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A. D. 1759.
CAPTURE OF MASULIPATAM.
this time, endeavouring to get an addition made to named Amunderâz, being offended with Bussy, had this last force; but the rajah thought the fortunes taken advantage of his departure to attack and of the Englisht on the decline; and as the native capture Vizagapatam. He immediately sent to bankers seemed to be of the same opinion, Calliaud Madras, calling for aid, and offering to put that was unable to procure the money requisite for the place into the hands of the English. As Fort St. payment of the troops if he should send them. His David had just fallen, and an attack on Madras was mission, therefore, was of little avail ; but with expected, his proposals were rejected. He then what men he could get, and a body of Sepoys from addressed himself to Clive, who agreed at once to Trichinopoly, he came (Feb. 7) to Mt. St. Thomas, assist him ; and a force of five hundred Europeans and took the command of the troops there, which and two thousand Sepoys, with thirty pieces of were acting against the enemy, and which Lally cannon, was sent by sea to Vizagapatam, under the compared to flies, which as soon as they are beaten command of Lieut.-Col. Forde, in the month of off on one side return on another.
September. They joined the rajah's “rabble," as Lally resolved to make an effort to free himself | Orme irreverently styles his troops; and after the from them ; and on the morning of the 9th he sent usual disputes about money, marched against the two divisions against them, commanded by a rela- French troops under M. Conflans, whom they met tive and namesake of his own. The one consisted and totally defeated at Peddalore. They then of 1200 Sepoys, and 500 native horse ; the other, advanced about forty miles to the attack of Rajaof 600 foot, and 300 horse, all Europeans. Cal- mundra, on the left bank of the Godâveri ; but the liaud had 2500 Sepoys, 2200 native horse, 103 French abandoned it at their approach, and crossEuropeans, and ten English troopers under Capt. ing the river retired to Masulipatam. Want of Vasserot. His native cavalry, when they saw the money for some time impeded the progress of enemy, set off towards them, as Orme says, “scam- Forde, and meantime the Sûbahdâr had assembled pering, shouting, and flourishing their sabres." his forces on the Kistna, to march to its relief. But a discharge of the carbines of the first rank of Forde, however, advanced, and on the 6th March the French cavalry, which brought down four or he came in sight of that town. He was erecting five of them, made them scamper off in another batteries, and making other preparations to attack, direction, leaving Calliaud with only the ten troopers. when suddenly the whole of his European troops With these he withdrew into an inclosure ; the turned out, and threatened to march away if he combat was continued with various success during did not pay them the prize-money then due to the day, and in the evening the French retired. them, and engage to give them the whole plunder As the ammunition of the English was nearly of Masulipatam when taken. By his promises, spent, Calliaud led his men during the night to however, and representations, he induced them to Chingleput, leaving fires burning to deceive the return to their duty, and the siege proceeded. On enemy.
the 6th April three breaches were reported to be Lally had now been nearly two months before practicable, and as it appeared that there was only Madras. A breach was effected, but his officers, two days' supply of ammunition for the batteries when consulted declared, that though it was prac- remaining, and intelligence had arrived that the ticable, it was inaccessible, and they also stated Sûbahdâr and the French (who had recovered their belief, that with their present force they Rajahmundza) were approaching, it was resolved could not hope to take the fort. Lally was hated to attempt to carry the place by storm. by his officers for his pride and insolence; he was On the 10th the firing was kept up vigorously without money or credit ; the Sepoys were deserting all through the day, and at ten at night the troops fast, and the Europeans threatening to follow their were all under arms. They marched to the main example. He resolved, therefore, to raise the attack in three divisions, two of Europeans, under siege, first_burning the Black Town by way of Captains Fischer and Yorke, and one of Sepoys, revenge. But the appearance of Admiral Pocock, under Captain Maclean. Another division under with reinforcements on the 16th, saved the native Captain Knox, and a fifth composed of the rajalı’s town. The enemy, after keeping up a hot fire troops, were to divert the attention of the enemy during the night, marched next day for Arcot, in by false attacks. Captain Fischer reached the such precipitation that they left behind them fifty- breach, and gained possession of a bastion; here two pieces of cannon, and 150 barrels of gunpow- he was joined by Captain Yorke, who, however, der. They also left four sick and wounded Euro- was near losing his life, in consequence of a panicpeans, whom Lally by letter commended to the dread of a mine which seized his men, so that they humanity of the British governor, and the treat- left him alone with two drummers. He, however, ment they experienced was such, that proud and rallied about six-and-thirty of them, but the French ill-conditioned as he was, he expressed himself had had time to load a cannon with grape, and the grateful for it. Thus terminated the last siege of discharge of it wounded himself and fifteen others, Madras.
