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the Cûrûs, we find Chrishna the ally of the former. A contemplative people, as the Hindoos are, His youthful adventures among the Gôpis, or milk- must early have turned their thoughts to the submaids, are the theme of poetry, and Chrishna is jects denominated metaphysical. We accordingly the favourite deity of the women of India.

find that all the theories on that subject, formed To enumerate the absurd legends, to describe by the Greeks or by the moderns, were already the numerous ceremonies, the painful and disgust- familiar to the sages of India. Thus the system ing penances of the Hindoo religion, is not possible devised by the excellent Bishop Berkeley, and in our limits. When we take a view of them, and developed and explained by him with so much more especially recollect, that it is a fixed point ingenuity and elegance, was known in India cenwith every sect that faith in their god supersedes turies before our era. So also was the atomistic all religion and morality, we might expect to find theory, on which Epicurus founded his philosophy, the Hindoo character devoid of every estimable long familiar to the Hindoos. quality. But such is by no means the case ; the In astronomy the Hindoos had advancea far beprinciples of morality are too deeply seated in the fore the Greeks. They were acquainted with the human heart, and too essential to the well-being of precession of the equinoxes, they knew the causes society to allow them to become extinct, and the of eclipses, and had constructed tables by which religious books of India are too full of its precepts they might be accurately calculated. Some of their to let them fall into oblivion. Accordingly, the sages had discovered the diurnal revolution of the most candid observers of the Hindoo character earth on its axis, and had even with tolerable acspeak favourably of it, and, lascivious as are many curacy calculated its diameter. A passage in the of the legends and ceremonies of the Hindoo reli- Vedas asserts that the pole-star changes its position, gion, the chastity and domestic virtues of the the constellations are named in the epic poems, and Hindoo women are far above the general standard the fixed stars are spoken of as bodies of great in some Christian countries.

magnitude, which shone by their own native light. Like every other people, the Hindoos have a firm

In geometry the Hindoos had made discoveries, belief in a future state of existence. Their great which were not made in Europe till modern times. doctrine on this head is that of the transmigration Such were the mode of expressing the area of a of souls, according to which, the soul after quitting triangle in terms of its sides, and that of expressing its present abode, will animate another body, either the proportion of the radius to the diameter of a that of a man or an inferior animal, and as the circle. În arithmetic, they are entitled to the fame kind of body depends on a man's conduct in this of the invention of the decimal system of notalife, this doctrine, as far as it is not affected by tion. But, in algebra, the merits of the Hindoos that of faith, is not without moral effect. They are still higher, and discoveries not made in Europe also hold that in the intervals of being on earth, till the last century were familiar in India for the soul is, according to its merits, for thousands centuries before. T'his, however, is the latest of of years, happy in one of the numerous heavens, or their sciences, and the works which treat of it have tormented in one of the many hells of their creed. all been written since the commencement of our

The system of religion here faintly sketched, is Finally, the Hindoos were versed in trigothe prevalent, almost the only one professed by the nometry, in which they went far before the Greeks, modern Hindoos. It is named Braminism from and were acquainted with theorems not discovered the Bramins, who are its teachers. But five, or in Europe till the sixteenth century. even ten centuries before our era, a great reforma- All the subtleties of logic, and the refinements of tion of it was effected by a person named Buddha, grammar, are to be met with in Sanscrit works on who rejecting the Vedas and Puranas, and the dis- these subjects. In the copious poetic literature of tinction of castes, taught that all men are brethren India, the niceties and varieties of metre are as and equal; that future happiness, which consisted numerous as in that of ancient Greece. The Sanin absorption in the divinity, was to be obtained by scrit language is, for copiousness, beauty, flexibility, the practice of virtue, by contemplation, and by and nicety of structure, almost without a rival, in mortification of the senses. The Buddhist, too, the opinion of those most competent to form a was on no account to deprive even the smallest in- judgment on the subject. sect of existence. The sect long flourished in India, The wonderful excavated temples of Ellora, but at length the Bramins, aided by the temporal Salsette, and Elephantina, and the Pagodas? on power, succeeded in suppressing it by persecution. the Coromandel coast, prove that in architectural Its votaries had already carried it into all the skill, and in the art of sculpture, the ancient Hincountries north and east of India, and it is com. doos far exceeded the Egyptians. That in the puted that nearly two-thirds of the people of Asia most remote ages the Hindoos understood the art profess. it. Certainly no other religion can vie with of ship-building, and made distant voyages, is it in extent of sway. One of the most curious cir- proved by their colonies. There is also in the cumstances in Buddhism is its astonishing agree- ancient Code of Manu a law relating to the intement with the Church of Rome in rites, ceremonies, rest of money, in which that lent on bottomry is and instituticns, Like it, for example, it has mo- particularly noticed ; and this, we may observe, nasteries of both sexes, with injunctions of celibacy. could only take place among a people familiar with The resemblance is so strong, that the early Catho- the sea. lic missionaries regarded it as a device of the For the political condition of ancient India, the devil to turn men from the truth.

