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The Shâh of Persia now led an expedition in devoted to the Mussulman creed, and he carefully person against Candahâr (1648), and by judiciously practised all the external duties of religion. At selecting the winter season, when the communica- one time he strongly professed an intention of tion with India was cut off by the snow, he forced quitting the world, and becoming a fakîr, i.e. it to open its gates before Aurungzîb, who was sent devotee. to its defence, could arrive. The prince made an Shâh Jehân had of late devolved much of his attempt to recover it, but failed, and, when in the regal duties on Dârâ, as heir-apparent. A disease following year he renewed the attempt with a of the kidneys at this time having brought him to greater force, he was equally unsuccessful. The the briņk of the grave, though Dârâ did all in his emperor's eldest son, Dârâ Shekô, then prevailed power to keep his condition a secret, his brothers on his father to let him attempt the recovery of were accurately informed of it. Shujâh, who was Candahár. He set out with a force much superior governor of Bengal, instantly assumed the royal to any that had yet been employed (1653), but, title, put his troops in motion, and advanced into with all the efforts of skill and courage that were Bahâr on his way to Agra. Morâd in like manner made, the resistance of the Persian garrison could assumed independence in Güzerât.

The crafty not be overcome. The siege was raised and Can- Aurungzîb, though he refused obedience to the dahâr was lost to the Mogul empire for ever. orders of Dârâ, did not assume royalty himself;

Two years of tranquillity ensued, during which but he resolved to make the stupid Morâd the Shâh Jehân, having completed a revenue survey

ladder of his ambition. He wrote to him, conof his possessions in the Deckan, which had been gratulating him on his accession to the crown, going on for twenty years, extended to that country the same time declaring his own intention of rethe system of collection, devised by 'Tôdar Mal in nouncing the world, and retiring to Mecca. He the reign of his grandfather. During this period would previously, however, he said, unite with him also died the vizir Saâd Ullah Khân, celebrated as against the impious Dârâ ?, and join him to oppose the most able and upright minister that had ever the infidel rajah Jeswunt Sing, who it was underbeen seen in India.

stood had been sent against them. They should Aurungzîb had soon an opportunity of again then, he added, together seek the presence of their appearing in the Deckan. Meer Jumla, the minis father, free him from undue influence, and try to ter of the king of Golconda, having had a quarrel procure the pardon of their erring brother. Coarse with his master, sought the protection of the empe- and palpable as this artifice was, it sufficed to ror, who, at the desire of Aurungzîb accorded it, deceive Morâd (1657). and sent a haughty message to the king of Gol- Meantime, Shah Jehân had been able to resume conda, and, when that prince refused obedience, the government, and the conduct of his other sons Aurungzîb was directed to employ force against only served to increase his confidence in Dârâ. him. Stratagem being more to the prince's taste He wrote to Shujâh, enjoining him to return to than force, he set forth with a small body of troops, his government immediately; but that prince, preunder the pretext of conveying his son Mohammed tending to regard this as merely the order of Dârâ, to Bengal, where he was to marry his cousin, the

continued to advance. The imperial troops, led daughter of prince Shujâh, the governor of that by prince Soliman, the son of Dârâ, then gave him province. As the way from Aurungabâd 1 thither battle, and a defeat near Benares forced him to is by Masulipatâm, he thus came within a short return to Bengal. Meantime, Aurungzîb had joined distance of Hyderabad, the capital of Golconda, and

Morâd in Mâlwa, and near Ujên they engaged while the king was preparing an entertainment for and defeated the rajah Jeswunt Sing, whose brave him, he made so sudden an advance on the town, Rajpûts were ill supported by the other troops. that the king had only time to fly to the hill-fort of The victory was chiefly ascribed to the gallantry of Golconda. The town was plundered and partly Morâd. Aurungzîb at the time of their junction, burnt; troops which Aurungzîb had ready for the had taken an oath of fidelity to this prince, and he purpose advanced, and the king was finally obliged all along acknowledged him and treated him as his to submit to such terms as the victor was pleased superior, though the direction of all measures to impose (1656). Immediately after, Aurungzîb really lay with himself. found a pretext for invading Bejapûr, and he As the two princes continued to advance, the would speedily have made a conquest of that king. emperor, who had set out for Delhi, returned to dom, if more important matters had not drawn his Agra, and prepared to take the field in person, in attention elsewhere.