beside killing some of the remainder. M. ConThe English soon took the field again under flans, however, surrendered at discretion, and the Major Brereton, as both Lawrence and Draper number of the prisoners exceeded that of the capwere in an ill state of health. The French, under There was abundance of stores, and 120 the Marquis de Soupires, did not venture to meet pieces of cannon in the fort; the other booty also them, and they took Conjeveram by assault. To.. was considerable. ward the end of May both armies went into can- Salabut Jung, who was only fifteen miles distant, tonments.
now seemed inclined to treat. Col. Forde, thereDuring these events Lally learned that Masuli- fore, went to his camp, and a treaty was concluded, patam had fallen into the hands of the English, by which he gave Masulipatam and some other and the French influence in the Circars had thus districts to the English, and engaged to dismiss the been destroyed. One of the rajahs of that country, | French in his service, and not to employ them any
more, or to allow them to have any settlements and, at the desire of their general, the sergeants south of the Kistna. The English, on their side, they agreed to return to their duty, on condition engaged not to aid or protect his enemies. These of an amnesty, six months' pay in hand, and the articles were entirely in favour of the English, and remainder in a month. These terms were acceded would probably not have been so easily obtained, to, and they returned to Wandewash. Bussy was were it not that Nizâm_Ally, the Sûbahdâr's obliged to advance a month's pay to his men, and brother, whose enmity to Bussy was well known, to halt till he could give them as much as the had received a letter from Clive, inviting him to others had received. He then proceeded to join aid Col. Forde, and he had now advanced to Basâlut Jung ; but as this person demanded a loan Hyderabad, in the hope of supplanting his brother. of four lacs of rupees, he could effect nothing to The Sûbahdâr wanted Forde to give him some of the advantage of the French, and he returned to the English troops, and on his refusal he retained the Carnatic, bringing with him those French who the French that were with him. An accominoda- were with Basalut Jung. tion, however, was effected with Nizâm Ally, who As we have seen, it was the want of money that was confirmed in the government of Berår, of crippled all the operations of the French. An opwhich Bussy had caused him to be deprived.portunity now presented itself of obtaining a large Basalut Jung, another brother, then took the sum, and Lally resolved to embrace it. The apFrench troops and set off for the south, to pro- proaching December harvest in the isle of Seringmote some views of his own. The English forth- ham promised to be unusually abundant, and the with suspected some ulterior designs, and a force, government share was valued at six lacs of rupees. under Major Monson, was sent against the fort of Accordingly, toward the end of November, a force Coverpauk, and to their great surprise, for no one of 900 Europeans, 1000 Sepoys, and 200 native expected it, the fort surrendered at the first sum- horse was sent thither, under the command of M.