great authority is the Code of Manu. We think, There is still in India a sect named the Jains, however, that those inquirers are wrong, whó who agree in some points with the Buddhists, and like them reject Braminism. But they are not

7 We will describe the form of the Pagoda in the subse. numerous, and the Bramins have long since lost

quent part of our work. The name is a corruption of the the power to persecute.

Sanscrit Bhahagavate, holy house.

era.

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suppose this Code to be like that of Justinian, the The Cshatriyas were the military caste; the Code Napoléon, or similar works—a system of laws royal dignity belonged to them, and all places of and regulations which were actually in force, and rank and command; for the Bramins only excited as the law of the land. We rather agree with pounded the laws, and took no part in the executhose who view in it an ideal system, like the Re- tive government. The Cshatriya was to defend public and Laws of Cicero, in which the actual con- the people, to give alms, read the Vedas, and sacristitution and laws of the state are taken as a basis, fice, and he was to shun sensual gratifications. and such additions made, as in the writer's opinion The Vaisya was to cultivate the land, keep cattle, would bring it nearer to perfection. On this prin follow trade, and lend money on interest. He too ciple, and we believe on no other, can we account was to give alms, sacrifice, and read the Vedas. for the extravagant privileges and powers given in The lot of the Sudra was the most unfavourable. it to the Bramins, and the intolerable precepts | He was to be the servant of all, but his exact stalaid down in it for the regulations of their lives, tion can hardly be ascertained. In some respects privileges, and powers which they never possessed, he resembled the Spartan helot ; but though in and precepts which they could only partially have the Code he is treated with the utmost contempt, obeyed.

and as if he were not of the same species with the The great feature of the Laws of Manu is the higher classes, yet Hindoo nature was always too division of the people into castes 8 like those that gentle to allow of such being the practice, and the prevailed in ancient Egypt. These were four in lot of the Sudra was never so hard as that of the number, viz. the Bramins, the Cshatriyas, the helot or of the middle-age serf. Vaisyas, and the Sudras, the first of which, it is said, The men of the first three classes might marry proceeded from the mouth, the second from the into the classes beneath them, but this was not arm, the third from the thigh, and the fourth from permitted to the women. If a Bramin woman the foot of Brahma.