the hopes of effecting an accommodation. He Shâh Jehân was now advanced in years. He was, however, dissuaded from this course, from had four sons, Dârâ Shekô, Shujâh, Aurungzîb, and which no good seemed likely to result, and the Morâd. The first of these was a man of many impetuous Dârâ, without waiting for the troops of estimable qualities, brave, liberal, frank, and gene- prince Soliman to join him from Benares, set out, rous, but impetuous, self-willed, and overbearing. contrary to the injunctions of his father, to engage Shujâh was devoted to wine and pleasure, but not the rebels. The armies met within a day's march devoid of talent. Morâd was dull in intellect, and of Agra. The Rajpûts and a body of Uzbeg a sensualist. Aurungzîb differed from them all. cavalry in the army of Dârâ distinguished them. His temper was mild, his heart cold, he was cau- selves by their daring intrepidity, and Dårâ tious and suspicious, a great dissembler, artful and himself exhibited the utmost gallantry. Morad acute; at the same time he was handsome in displayed his accustomed heroism ; the howdah person, brave, and affable. Above all, he was of his elephant, which was long preserved as a (though many suspected his sincerity) zealously curiosity, was stuck so full of the arrows of the

Uzbegs as to resemble a porcupine, and, when 1 The ancient town of Gurka, a few miles from Douleta

his elephant was giving way before them, le båd, had thus been named by Aurungzib after himself.

2 Dârâ held his grandfather's religious opinions.

A.D. 1658–59.



ordered his feet to be chained. Aurungzîb ex- Shâh Jehân built the new city of Delhi, in which hibited his usual intrepidity and coolness. He the royal palace and the mosque named the Jumna urged his elephant wherever there appeared the Musjed are two of the most splendid edifices of the greatest danger, crying to his troops, that “God East. But his most magnificent work was the Tâj was with them, and they had no other refuge or Mahal, a mausoleum erected for his queen at Agra. retreat." . An event common in Indian warfare It is composed of white marble, richly adorned decided the battle. A rocket struck Dârâ's ele. with mosaics of costly stone, and for elegance of phant, which growing unmanageable, he was obliged design, correctness of taste, and value of material, to descend and mount a horse. His troops fancied is perhaps without a rival. It is gratifying to obhe was slain, a panic spread among them, they serve, that no oppression was employed to procure gave way, and speedily the whole army was in the means of erecting such stately structures, as Hight. Dârâ fled to Agra, but, ashamed to appear the ordinary revenues of the empire proved fully before his father, he continued his course for sufficient to defray all the expenses ; and when Delhi (1658).

Shâh Jehận ceased to reign the treasury contained
Aurungzîb, as soon as the victory was gained, a large quantity of money, beside plate and jewels.
threw himself on his knees and returned thanks to
Heaven. He then sought the presence of Morâd,
and congratulated him on his acquisition of a king-
dom. On the third day after the battle they appeared
before Agra, which offered no resistance. Aurung.
zîb continued sending messages to his father with

the greatest professions of duty, pleading necessity
for what he had done. Finding at length that the

AURUNGZîb or ALUMGÎR 1.-Fate of Dârâ-Of Shujâh-Of emperor was not to be drawn from the side of Dârâ,

Solimân-Death of Meer Jumla-The Marattas-Malajee he sent his son Mohammed to take possession of the -Sêvajee-Progress of his Power-Aurungzib's Treatcitadel in which he resided, and to prevent all ment of him-His Regulations-Chout-The Sâdhs. communication between him and his friends. Thus ended the reign of Shah Jehân. He survived his | Aurungzîb, on mounting the throne, assumed the deposition seven years, during which time he was title of Alumgîr, or Conqueror of the World. His treated with attention and respect ; for Aurungzib first operations were against Dârâ, who was now at was never wantonly cruel, and his conscience pro- Lahore ; but on the approach of Aurungzîb he fled bably reproached him for what he had done, thence toward Sind. His son Soliman, being de