Monson then led his troops to Arcot, ex- Crillon. No tidings of its march reached either pecting a similar result, but his hopes being de- Madras or Trichinopoly till it had nearly arrived ceived, he returned to Conjeveram.
at its destination. It then entered the island, and On the 10th September the fleets of Pocock and attacked the pagoda, which was gallantly defended D'Aché engaged, and the battle was, as usual, in- by some Sepoys and other native troops. The decisive, though the French fled. D’Aché retired cannon of the French, however, soon forced an ento Pondicherry, whence he sailed for the Islands, trance, and then they acted with the usual French in spite of the remonstrances and even threats of barbarity. They refused quarter, and when they Lally. He, however, was induced to leave behind turned out those who had survived the massacre, him 400 Africans, and 500 Europeans, which last they fired on some, and their cavalry pursued and Lally termed “the scum of the sea." On the cut down others, It is but justice to add, that the night of the 29th an attack was made on the town officers did not sanetion this conduct of their men. and fort of Wandewash, by the British troops, This loss was soon counterbalanced by successes under Major Brereton ; but it proved a total in another quarter. The English force had been failure, owing in a great measure to the cowardice increased by exchanges of prisoners, and still more of Major R. Gordon, who was appointed to lead one by the arrival of Col. Coote (who had returned to of the divisions, but who disappeared as soon as England from Bengal) with 600 men, the remainder the signal for its advance had been given. Lally, of his regiment, and which raised it to its full when informed of this event, fired one hundred strength of 1000 men. He was nominated to the guns in honour of the great victory gained by the command in Bengal, but with permission to remain French, and sent magnificent accounts of it into in Coromandel if deemed advisable. As he deterall quarters.
mined to remain, major Calliaud was sent with Bussy was now on his march to join Basâlut 200 men to Bengal, as Clive had requested might Jung, and he had proceeded one day's march from be done in case of Coote's being detained. Arcot, when he was stopped by intelligence of a Coote, who took the chief command, resolved to mutiny among the troops at that place, which attempt the reduction of Wandewash. The troops speedily spread to his own camp. More than a rendezvoused at Conjeveram, whence, while Coote year's pay was now due to the troops, and they marched with the main body to Arcot, Major were ill supplied with provisions. This in reality Brereton, with a strong detachment, pushed on for was owing to the extreme want of money ; but the Wandewash, and took possession of the town withmen thought that D’Aché had brought a large out opposition. The fort was commanded by a quantity of treasure, and they suspected that Killidâr, or native governor, and he had with him, Lally had amassed great private wealth. They beside his own troops, about seventy Europeans. complained loudly; and when some of the men of When Coote arrived, batteries were raised and a the regiment of Lorraine were punished for some breach effected. The fort was then summoned to other offences, the whole regiment turned out, and surrender ; but a defiance was returned. The occupied the ground lately held by the English. firing was then continued, and, on the following They were soon joined by the other regiments in morning, the Killidâr sent to treat ; and Coote Wandewash ; they made a sergeant-major their pledged himself that, if he would deliver up the general, and another sergeant major-general, and French who were with him, he should be conappointed all other officers, observing the strictest tinued in his government under the English. An discipline.
answer was required by two in the afternoon. When the news reached Pondicherry, Lally, the At that hour the answer had not arrived, and the members of council, and others, gave all the money French appeared on the walls and offered to deliver and plate they possessed, and the viscount Fumel up the fort. Coote sent å party of Sepoys to take was sent to negotiate with the mutineers. They possession of the gateway ; but they were not adlistened calmly to his arguments and proposals, I mitted, as it was said the key was in the possession
A. D. 1760.
BATTLE OF WANDEWASH.
