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It was soon after this that Clive sent the expedi- | pire, to make that prince a prisoner. Hence they tion under Col. Forde to the Deckar, much against both, while pursuing their own interests, were the will of many members of the council, who acting the part of dutiful subjects to the crown. thought only of Bengal, wbile he thought of the To Clive the great advantage was, that Meer British interests in India.

Jaffier took this occasion of presenting him a Meantime intrigue_was at work, as usual, at jagheer for the support of his new dignity. It was Moorshedabâd, and Roy Dûllûb was deprived of the quit rent of the territory granted to the Comhis employment, and disgraced. A chief agent in pany, and was estimated at nearly thirty lacs of this business was Nundcomar, another Hindoo, rupees a year 6. and governor of Hooghly, who envied his wealth There was peace at this time between England and his success. His attachment to the English and Holland, but we are not to suppose that mutual was also a high crime in the eyes of the Nabob hostilities in the East were thereby precluded. and his son. Just at this time Clive had invited Though the Dutch, who had also suffered from the the Nabob to Calcutta. He accepted the invita- rapacity of Shujah-ud-dowlah, rejoiced at his fall, tion, and he had no sooner set out, than Meerum, and congratulated the English on their effecting it, as no doubt had been arranged, was going to at- they refused to recognise Meer Jaffier, and on his tack Roy Důllûb's house, when Mr. Scrafton, the passing their factory of Chinsura on his way to resident, marched a company of men to protect Calcutta, they did not pay him the compliment of him, and sent word to Mr. Watts, who was with a salute. The offended Nabob stopped their trade, the Nabob. This prince of course denied all know- and they then, in their usual manner, made a most ledge of the transaction, and consented to Roy submissive apology. Mutual jealousy of the Eng. Dûllûb's accompanying them to Calcutta. Some lish soon drew them more closely together. The time after the minister's family were allowed to Nabob was annoyed at the state of tutelage in join him there, and his property was saved from which he was held; the Dutch were jealous of the the meditated plunder. An attempt was then English monopoly of saltpetre (though they got it made to deprive him of the English protection, by cheaper than ever), and annoyed at their vessels means of a forged letter, on which was founded a being obliged to take English pilots, a necessary charge of plots against the Nabob's life. But this precaution against the French. It was said that artifice conld not elude Clive's sagacity.

they then concerted between them that the Dutch Early in the year 1759 the Shah Zada, heir- should bring a large force from Batavia to counterapparent, eldest son of the emperor of Delhi, balance that of the English, and support the Naweary of the state of thraldom in which the im bob. But then came the invasion of the Shâhperial family was held by the Vizier Ghâzi-ud-dîn, Zada, which united the Nabob more closely than and instigated by the Sûbahdâr of Oude, fled from ever with Clive ; and when intelligence came that the capital, and collecting a force of about 8000 the Dutch were fitting out a large expedition at men, resolved to attempt to make himself master Batavia, he issued a purvannah to the governor of of Bahâr. Râm Narrain was reported to have in Chinsura, prohibiting their admission there. Soon vited him, and the Seits to have supplied him with after a Dutch ship arrived full of troops. The money ; it was also asserted that he had been Nabob sent another purwannah, and the Dutch rejoined by M. Law. On the other hand, the con- plied, that she came by stress of weather, and duct of his son gave the Nabub great anxiety even would depart forth with. They endeavoured, how. for his life, and his troops were in a state of ever, to land the troops, but were prevented by mutiny, and refused to march unless their arrears the vigilance of the English, who searched the were paid. His only dependence was on Clive, to boats, and sent back the soldiers they found in whom both himself and Mr. Hastings, the resi- them. dent, wrote frequent and pressing letters.

Early in October, while the Nabob was on a Clive at once assured the Nabob of support, and visit at Calcutta, news came that six or seven at the same time, through Mr. Amyatt, the agent more Dutch ships "crammed with soldiers," had at Patna, bade Râm Narrain to rely on his pro- entered the river. The Nabob, conscious that it tection against the Nabob. He put himself at the was his encouragement had brought them, said, he head of a force of about 450 Europeans and 2500 would go to his town of Hooghly for a few days, Sepoys, and set out for Patna. The news of his and make them be sent away. Instead, however, approach gave courage to the governor, who had of stopping them, he went to a place between it been wavering ; he repelled the attacks of the and Chinsura, where he received the Dutch most enemy, and soon after the Shah Zada broke up graciously, and sent to tell the English that he had his camp, and made a precipitate retreat. Re- granted them some slight indulgence in their trade, pelled from Oude, to whose ruler he was no longer and that they would send away their ships and of use, and proclaimed a rebel by his father, he troops as soon as the season would permit. But sought the British protection; but, connected as that this was all deception was manifest, for the Clive was with Meer Jaffier, he found himself season was then as favourable as could be desired, obliged to refuse it; he sent him, however, a present and soon after news arrived that the ships were of money equal to about 10001. to aid him in effect- moving up the river, and that the Dutch were ing his escape.

