. He apportions and collects kind of modified deism. He endeavoured to do the revenue, lets the lands that happen to have no away with some of the Mohammedan peculiarities, occupants, and acts in general as a magistrate. and most of the peculiar obligations of that religion, The Accountant, or Patwari, keeps the records, such as circumcision, fasting, pilgrimage, and which contain an account of all the lands and their public worship he made to be optional. He dis- occupants. He also keeps the private accounts of couraged the study of the Arabic language, and for the villagers, and acts in general as a notary. The the lunar year, the months with Arabic names, and Watchman, or Pyk, &c., whose duty it is to attend the era of thé Hijra, he introduced a solar year, to all the boundaries, both public and private, to

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