of the Killidâr. Coote, however, had himself ad- the attack on Wandewash, whither Lally marched vanced at the head of another company, and passed with a part of his forces on the 4th, leaving Bussy the breach ; and thus Wandewash was taken, with- with the main body at Trivatore. Coote, when out the loss of a single man. The Killidár had informed of Lally's departure, took a position half signed the treaty before the troops entered, and in way between Wandewash and Chingleput. Lally all equity he had a right to the benefit of it ; but would hardly give credit to Bussy when he sent to the importance of the province, his kindred to inform him of this movement; but being at length Chunda Sahib, his enmity to Mohammed Ally, and convinced of its truth, he permitted Bussy to act his long connexion with the French, “ weighed as he deemed best, and that officer led his troops unjustly,” says Orme,“ more than the respect due to Wandewash. It was Coote's intention to wait to a contract of which he was fulfilling his part.” till the enemy was ready to assault, and then to He was conducted a prisoner to Madras, where he attack, at his option, either the troops thus enhaughtily refused to give any account of his trea- gaged, or the covering force on the plain. Bussy, sure, which he had sent away to a strong fort in who penetrated his design, advised Lally to susthe hills near Vellore. The Nabob said that his pend the siege, and to keep his army together till capture was of more importance than that of the Coote either attacked or retired. This advice was fort; yet he offered him his liberty for ten lacs of of course rejected, and Lally resolved to persevere rupees.
in the siege. From Wandewash Coote marched to the fort of On his first arrival, Lally had attacked and Carangoly, distant thirty-five miles. After effect- carried the town, chiefly through his own personal ing a breach, he allowed the garrison to march courage, a quality in which he certainly was not away with all the honours of war, only depriving by any means deficient. He entrenched the openthe Sepoys of their arms. He was now preparing ings of the streets toward the fort, and raised a to march against Arcot, where a small detachment, battery; but as he had to fetch his guns from under Captain Wood, had already entered the some distance, it was not till the 20th that it began town, But the return of Bussy frustrated his de- to play. By night it had produced some effect, sign ; and being harassed by the French cavalry i and next morning Coote, to whom Captain Sherand some Marattas who had joined them, and the lock, the commandant, had sent word, advanced rains coming on, he put his troops into quarters at with his cavalry to reconnoitre. Having received Coverpauk and the adjacent villages.
further information from Sherlock, he gave orders The two armies did not remain long inactive. for the main body to advance. The following day Early in January, 1760, they were in front of each (22nd) his whole army having come up, he drew other, between Coverpauk and Arcot. Lally, it out in order of battle on a plain, in view of the whose forces had been augmented by the return of French camp; but their troops remained inactive, Bussy and by the arrival of a great part of the and even the firing on the fort seemed to have detachment at Seringham, which he had recalled, ceased. He then directed it to move along the resolved to make an attack on Conjeveram, where south side of the mountain of Wandewash, and in he fancied the English had large magazines of rice. the direction of the fort. He offered battle again, By skilful manoeuvring he contrived to deceive the but to no purpose ; and having, by the fire of two vigilance of the English for three days, during guns driven off the French and Maratta cavalry which he was gradually getting nearer to his ob- that annoyed him, he moved round the mountain ject; and on the third night he marched for it till, as he had proposed, he had placed his army with his troops in two divisions. In the morning with one flank protected by the fire of the fort, he took possession of the town without resistance and the other by some impassable ground, while but no rice was there. The English in fact had he had the power of attacking at his pleasure the no magazines : the system then was, that each day batteries or camp of the enemy, should provide for itself; if food was to be had Lally, aware of his error, resolved to give battle the men ate it, if not they fasted. The pagoda at once, in the hope of retrieving it; and when the there, which was held by the English, contained armies were within cannon shot, he put himself at some military stores ; but as he had no cannon, he the head of his 300 European cavalry, and making could not attack it, and he retired after plundering a large sweep, came down on that of the English, and setting fire to the town. His most valuable in which there were only eighty Europeans. The booty was two thousand bullocks.