Aurungzîb, having now no further use for Mo- serted by his troops, sought a refuge with the râd, got rid of him without much ceremony. As rajah of Sirinugur, in the north of India, by whom they were on their march against Dârâ, he invited he was placed in confinement. Shujâh, therefore, him one day to supper. The wine circulated freely, only remained to contest the throne. Aurungzîb himself drinking of it, contrary to his The advance of this prince recalled Aurungzîb usual practice. Morâd became, as usual, intoxica- | from the pursuit of Dârâ. Shujâh, having crossed ted, and while he was in that condition his arms the Ganges, was met by Aurungzib; but they were removed and chains were laid on him. He remained three days in presence of each other, was then placed on an elephant and conveyed a neither willing to begin the action. On the fourth prisoner to Delhi ; meanwhile, three other elephants day, when Aurungzîb had drawn out his troops as were sent off in different directions to mislead his usual before daybreak, he was surprised by a great friends as to his place of confinement. He was uproar in his rear. This was caused by rajah Jesafterwards transferred to Gwaliôr, the state prison wunt Sing, who was now in his service, but who of those days,

had secretly agreed with Shujâh that they should In this manner was terminated the reign of make a simultaneous attack, front and rear, on the Shâh Jehân, who, though inferior to Bâber and army of Aurungzîb. But, though this attack proAkber, was one of the best sovereigns that India has duced great terror and confusion, it proved a failure, ever possessed. At no time under the Mussulman as Shujâh did not advance till after the sun was dominion, was the country in so flourishing a state. risen. Jeswunt, finding himself not supported, and It was filled with noble and prosperous cities; the fearing to have the whole army on him, drew off police in general was good, justice was fairly ad- his troops and retired to some distance, and when ministered, and internal tranquillity preserved. Still he found that the battle, as was the case, had gone we must measure all these advantages by the against Shujâh, he marched with all speed for his Asiatic standard, and not expect the same degree own country. Shujâh, after his defeat, retired to of perfection as in modern Europe. India under Bengal, pursued by an army under prince MohamShâh Jehân could not vie in these respects with med and Meer Jumla (1659). the France and England of the present day ; but Dârâ meantime had made his way to Gûzerât, it was far beyond Spain and Portugal, at any period, where, the governor having declared in his favour, in political perfection.

he became master of the province. He proposed The magnificence of Shâh Jehân exceeded any to form a junction with Jeswunt Sing ; but the thing that had ever been witnessed in India, or crafty Aurungzîb had succeeded in winning back perhaps in the East. His court and all relating to that rajah to his side, and when Dârâ came within it exhibited the extreme of splendour. The cele- fifty miles of his residence he sent to tell him that brated peacock throne which he constructed is said he could not venture to join him. Dârâ, findivg to have cost nearly six and a half millions sterling. him immovabie, advanced with his own troops It derived its name from an artificial peacock, in into Ajmîr. He there fortified a position on the which all the natural hues of the plumage were hills, and awaited the assault of Aurungzîb, who innitated in precious stones.

soon arrived from Agra. After cannonading it for

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three days, the emperor ordered a general assault. i him not to fear, adding, that he was cautious, not The governor of Gûzerât was slain, and his fall so cruel. Soliman also was sent to Gwalior. Some disheartened Dârâ that he fled, and all his troops months after, Morâd was discovered in an attempt dispersed.