enlisting troops of all kinds, which could not be This expedition of the Shâh Zada was of service done without the connivance, at least, of the to both Meer Jaffier and to Clive. For the em- Nabob. peror (or rather Ghâzi-ud-dîn), when he heard of it, appointed his second son Sûbahdâr of Bengal,

6 Clive, when created an Omrah, had, through Jugget &c., with Meer Jaffier as his Naib or deputy, and

Seit, asked for a jagheer to support his new dignity, but it

does not appear that he specified any amount, and he got no sent orders to the latter and to Clive, who, through

answer at the time. The present one was given him by the his interest had been made an Omrah of the em

advice of Jugget Seit.

A. D. 1759, 1760.




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It is to be recollected, that at this time a part of with fourteen officers, and 200 Malays, made prithe troops were with Col. Forde in the Deckan,

Forde then returned, and sat down before another part at Patna, and that those from home Chinsura. But the Dutch sued for favour; they destined for Bengal had been stopped at Madras, disavowed the conduct of their fleet, acknowledging so that the garrison of Fort William was very themselves the aggressors, and agreed to pay costs weak; and, moreover, there were only three ships and damages. Their ships were then restored. of war in the river. To suffer the Dutch, how- But the troubles of the Dutch were not yet ever, to pass, might endanger the very existence of ended. In a few days Meerum, at the head of a the English in Bengal ; and it, moreover, was be- body of horse, approached Chinsura, making delieved to be the politics of the Nabob’s durbar, to mands. They wrote, supplicating the good offices let the rivals weaken each other, and then try to of Clive. By his means a treaty was effected, reduce both, or, at worst, to side with the stronger. limiting the number of troops they were to keep to On the other side there was the hazard of being 125 Europeans; and the young Nabob then withovercome, and the doubt, if they would be justified drew and left them in quiet. in commencing hostilities against an ally of Eng. Clive now put into execution his plan of returne land, in case the Dutch should attempt to pass the ing to England, for which he sailed on the 25th batteries. But while feeble-minded men were February, 1760, the richest man that ever left the hesitating, and even representing to Clive his per- shores of India for Europe. His departure was sonal risk, in order to dissuade him, he replied, deeply regretted by the Nabob, who saw in him that “a public man may occasionally be called on his only support ; and many of the Company's to act with a halter round his neck," and resolved servants augured ill, and but too truly, for the at all hazards to maintain the interest and honour country from his absence. of his country, and resist the Dutch if they offered to advance?.

From the embarrassment about being the aggressors, the Dutch soon relieved them by seizing vessels, guns, and stores, making prisoners, and

CHAPTER X. pulling down the English flag. It was concluded from this, that they had been advised of a war

Defeat of the Emperor-Death of Meerum-Dethronement between the two nations in Europe, or that they

of Meer Jaffier-Seizure of Râm Narrain-The Private counted on the Nabob's aid or neutrality. As their Trade-Quarrel with Meer Cossim--Affairs at Patnaplans were not known, the greater part of the Restoration of Meer Jaffier-Battle of Geriah-Massacre troops were stationed at the batteries named Char- of English Prisoners-Battle at Patna-Mutiny of Sepoys nock's and Tanna's, under Capt. Knox, while Col. - Battle at Buxar-Death of Meer Jaffier-His Successor Forde, who had returned from the Deckan on ac

- Presents received. count of his health, marched with another party in

By the rotation system which had been established the direction of Chinsura, to intercept the Dutch troops if they should debark below the batteries, the fifth on the list, those above him having died

the office of governor now came to Mr. Holwell, and march for that place by land. The three ships

or returned to Europe. Col. Forde also returned, were directed to come above the batteries, where fire-boats were placed, and other preparations Calliaud.

and the chief military command lay with Col. made. On the 21st November the Dutch ships came to