native horse at once turned and fled, but Captain Coote, who had expected that Wandewash would Barker, who had the management of two fieldbe the object of Lally's attack, set out with his pieces, directed them so abły, that just as the cavalry for Conjeveram the moment intelligence French were coming full speed down on the from thence reached him, but found Lally gone. eighty English, he gave them a point-blank disThat officer was now preparing for an attempt on charge, which threw them into such confusion, Wandewaslı, contrary to the advice of the experi- that they turned and galloped off, Lally being the enced Bussy, who maintained that it was impos- last to retire. sible to take it in the face of the whole British Lally, on his return, gave orders to advance. army, and advised, as they were so much superior The regiment of Lorraine, forming twelve in front, in cavalry, and had the aid of the Marattas, to bore down on Coote's own, and though received by keep the regular troop together, and let the latter a galling fire at the distance of fifty yards, still lay waste the British districts. But Lally was rushed on till the two were mingled and contend. headstrong and self-sufficient ; he was jealous of ing with the bayonet. But here the English were Bussy's popularity, if not of his talents; and as ever superior, and the gallant Frenchmen turned though he could not decently avoid asking his
and Hed to their camp. opinion, he took good care never to follow it. Meantime a shot from one of the English guns Bussy's advice to the contrary, therefore, ensured struck a tumbril laden with powder in a dry tank,
to the left of Lally's regiment, and the explosion declared to the presidency that, if that regiment killed or wounded about eighty of them. The rest went, there was little hope of taking Pondicherry, fled to the camp, and Major Brereton forth with Coote, unlike Adlercron, agreed to leave it and go advanced to occupy the tank. Bussy, however, to Bengal alone. who had rallied some of the fugitives, led them Pondicherry, like most towns in that part of back, and a sharp conflict ensued; but the English India, had a bound-hedge composed of trees and remained finally masters of the tank, with the loss prickly plants. The use of these hedges was, to of their gallant leader. The fight was then main- keep off a sudden attack. The present one comtained between them and the remainder of Lally's mencing at the river opposite the fort of Ariancoregiment, till two field-pieces were brought to pang, went round till it reached the sea-coast on bear on the latter. Bussy then attempted to lead the north, enclosing an area of seven square miles, a charge, but his horse being wounded, he was which would feed as much cattle as might support forced to dismount; and then he found that he had the garrison for some time. It was defended by been followed by only twenty men. He surrendered four redoubts, on the four roads leading from the to an English party, which surrounded him; and town. To get possession of the hedge and its resuch was the respect in which he was held, that doubts was of the utmost importance to the Eng. he was admitted to parole on the field, and fur- lish. Coote, whose plan was to commence by nished with a pass for Pondicherry.
reducing the fort of Ariancopang, had prevailed The French camp with stores, ammunition, and on Admiral Stevens to lend him 400 marines for twenty-four pieces of cannon was taken. The loss the purpose; but in the council he yielded his own of the English in killed and wounded was about judgment to that of Monson, and the expedition 200, that of the French about 600 men. The num. was suspended, and the marines sent on board. ber of Europeans is said by Orme to have been Monson, whose plan was to attack the four re1900 English, 2250 French, while Lally says, 2500 doubts together, as soon as he got the command, of the former, 1350 of the latter 5.
proceeded to put it into execution. The attack Coote proceeded to reduce Chingleput, Arcot, was in some measure successful, and might perand other forts. The important seaport of Carical haps have been completely so, were it not that surrendered on the 5th April, and on the 1st May Major R. Gordon became again invisible at the the only place remaining to the French was Pon- critical moment. The French abandoned three of dicherry, and the English army was encamped the redoubts and several pieces of cannon; but the within four miles of that town. They had been Joss of the English was severe. Among the wounded largely reinforced from home, and eleven ships of was Monson himself, and as Major R. Gordon, the the line were now on the coast. Hope and con- next in rank, lost no time in displaying his incomfidence pervaded all bosoms; while, within the petence by exposing the troops to a night attack, walls of Pondicherry, all was distrust, animosity, from which nothing but their own daring valour and bitterness. Lally charged the governor and preserved them, Monson wrote immediately to council with peculation and embezzlement; they request that Coote, who was still at Madras, would retorted by charges of cowardice, folly, and dis- come and take the command. The presidency honesty. Aid from France was looked for, but joined in the request, and Coote, who had no false looked for in vain.