to make his escape from that fortress, where he also Eight days and nights of toilsome marching had been placed ; and Aurungzib having instigated under a sultry sky, harassed by the incessant at- the son of a man whom Morâd had put to death in tacks of the savage tribes named Côlîs, brought Gûzerât to prosecute him for murder, a sentence of Dârâ and the few that adhered to him to Ahmed- death was issued against him, and he was executed abâd, the gates of which he found closed against in prison. him. He turned thence and made his way to The whole imperial family being now dead or in Cutch, with the intention of seeking refuge with prison, Aurungzîb's only object of apprehension the Persians in Candahâr. He reached the

district was his own general, Meer Jumla, who was comof Jûn, to the east of Sind, the chief of which, an manding in Bengal. To give him occupation, he Afghân, who had been under great obligations to suggested to him the conquest of the kingdom of him, received him with all demonstrations of kind- Assam, which lies to the east of that province in an ness ; but his only intention was to betray him, extensive valley through which the river Burramand watching his opportunity he made him a pri- pooter flows. Meer Jumla accordingly set out from soner and conveyed him to Delhi.

Dacca (1662), conveyed his troops up the river in Dârâ was led into Delhi mounted on an inferior boats, and speedily reduced the country. He wrote elephant and in chains. He was conducted through in high terms to the emperor, announcing his conthe principal streets. The people vented their quest and his intention of advancing and opening grief in tears and groans; but next day, when his the way to China. But the rainy season came on, betrayer the chief of Jûn appeared, they assailed supplies could not be procured, and the natives him with tiles and stones, and his life was only assailed his camp on all sides. This was succeeded saved by the vigorous interposition of the police. by a pestilence among the troops, and the boastful A few days after, a mock commission of members general was obliged to order a retreat. He died of the council and of lawyers sat on the case of before he reached Dacca, worn out by toil and Dârâ, and he was condemned to death as an apos- disease (1663). The emperor gave his rank and tate from the Mohammedan faith. Aurungzîb, honours to his son Ameen. “ You," said he to with seeming reluctance, gave orders for the exe- him, “ you have lost a father, and I have lost the cution of the sentence. The executioners found greatest and the most dangerous of


friends." Dârâ and his son cooking some lentils, the only A severe fit of illness now came to convince food they would venture to touch for fear of being Aurungzîb of the uncertainty of both his life and poisoned. Dârâ, guessing their purpose, snatched his power. Various intrigues were immediately up the knife he had been using and defended him- formed ; some would restore Shâh Jehân, others self manfully till he fell overpowered by numbers. secure the succession for the emperor's second son His head was cut off and carried to Aurungzîb, his Moazzim, others for his third son Akber. But the body was exposed to the public gaze on an ele- courage and the constancy of Aurungzîb triumphed phant. Aurungzib ordered the head to be placed over all their machinations and awed them all to on a platter, and washed and wiped in his presence. obedience. He then set out for Cashmire, in order When he had thus assured himself that it was the fully to re-establish his health. real head of Dârâ, he began to weep and lament, It was during the time of his residence in Cashand then ordered it to be placed in the tomb of mire that war first broke out between the Moguls Humayun. Dârâ's son was sent a prisoner to and the Marattas, a people of the Deckan, who Gwalior.

were destined to perform so important a part in Meantime, operations were carried on against the future history of India. Shujâh ; but prince Mohammed, displeased at The country of the Marattas, commencing at the seeing himself merely a puppet in the hands of chain of mountains south of the Nerbudda, exMeer Jumla, went over to his uncle, who gave him tended southwards to the parallel of Goa; the sea his daughter in marriage. Soon after, however, bounded it on the west ; it was limited on the east he again deserted and returned to Meer Jumla's by the river Wurda. A portion of the western camp, where, by his father's orders, he was made Ghâts thus runs along it from north to south ; the a prisoner and sent to Gwaliôr. Meer Jumla then narrow tract between them and the sea is named pressed on Shujâh and forced him to retreat to the Côncan. The people are of the Hindoo reliDacca, whence he fled and sought refuge with the gion, and all of low caste, as it is termed; but king of Aracân. He and his family perished in they probably are not of the Hindoo race 4. In that country, but the circumstances of their fate appearance and disposition they differ from the are unknown (1660).