married a Sudra, their son was a Chandala, the The Bramins were not, as is generally, but per- lowest of mortals, and if he united himself with a haps erroneously stated, a sacerdotal caste, for we woman of the higher classes, their progeny, says nowhere read of their conducting public worship, the law, “is more foul than their begetter.” It is like the priests of Judæa or Egypt. They seem from these marriages that many of the numerous rather to have been “ an order of men who fol. sub-divisions of caste have been derived. lowed a course of religious study and practice A name by which the three higher castes are during the first half of their lives, and spent the distinguished, is that of the twice-born. A Bramin other in a condition of self-denial and mendicity!" in his fifteenth, a Cshatriya in his twenty-second, a They were, in fact, a people of philosophers, who Vaisya in his twenty-fourth year was solemnly girt were to be the instructors of the other classes in with a band or thread, the first of cotton, the their public and private duties ; for, though the second of cusa-grass, the last of wool, which went next two classes might read the Vedas, the Bramin over the left shoulder and across the breast. This alone was to expound them. The king was to have was regarded as a second birth; the Sudra who a Bramin for his counsellor, and justice was to be was not admitted to this honour was only a onceadministered by Bramins ; but the Bramin was to born. shun all worldly honour, and not to seek to accu- The government in India was absolute monarchy. mulate wealth. A Bramin was to spend the first The king and all his officers were of the Cshatriya quarter of his life as a student, rendering every, caste. It would appear that the monarch was at even the most menial, service to his master, and he liberty to choose his successor among his sons. was to support himself by begging from door to Great monarchies seem to have been unknown; door. In the next quarter he was to marry and though occasionally an able and warlike prince live with his wife and family, discharging the may have made several minor states acknowledge duties of his order, of which the principal was his supremacy. teaching. When this was concluded, he was to The revenue, as in the case of all ancient mobecoine an anchorite, retiring to the woods, clad narchies, arose chiefly from a share in the produce with bark or the skin of an antelope, letting his of the land. In the case of grain, this varied from hair and nails grow, sleeping on the ground, ex- a twelfth to a sixth, according to the quality of the posed to the rain and sun,“ without fire, without a soil ; it might, if necessary, be raised to a fourth. inansion, wholly silent, feeding on roots and fruit." The king had also a sixth of the produce of trees, The last stage relieves the Bramin from much of of honey, and other natural productions, and of this austerity. He returns to the world, dresses manufactures. There were also duties on mernearly as the ordinary Bramin, is released from all chandise, licences for carrying on trades, etc. ceremonies and external forms. His only business The country was partitioned into civil and miliis contemplation, till at last he quits the body tary divisions.

There were lords of one, ten, a a bird leaves the branch of a tree at its pleasure.” hundred, and a thousand villages, and over these Such is a sketch of a part of what we may term were officers of high rank, whose duty it was to the ideal of the life of a Bramin ; for, though indi- inspect them, and correct any abuses they might viduals might and did reduce it to practice, such commit. The military divisions did not coincide could never have been done by all the members of with the civil ones ; in each was a body of troops a numerous society.

under an approved officer. It is probable that some part of the revenue of the district was

assigned for the pay of the officer and his 8 This, like so many other words relating to India, has

troops. come to us from the Portuguese. In their language, and in

It is probable that the village-system, which is of that of Spain, casta is race, kind, or quality; but we know not its origin.

so much importance in modern India, is coeval with 9 Wilson, note on Mill, i. p. 191.

the formation of the state ; but as it is not spoken

66

as

of in the Laws of Manu, we will defer our notice time, for Megasthenes, the ambassador of Seloucus, of it.

resided for many years at the court of Palibothra'. The preceding very imperfect sketch is intended The history of India henceforth becomes very to give some idea of the condition of India in the obscure. We collect from the Hindoo books, and ages previous to the time when the expedition of from inscriptions, that the tribes that possessed Alexander the Great first brought Europeans into Bactria used to make inroads into the Punjab, and that country, und excited a curiosity about its that the religious feuds, which ended in the overlearning, its laws, and its institutions.

Even at throw of Buddhism, raged during this period ; but that time, we find, by comparing the accounts of still all accounts concur in representing the country the Greeks with the early Hindoo authorities, that as being in a very flourishing state. The court of there was a decline, especially in religion; idolatry, the princes, whose name was Vicramaditya, who and the abominations connected with it, had spread reigned at Ayodha, i.e. Oude, and who extended over the land, and the Suttees or practice of women their dominion to the Deckan, was famed for magburning themselves with the bodies of their hus- nificence, and for the patronage of genius and bands, which is not even alluded to in the Laws of science. It was at the court of the first prince of Manu, or the epic poems, had come into use. It this name, a few years before our era, that Calidâsa, appears also that the monastic orders, a sure mark the author of the beautiful drama, Sacôntala, flouof the corruption of religion, existed then in India. rished. Foreign trade was carried on extensively

during this time, and the products of India were diffused over the Persian, the Roman, and other empires ; but darkness broods over the internal history.