notions of honour, gave a willing consent. Still Lally was able to inspire the English with The blockade was continued, and in December such respect for his forces that they did not ven- famine began to be felt in the town. On the 27th, ture to lay siege to Pondicherry. He continued to Lally turned out of it the natives to the number of supply the fort with provisions for several months; | 1400, and during eight days these poor creatures and on the night of the 4th September, he made a roamed about the enclosure, feeding on the roots well-planned attack on the English camp, which of the grass, prevented from going out of it by the failed, chiefly in consequence of one of the divi- guards of the besiegers, fired on by cannon and sions not coming up in time. But reinforcements musketry when they approached the gates of the continued to come to the English camp, and their town, At length the English commander allowed fleet now counted seventeen ships of the line. them to pass, and the expressions of gratitude
The last ships from England brought out com- uttered by the unhappy creatures were loud and missions of lieut.-colonel for Majors Brereton fervent. and Monson, prior in date to that of Coote. But On the 30th a furious storm came on ; the sea they were not to assume the command as long as rushed over the beach, sweeping away the English Coote should remain in the Carnatic. This injudi- batteries and redoubts, carrying off tents, and cious arrangement was made in ignorance of the destroying ammunition. Some ships of the blockreal state of affairs; for Coote, it was supposed, ading squadron were stranded, others much inhad proceeded to his command in Bengal. Mon- jured. But the inundation was so far of service, son, in whom we shall find little to esteem, instead that, as it covered the ground with water so that of, in the spirit of the instructions, agreeing to artillery could not be moved through it, the garricontinue to serve during the siege under Coote, son were unable to make a sally. Every effort offered to retire to Madras ; but Coote, to end the was speedily made to repair the damage, and on difficulty, said that he would proceed with his re- the 12th January, 1761, the besiegers began to giment at once to Bengal; and when Monson
On the evening of the 15th a flag 5 Mill, true to his system of depreciating his countrymen,
of truce appeared, announcing the approach of a says that Orme's account of the French appears to be con
deputation. The envoys came on foot, the fort jectural, while Lally may perhaps be trusted for the account
containing neither horses nor palankeen-bearers. of his own forces, as it was given in the face of his enemies,
They bore a memorial from Lally full of absurd who could contradict it if untrue. But these enemies were gasconade, and charges of breach of faith on the French also, and his account is false on the face of it. English, but offering to surrender at discretion; A. D. 1761.
AFFAIRS OF BENGAL.
and another from the governor and council, claiming security for the persons, property, and religion
CHAPTER IX. of the inhabitants. The terms were granted, and next day (18th) the English took possession of the
Affairs of Bengal-Invasion of Bahâr by the Shah-Zada town and citadel. The roar of 1000 pieces of can- Conflict with the Dutch--Return of Clive to England. non from ships, walls, redoubts, and batteries, saluted the English flag when it was seen to wave Having thus brought the affairs of the Carnatic over the conquered town.
down to the period of the overthrow of the French As the French had destroyed the fortifications power in India, we now return to those of Bengal. of Fort St. David, and Lally's instructions were to A revolution in the East is usually attended by destroy all the maritime possessions of the Eng- minor commotions within the state, made by those lish, the Company had issued similar orders in who hope to gain or who fear to lose wealth or retaliation. The fortifications, therefore, of Pon- power. “Jaffier Khân was a weak man, and too dicherry were demolished. Mr. Pigot claimed the much attached to his own family, and his son conquest for the Company; but a council of the Meerum was known to be cruel and unscrúpulous. officers of the army and navy met and refused Moreover it had been a part of the policy of the compliance. He then declared that the presidency prudent Aliverdi to employ Hindoos in places of would not issue any money for the support of the trust and profit, and the Moslems coveted their king's troops or the French prisoners, and they places and their wealth. The consequence was, were obliged to yield, though they protested against that very soon Roy Dûllûb, Abdul Sing, rajah of his authority.