people of Hindûstân and from most of the other About this time the rajah of Sirinugur was in- inhabitants of the Deckan. They are low in staduced to deliver up Dârâ's son Solimân. Like his ture and mean in appearance ; active, persevering, unfortunate father, he was paraded through the and crafty, never for an instant losing sight of their city in chains on an elephant, and then brought interest. Unlike the other peoples of India, they before the emperor. His gallant presence moved had no rajahs ; their chiefs were merely hereditary many to tears, and his uncle himself affected to be moved. Solimân’s only request was, that he might Gwaliôr, to the prince on whom it was intended to operate,

this infusion was given the first thing in the morning, at be beheaded at once, and not be subjected to the

and he got no food till he had swallowed it. lingering torture of the poosta 3. Aurungzib bade

to make him gradually lose his strength and intellect, grow

ing heavy and stupid, and thus dying by degrees. According 3 The poosta, as Bernier, quoted by Mill, says, was bruised to Bernier, Soliman did get this fatal beverage. poppies, steeped in water for a night. A large cup-full of 4 See above, p. 3

Its effect was

A. D. 1662-65.



heads of villages or of larger districts. Their name obliged to make peace with him on advantageous does not occur in the Mohammedan histories till terms (1662). He now maintained an army of toward the end of the fifteenth century. About 50,000 horse and 7000 foot. the middle of the sixteenth the king of the adjoin- Sevajee began once more to ravage the possesing realm of Bejapoor began to employ the Ma- sions of the Moguls, and Shâista Khân, who comratta instead of the Persian language in his manded for the emperor in the Deckan, marched finances, and he enlisted many of them in his against him, defeated his troops, and took possesarmy, where they soon displayed their aptitude as sion of Poonah. He took up his quarters in the light cavalry. The other kings also employed house in which Sevajee had been reared, and the them ; but it was not until the time of Malik latter, who was in the adjacent hill-fort of Singhar, Amber that they began at length to be of im. resolved to endeavour to derive advantage from his portance in the Deckan.

knowledge of the localities. Leaving Singhar one The principal man among the Marattas, at this night after dark, and posting parties along the time, was a chief, named Jadoo Râo, who claimed road to support him if needful, he, with twenty-five for himself a Rajpût descent, though probably of his men, joined a marriage procession, and thus without reason.

There was serving under him a entered the town. He made direct for the house, Maratta of respectable family, named Mâlojee and entered it by a back-door. Shâista had barely Bôsla, and on occasion of some great Hindoo festival time to escape by letting himself down from his he went to Jadoo's house accompanied by his son bedroom window, and he lost two of his fingers by Shahjee, a boy of five years of age. During the a cut of a sword made at him as he descended. merriment, Jadoo took up on his knees Shahjee His son and his attendants were cut to pieces. and his own daughter, a child three years old, and Sevajee retired unmolested, and he ascended in said, laughing, “ They are a fine couple, and ought triumph to Singhar amid the blaze of torches. To to be man and wife.” Mâlojee instantly started up, this day, the Marattas tell of this exploit of Sevajee's and called the company to witness that the daughter with exultation.. of Jadoo was betrothed to his son. The pride of Sevajee had now ascertained that it was as light the chief was offended, and a quarrel was the result. cavalry that the Marattas could be employed to Fortune, however, soon smiled on Mâlojee ; he rose most advantage, and, acting on this persuasion, he to power under the Ahmednugur government, and placed himself at the head of 4000 horsemen, and obtained a jagheer, of which the chief place was made a dash for the wealthy sea-port of Surat. Poonah, and Jadoo no longer refused to give his His project was completely successful, the town was daughter to Shahjee.