While India was thus in repose, the prophet of CHAPTER III.

the Arabs appeared. The inhabitants of the desert, animated by enthusiasm, fell on the effete and

feeble empires of Rome and Persia, and every Earliest notice of India Alexander the Great GræcoBactrian Kingdom-Vicramaditya—The Khalifat-Inva

where victory followed their banners. Their emsion of India - Decline of the Khalifat-Sebuktegîn

pire speedily extended from the Ebro to the Oxus. Mahmûd of Ghuzni-His Invasions of India-Temple of

The Khalifehs, or successors of the prophet, had Sômnât-Character of Mahmûd-End of his Dynasty.

finally fixed their abode at Bagdad on the Tigris ;

their dominion extended into Câbul, and but for India has no history of its own ; our first know- the decay of enthusiasm, the feuds that broke out, ledge of it, as of so many other countries, is de- and the inertness and degeneracy always conserived from the Greeks. Herodotus, when describ- quent on long-established rule in the East, the coning the extent of the Persian empire under Darius I., quest of a large part of India might have been names India as one of the provinces ; but this was achieved. only the part of it about the Indus, and as the in- India was, in fact, invaded by the troops of the habitants of a strip of country under the Parapa- Khalîfehs. In the reign of the Khalifeh Walîd I. misus mountains to the west of that river is said to an Arab ship was seized at a placed named Dewal, have been possessed by Indians, it is doubtful i in Sind. Application was made to Dâhir, the the dominion of the Persian monarch extended into rajah of that country, for restitution, but he replied the Punjab. When Alexander the Great had that Dewal was not under his authority. The overthrown the Persian empire, his lust of conquest governor of Basra, for the Khalîfeh, would not be led him to India. He took the route trodden by satisfied with this reply, and he despatched from all the invaders of that country, namely, along the Shîraz, under the command of his nephew, named valley of the river Câbul, crossed the Indus at pro- Mohammed Câsim (a youth of only twenty years of bably the modern Attock, and conquered the Pun- age), a force of 6000 men to invade the territory of jâb as far as the Beyah, and but for the mutiny of the Hindoo prince (711). Câsim led his little army his troops, which forced him to return, he might in safety through the desert of Mecrân, which, unhave reached the Ganges. As he probably pro

der the name of Gedrosia, had so nearly proved posed to revisit India, he took care to establish an fatal to Alexander the Great. He appeared before interest there by extending the dominions of the Dêwal, which he reduced, and thence advancing two rajas Taxiles and Porus, the first of whom had crossed the Indus to Mêrûn (now Hyderabad), been his ally, and the second his most powerful whence he proceeded, apparently northwards, to opponent. His death, however, and the confusion Alôr, the then capital of Sind, but of which the into which his empire fell, ended all plans for the ruins only now remain. His force had by this subjugation of India. The princes of the Macedonian time been augmented by a body of 2000 horse from empire which established itself in Bactria held the Persia ; but the rajah was awaiting him with an vale of the Câbui, and extended their claims over army of 50,000 men. Câsim seeing the great disIndia; and Menander, one of these princes, marched parity of numbers, prudently resolved to act on the into that country as far as the Jumna. But there was a powerful native empire, named by the Greeks 1 The prince with whom Seleucus was allied is called that of the Prasii, whose capital, named Palibothra,

Sandracottus. Sir W. Jones was struck with its resemblance lay at the confluence of the Ganges and the Sôn;

to Chandraguptas, i.e. Moon-protected, a celebrated name and the Syrian kings, Seleucus and Antiochus,

in Hindoo story. The history of the two, who were both formed alliances with the sovereigns of this empire

usurpers, in fact, coincides, and thus the first point in against the Bactrian monarch, whose dominion was

Indian chronology was obtained. Palibothra is the Sanscrit

Pataliputra, whose ruins are near the modern Patna. The finally overturned by the hordes of the north. It is

name which Megasthenes gives the Sôn is Erannoboas, a to the circumstance of this alliance that we are

Græcised form of its Sanscrit name Hirânyavahas, i, e. chiefly indebted for our knowledge of India at that God-armed.