Purneah, Rajah Râm, manager of Midnapore, Gingee, and Thiagur, and Mahé, on the coast of and Rajah Râm Narrain, governor of Patna, were Malabar, soon after surrendered to the forces sent driven into rebellion, and Shujah-ud-dowlah, of against them, and nothing remained to the French Oude, who now had Law and his French with him, in India but their mere trading factories at Calicut menaced Bahâr. Clive, therefore, found it necesand Surat ; and thus, in the space of less than sary to accompany the Nabob to Patna, with the twenty years, were ended for ever their brilliant greater part of his forces, though he thereby left dreams of an empire in the East.
Calcutta exposed, if the French, as was feared, And surely, without national prejudice, we may could have sent a force against it. By the insay that it was fortunate for the people of India fluence which his mental energy gave him over the that the contest had this termination. Of all na- vacillating Nabob, and by the confidence reposed tions of Europe the French seem to be the least in his honour by Râm Narrain, he effected an acfitted for holding dominion over another people. commodation, and the latter was left in possession Their national vanity and their inborn insolence of his government, from which Meer Jaffier had disqualify them : they have none of the dignity of proposed to remove him in favour of his brother, character requisite for such an office. In the con- whom Clive designates as “a greater fool than duct of the British in India there is doubtless himself.” Clive also, while at Patna, obtained for much to condemn ; but much is to be ascribed to the Company a monopoly of the saltpetre of that inevitable ignorance, and they have gone on in a province. It was an advantage, no doubt, for steady course of improvement. But had the them ; but it was also one for the Nabob, who reFrench obtained the same power there, we fear ceived as much as ever, and more regular payment. the pages of the historian would present a far dif- But his officers were displeased, as they lost their ferent picture, and we might have to contemplate usual bribes and presents from the contractors. razzias, and scenes of plunder, violence, insolence, Clive was accompanied to Moorshedabâd by Roy and cruelty, of which Englishmen are incapable ; Dûllûb, whom he had pledged himself to protect, ending eventually in their massacre and expulsion. and he then returned to Calcutta.
Lally returned to France. His conduct in India Soon after his return, a vessel arrived from bad been intemperate and overbearing, and had England, bringing out the arrangements made by made him many enemies ; but it had been honest the Directors after they heard of the misfortunes and disinterested, and he had shown both skill and in Bengal. The first, made in August, 1757, apcourage. The ministry and the Company, who pointed a committee of five, in which Clive was to had not supported him, resolved to make him the preside ; the second, made in November, dismissed scapegoat of their own misdeeds, and he was thrown Mr. Drake, whose incompetence was undisputed, into the Bastille, and then, as if that was too and appointed a council of ten, the four senior honourable for him, into a common prison. Frivo- members of which were to preside alternately for lous charges were made against him, and the Par- three months each. In this no mention whatever liament of Paris condemned him to death. When was made of Clive ; but this was little regarded ; the sentence was read to him in his dungeon, he and the members of the Council were unanimous was so filled with surprise and indignation, that he in their request to him to take the office of presisnatched up a pair of compasses he had been using, dent, as he alone was adequate to the conducting and attempted to plunge them into his heart ; but of affairs at that critical period. Irritated by the his hand was held. That very day he was led supposed insult of the Directors, he at first rethrough Paris in a dung.cart, to the Grève, with a fused ; but he finally yielded to his zeal for the gag in his mouth, to prevent his addressing the public service and the united solicitations of all people ; and his head was stricken off. Voltaire ranks and parties in Bengal. The truth, however, exposed this “murder committed with the sword is, no slight was intended. It was supposed he of justice," as Orme terms it ; and his son Lally had returned to Madras; and as soon as intelliTolendal became an instrument in the hand of gence arrived of the battle of Plassy, and of his Providence for destroying the effete and tyrannous remaining in Bengal, the Directors appointed him monarchy which had perpetrated that dark deed. to the office of president.