defenceless, and he plundered it for six days. His Shahjee also distinguished himself. He entered attempts on the factories of the Europeans were the service of the king of Bejapoor, and he obtained repelled ; but he carried off an ample booty in sea large jagheer in Mysore. "As he still held that curity. He even aspired to form a maritime power ; of Poonah, he took his eldest son with him to My- | he fitted out vessels, with which he captured the sore, leaving at Poonah his second son Sevajee Mogul ships trading from Surat and other ports; under the charge of a Bramin, named Dadajee, who and on one occasion he embarked with 4000 men, had the inanagement of the jagheer. As the young and landed and plundered Barcelôr in Canâra, a Sevajee grew up, he displayed a character of great wealthy sea-port belonging to Bejapoor. spirit and energy, and at sixteen he was beyond the The attack on Surat (which was regarded as a control of Dadajee. His chief associates were his place of some sanctity, as it was there the pilgrims father's horse-soldiers and the people of the neigh- embarked for Mecca), and the capture of some bouring Ghâts, and by constant hunting in them vessels laden with pilgrims, roused the indignation he became intimately acquainted with all the passes the bigoted Aurungzîb. His ire was further inand defiles of these mountains ; and he was strongly ed, when Sevajee, on the death of his father, suspected of being concerned in many robberies assumed the title of rajah, and began to coin money committed in the Côncan. His love of adventure -the mark of independent sovereignty. was further increased by the popular ballads of the A Mogul army took the field against him, and country, to which he used to listen with delight. siege was laid to his two principal forts. Feeling

On the death of the Bramin, Sevajee took pos- it more for his interest to submit than to persist session of the jagheer of Poonah, and ceased to in a resistance which would probably be hopeless, make remittances to his father. He soon felt him. he opened a negotiation with the imperial comself sufficiently strong to rebel against the king of mander, and then, quitting his troops, went with a Bejapoor, and he made himself master of the few attendants to his camp. He was received with northern Côncan. The king immediately threw much distinction, and a treaty was concluded. Of Shahjee into prison as a hostage for his son, and he thirty-two forts which he held, he agreed to surwas told that the door of his dungeon would be render twenty with their territory; the remaining built up if Sevajee did not submit within a limited twelve with his other possessions he was to hold as period. Sevajee then immediately entered the a jagheer, and his son Sambajee, a boy only five service of Shâh Jehân, and through that monarch's years old, was to receive the rank of a commander influence Shahjee was set at liberty. In 1655, of 5000 in the imperial service. Sevajee was also when Aurungzib was sent to the Deckan, and was to have a kind of per-centage on the revenue of acting against the king of Golconda, Sevajee was each district under Bejapoor. The emperor wrote so audacious as to plunder the Mogul provinces ; a letter confirming all these terms except the last, but, when he saw the prince more successful than which was not mentioned. Sevajee then joined the he had anticipated, he sued for pardon, and was imperial army in its operations against Bejapoor, forgiven. When Aurungzîb quitted the Deckan to and then, by special invitation. went to wait on the obtain the throne (1658), Sevajee prosecuted the emperor at Delhi (1665). contest with the king of Bejapoor, whom he finally Aurungzîb, though an able and a subtle man, was


not a wise monarch. Instead of seeking to attach the well-known Blackmail of the Scottish Highto himself a man of Sevajee's talents and charac- landers, was a tribute paid for forbearance ; it was ter by honours and attention, he tried to humble a fourth part of the revenues of a country, and as him by making him feel his supposed insignificance. long as it was regularly paid, that country was free Accordingly, when he was about to enter Delhi, an from Maratta depredations. Additional forces were officer of inferior rank was sent to meet him. In now sent into the Deckan against Sevajee, who at the imperial presence, when he had made his length (1672) ventured to give battle to a Mogul obeisance and offered his presents, no further | army, and defeated it. This was the first regular notice was taken of him, and he was placed among engagement ever fought between the Moguls and the officers of the third rank. Unable to control the Marattas, and its unexpected success had the his feelings, he stepped back and fell down in a usual effect of elevating the courage of the one