EARLY MOHAMMEDAN INVASIONS,

7

defensive, and, choosing a strong position, awaited of Ommiyah, which, by the murder of Ally, the the attack of the Indians. Fortune favoured him; son-in-law, and fourth successor of the Prophet, a fire-ball, flung from the Arab line, struck the had obtained the imperial dignity, reigned at elephant on which the rajah rode, which, in its Damascus over the East and the West, during a terror, rushed from the field, and plunged with its space of ninety years, when the standard of revolt rider into the adjoining river. An event of this

was raised against them in Khorasân (the northern nature, as we shall frequently see in our subsequent province of Persia), in favour of the descendants of narrative, is decisive of a battle in India ; and Abbas, the Prophet's uncle. The latter proved though Dâhir mounted a horse, and made every victorious, but they were unable to reduce the effort to rally his troops, the fortune of the day western portion of the empire, which thus remained was not to be restored, and he had only the conso- divided. Bagdad, which they built on the banks lation of falling bravely in the midst of the enemy's of the Tigris, became the capital of the Abbasside cavalry. His widow defended the town when as- Khalîfehs. The names of Harûn-er-rashid, and of sailed with a courage worthy of her late lord, until his son Almamun, give lustre to this line ; but the supply of provisions was exhausted. She then after the death of the latter, the Khalîfehs sank into proposed to the garrison to devote themselves to indolence and sloth, and fortunate adventurers made death, after the manner of India. They complied themselves independent, especially in the eastern with her wishes ; piles were kindled, in the flames parts of the empire, where the population was of which the women and children voluntarily chiefly Turkish, and of a warlike and predatory perished ; the soldiers then, having bathed and character. One of the most celebrated of these devoted themselves, opened the gates, rushed forth lines was that named the Samanee, who came from sword in hand, and soon fell beneath the weapons beyond the Oxus, and during a period of 120 years of the Moslems. Câsim gave the Indians one more held the eastern part of Persia. The fifth of these great defeat, and thus reduced the whole dominions princes had a slave named Alptegîn, whom, being of rajah Dâhir, which seem to have included Mul- a man of ability, he gradually raised, till he made tân, the southern extremity of the Punjâb. him governor of the province of Khorasan. On

It was always the custom of the Moslems to the death of the prince, the chiefs consulted as to grant religious toleration to any people who had which of his sons should be his successor, and submitted to their arms. In the present case the Alptegîn having happened to give his vote against rule was to be observed as usual; but in the towns him who proved the successful candidate, he was which had been taken by storm, the Hindoo tem- deprived of his government, and his life was in ples had been rased, and the endowments of the danger. Followed by a trusty band of dependents, Bramins seized to the use of the state ; and to re- he retired into the mountains of the present Afghastore the revenues, and rebuild the temples, seemed nistân, and fixed his abode at Ghuzni, whence he to the scrupulous mind of Câsim somewhat more could defy the efforts of his enemies. He here than mere toleration. He referred the matter to reigned over the adjoining country during fourteen the Khalîfeb, whose reply was, that those who had years. He gave his only daughter in marriage to submitted were entitled to the privileges of sub- Sebuktegîn, a Turkish slave, whom he had raised jects; they should therefore be allowed to rebuild as he had been raised himself by the Samanee their temples, and celebrate their worship; the prince, and appointed him his successor. lands and money of the Bramins should be re- As the dominions of Sebuktegîn extended along stored, and the three per cent. on the revenues the valley through which the river Câbul runs to which they had hitherto enjoyed should be con- its junction with the Indus, the adjacent Hindoo tinued to them.

districts had been subject to the incursions of his Among the prisoners who had fallen into the rude and warlike subjects. Jypâl, the rajah of hands of Câsim were two daughters of the late Lahore, therefore, thinking the present a favourable rajah. Hindoo beauty had always been highly occasion, resolved to become the assailant in turn, prized by the Arabs, and that of these maidens and he led an army to the opening of the Câbul was such, as made them appear worthy of being valley, beyond Pêshấwer. The two armies met at presented to the Commander of the Faithful. They this place, but ere they could engage there came were accordingly transmitted to Damascus (then on a violent tempest, which so disheartened the the seat of the Khalifat), but when they were Hindoos, that the rajah found it expedient to probrought into the presence of Walîd the elder prin-pose an accommodation. Sebuktegin was at first cess burst into tears, and declared that she was unwilling to treat, but he finally agreed, on receivunworthy of his regards, as she had been dis- ing fifty elephants, and the promise of a large sum honoured by Câsim. The Khalîfeh, filled with of money, to allow the rajah to retire unmolested. rage, issued orders for Câsim to be sent to him, Messengers arrived soon after at Lahore to desewed up in a raw hide. The orders were obeyed, mand and receive the money that had been proand when the Hindoo princess beheld his body she mised ; but the rajah cast them into prison, and, cried out, exultingly, that Câsim was innocent, but having formed alliances with some of the powerful that she had thus avenged the death of her father, rajahs of Hindústân, he advanced with a force, it and the ruin of her family.

is said, of 100,000 horse, and a far larger number The conquests of Câsim in India were retained of footmen, towards the valley of the Câbul. Sebukfor a space of about thirty-five years, when the tegîn, though his troops were far inferior in numHindoos rose against the Moslems, and expelled ber, relying on their superior discipline, strength, them; and more than two centuries elapsed before and courage, hesitated not to give battle, and by a they reappeared in India.

succession of well-directed charges of cavalry, he The Khalifat shared the fate of all Eastern gained a decisive victory. The Hindoos were driven empires ; its princes, degenerated and successful to the Indus with prodigious slaughter, and the rebels, established independent states. The house riches of their camp became the prey of the victor. The whole country to the Indus submitted to all speed to Ghuzni. A battle fought near Balkh, Sebuktegîn, who retired, leaving a governor with in which Mahmûd employed 500 Indian elephants 10,000 men in Pêsh âwer to maintain his dominion to great advantage, ended in a signal victory on over these provinces.

his part, and the vanquished foe hastened to reSebuktegîn soon after led his forces over the cross the Oxus. The approach of winter prevented Oxus to aid the Samanee prince against the hordes Mahmûd from passing that river and following up of the eastern Tartars. His services were rewarded his success. by his being confirmed in his own government, and Being now at leisure, he resolved to take venthat of Khorasân being conferred on his son Mah- geance on Anung-pâl for his former unprovoked mûd. He died on his way back to Ghuzni. hostility, and he assembled troops for à fourth

Mahmûd, who was in his thirtieth year, and who descent into India (1008). Anung-pål, aware of had been trained up to arms from his earliest his danger, called on the rajahs of the states which youth, happened to be away at his government had aided his father, representing to them the when the death of his father occurred. His younger common danger, as, if he were subdued, they would brother Ismael, therefore, having possessed him- be attacked in their turn. His arguments proved self of the treasure accumulated at Ghuzni, and effectual, and a larger army than had yet assemthus being able to secure the support of the chiefs bled advanced to Pêshậwer. The sight of their and the army, resolved to contest the empire. numbers nearly daunted Mahmûd, and he acted Mahmûd, having tried the way of accommodation on the defensive. His camp was surrounded by in vain, a battle ensued, in which Ismael was de- the Hindoo troops, and the Guckars, a mountain feated and captured. He remained a prisoner for tribe, even forced their way through his intrenchlife, but was treated with every indulgence that ments, and committed great havoc among his could be bestowed upon him with safety.