When he recovered, he called on them to party and depressing that of the other. The war take his life as they had taken away his honour, now languished for some years, as Aurungzîb had and retired without taking leave or receiving the ample employment elsewhere. usual dress of honour. The emperor, who was not Ā war with the north-eastern tribes of the prepared for this spirited conduct, ordered him to Afghans first occupied him. This lasted for two be closely watched. Sevajee, whose only thoughts years, and ended in the unsatisfactory manner in were now how to make his escape, began by asking which contests with these tribes usually terminated. permission to send away his Marattas, as the When this was concluded a religious insurrection climate of Delhi, he said, did not agree with them. called his troops to the field (1676). There was a This was readily granted, as it seemed to leave sect named Sâdhs or Satnamees, a kind of Hindoo him quite at the emperor's mercy. He next took quakers, as they have been termed. They worto his bed, pretending sickness, and by means of shipped only one God, enjoined the practice of the Hindoo physicians who attended him he kept truth, self-denial, temperance, and continence, and up a communication with those whom he had sent prohibited the use of opium and spirituous liquors. away. He also adopted the practice of sending As one of these men was engaged in the cultivation large quantities of provisions and sweetmeats to of his land not far from Delhi, a dispute arose bethe devotees of both religions; and when his tween him and the Peon or man who looked after guards had thus become accustomed to the passage the government share of the crop. Each party of large baskets, he one night, leaving a servant to was joined by his friends, and the revenue-officers occupy his bed, got into one himself, and placed his had the worst of it. The people of the country son in another, and thus passed out unperceived. joined the Sådhs ; troops were sent against them, A horse was prepared, which he mounted, taking but they were routed, and the Mohammedans began his son behind him, and then made his way to to fancy that magic arts rendered them invincible. Muttra. Leaving his son there with a friend, he They even reported that the Sådhs were led by a shaved off his hair and whiskers, and assumed the woman mounted on an enchanted wooden horse. disguise of a Hindoo devotee, and, after wandering The Rajpoot Zemindars, near Delhi, now began to about for the space of nine months, he at length join the insurgents, and Aurungzîb found it necescontrived to reach the Deckan (1666). In this sary to send a considerable force against them; to country the imperial arms had not been successful counteract their magic arts, he directed his solagainst Bejapoor, and the consequence was, that diers to wear prayers and ainulets on their persons. Sevajee not inerely obtained forgiveness and peace In the engagement which ensued, the insurgents from the emperor, but even another jagheer, and were totally routed. his title of rajah was confirmed. He then turned his arms against the kings of Golconda and Bejapoor, and forced them to agree to pay him an annual tribute.

A period of tranquillity succeeded, during which Sevajee formed civil and military regulations for

CHAPTER XIII. his dominions. The collecting and managing of the revenues was committed exclusively to Bra- AURUNGZîl continued-Aurungzib's Bigotry-Further Promins, and measures were devised to preserve the gress of Sevajee-His Death-Sambajee-Aurungzib in cultivators from oppression, and the government

the Deckan-End of the Kingdoms of Golconda and Bejafrom fraud. The army was raised and paid by the

pûr-Capture and Death of Sambajee-Rajah Râm-Dif

ference of the Mogul and the Maratta Troops-Siege of prince; the pay was high, but all plunder was to belong to the state. The officers were in regular

Gingee--Aurungzib's Change of Operations-His Partial

Success-His Death and Character. gradation, from heads of ten up to heads of five thousand. These held no jagheers, but, like their The attentive reader must have observed the men, received pay from the government.

absence of illiberality and intolerance by which The object of Aurungzîb in giving such favour- the Mohammedan monarchs of India, especially able terms to Sevajee had been to throw him off the house of Timûr, had been so honourably dishis guard, and thus to get him once more into his tinguished. They had constantly interinarried power. But the Maratta was too wary to be thus with the Hindoo royal families, and the Rajpoot caught, and the emperor was obliged to declare rajahs had held high commands in their armies. open war against him ; a measure of which Sevajee But Aurungzib, who was bigoted and narrowspeedily made him repent. He surprised the fort minded, was of course intolerant, and even from of Singhar, plundered Surat once more, and spread the beginning of his reign he gave proofs of this his ravages over the province of Candésh. It is on

unkingly spirit. Thus, instead of the solar year, this occasion that we first hear of the Chout, after- which had deen in use in India from the time of wards so famous in Maratta history. This, like | Akber, he directed the Mohammedan lunar year

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