cavalry. At length one of these accidents so freBy taken advantage of the fallen state of the quent in Indian warfare gave him the victory. Khalifat and the decline of the power of the The elephant on which Anung-pâl rode, taking Samanee, Mahmûd speedily rendered himself inde- flight, ran off the field ; the Hindoos, thinking pendent, and having received the investiture of themselves deserted by their sovereign, gradually Khorasản from the Khalífeh, he assumed the title of gave way; the troops of Mahmûd pressed on, Sultân, being the first Moslem prince that bore it the flight became general, and the slaughter, as (999).

usual, immense. Mahmûd entered the Punjab, and Mahmûd was brave, prudent, and energetic; he hearing of the immense wealth said to be conpossessed military skill, he was animated with a tained in the temple of Nagarcote, which stood on a passion for glory, he was zealous for Islâm, and he hill at the foot of the Himalaya mountains in the was covetous of wealth ; rest, therefore, was alien district between the Râvi and the Beyah rivers, he from his nature and his position. Conquests might resolved to become its possessor. As the garrison easily, no doubt, have been made in the west, and had been withdrawn for the late battle, the priests his dominion, possibly, be extended to the Mediter- offered no resistance, and the accumulated treasure ranean, but India held out far greater inducements of ages was conveyed to Ghuzni, where, during a to the Sultan of Ghuzni. Accordingly, in the fourth

festival of three days, the conqueror displayed it to year of his reign (1001), he led a force along the the view of his subjects. vale of the Câbul, and near Pêshâwer he encoun- In the year 1010, Mahmûd took Multân and tered the troops of Jypal of Lahore. The rajah brought Abû-'l-Futteh to Ghuzni, where he rewas defeated and made a prisoner, and the victor, mained a prisoner for life. The following year he traversing the whole of the Punjab, passed the penetrated further into India than he had yet done, Garrah, and stormed and plundered the city of for he took the city of Tanêsan, near the Jumna, Butinda. He returned with the booty to Ghuzni, plundered its wealthy temple, and brought an imhaving released Jypâl and the other Hindoo pri- mense number of captives with him to Ghuzni. soners for a ransom and the promise of tribute. Two plundering expeditions to the delicious vale The rajah, on his return to Lahore, disgusted with of Cashmere succeeded, in the latter of which the a life in which he had endured so many disasters, or army suffered severely from the weather on its removed by superstition, transferred his dominions turn ; Mahmûd then turned his arms northwards, to his son Anungpål, and, mounting a funeral pile, and reduced the whole region between the Oxus set fire to it with his own hands and expired in the and the Jaxartes, after which he thought again of flames.

India and of plunder. Mahmûd again crossed the Indus to punish a In this his ninth expedition (1017) he resolved rajah who had refused to pay his portion of the to penetrate to the sacred Ganges. With a force tribute imposed on Jypal. His third expedition of 100,000 horse and 20,000 foot, he set out from (1004) was undertaken to punish the Afghan chief Pêshâwer, and keeping close to the foot of the of Multân, Abû-'l-Futteh-Lôdi, who, though a Mos- mountains where the rivers of the Punjab are most lem, had rebelled and formed an alliance with easy to cross, he proceeded till he had passed the Anungpâl of Lahore. The troops of Anungpal en- Jumna. He then turned southwards, and led his countered those of Mahmûd near Peshawer, and troops under the walls of Canouj, a city described the rajah was defeated and obliged to seek refuge as abounding in wealth and magnificence, and in Cashmir. Mahmûd then advanced and laid whose ruins at the present day are said to cover siege to Multân. At the end of seven days the an extent of ground equal to that occupied by proffered submission of the chief was accepted ; | London. The rajah, unprepared for resistance, for tidings had reached the Sultan of the invasion came forth, and surrendered himself and family tó of his northern dominions by the Tartars. Leav- the Sultân, by whom he was received to friendship ing, therefore, the charge of the affairs of India to and alliance, and his town was left uninjured. Sewuk-pal, a converted Hindoo, he returned with Mahmûd then turned northwards, repassed the

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