On the 18th January this officer had marched anchor, a little below the batteries, and on the 23rd for Patna, accompanied by a large native force,

under Meerum. For the late Shâh-Zada, who was they landed on the opposite shore 700 Europeans,

now emperor, his father having been murdered 5, and about 800 Buggoses, i.e. Malays. On the same

was again before that city. Col. Calliaud had day orders were sent to Commodore Wilson, to de

written to Râm Narrain, to avoid an engagement; mand restitution of the ships, men, and property, or “ to fight, sink, burn, and destroy” the Dutch ships defeated. On the 22nd February, Calliaud fought

but he gave no heed to the advice, fought, and was on their refusal. Next day (24th) the demand was made, and refused, and the commodore then obeyed and the victory would have been still more com

a battle, in which the emperor was totally routed ; his further instructions. Unequal as were the plete, if Meerum had not refused to give any forces, in two hours six of the Dutch ships struck; cavalry for pursuit

. The emperor marched for the seventh ran down the river, but she was met

Bengal, followed by Calliaud, who came nearly up and captured.

with him two or three times, and but for the reOn the same day Col. Forde was attacked in the

fusal of the Nabob to give any cavalry, would proruins of Chandernagore, by the garrison of Chinsura ; but he routed and pursued them to the bar.

bably have defeated him again. He thus was able riers of that town, which (being now joined by by Law and his French, he made two assaults.

to make his way back to Patna, on which, aided Capt. Knox from the batteries) he was preparing He was preparing to make a third, when the arrival to invest, when he heard of the approach of the

of a detachment under Capt. Knox forced him to troops from the ships. Though his whole force did

retire. Knox was then sent against the Foujdar not amount to 400 Europeans, and 800 Sepoys, he advanced to meet them. The action was “short, joining the emperor. He gave him a defcat, and

of Purneah, who was in arms for the purpose of bloody, and decisive ;" for it lasted only half an

Calliaud and Meerum, who had now arrived at hour, and the Dutch had 120 Europeans, and 200 Malays killed ; 150 wounded, and 350 Europeans, Meerum impeded success, by refusing to give ca

Patna, went in pursuit of him. But here again 7 When Clive formed this resolution, almost the whole of

valry. His career, however, was near its close, his property was in the hands of the Dutch, through whom he was remitting it to Europe.

8 See above, p. 47.

On the night of the 2nd July there was a fearful | willingness to be guided by his advice for its im. storm, in which the lightning struck the tent of provement. Other visits and notes succeeded, in Meerum, and all within it perished. As in the which the Nabob was urged to choose from among East the troops always disperse on the death of the “ his children” some capable person to manage the general, it was resolved to keep that of Meerum a affairs of the state. By dint of importunity be secret ; it was therefore given out that he was un- was drawn to confess his own incapacity and the well, and during a march of seven days to Patna superior fitness of Meer Cossim ; but as he did the army never suspected the truth. When it was not seem inclined to act as was wished, it was remade known, the troops became clamorous for solved to recur to force. The preparations having their arrears of pay; they reviled the Nabob in been made with due secrecy, Col. Calliaud joined the most opprobrious terms, and even menaced his troops with Meer Cossim, and entered the outer him with death. They were only appeased by the court of the palace, where he drew up his men, efforts of his son-in-law, Meer Cossim, who ad- and sent in to Meer Jaffier a letter from the govanced three lacs of rupees, and became security vernor, complaining of his silence during the day, for the remainder.

denouncing his evil counsellors, and informing him Violent and unprincipled as Meerum was, and that he had sent Col. Calliaud with a military force though the Nabob lived in constant apprehension “ to wait on him" and expel his evil advisers, and of meeting death at his hands, his removal now led he was exhorted to look on the governor as his to the overthrow of his father's power. Meer best friend, and “ to remain satisfied.” But bis Cossim, an able, ambitious, and unscrupulous man, satisfaction was evinced by a transport of rage, in had, when he advanced the money, insisted on which he vowed he would resist to the last. Calbeing put into Meerum's place ; and though the liaud remained quiet, to give him time to reflect; and Nabob had two other sons and Meerum left one, he it ended in his submission, stipulating only for his was obliged to consent. This, however, did not life, honour, and a suitable maintenance. Mr. content Meer Cossim ; he was in correspondence Vansittart now appeared, and assured him that not with Mr. Holwell, who hated Meer Jaffier, and the only his person, but his government was safe, if he dethronement of that prince was meditated. pleased ; but when he found that he was only to

Meantime Mr. Holwell was superseded by Mr. have the title, he declined the empty honour, and Vansittart, from Madras, who, on Clive's strong having obtained permission to settle at Calcutta, recommendation, had been appointed his successor he set out for it that very evening. Meer Cossim in Bengal. Mr. Vansittart was a man of many was forth with seated on the musnud, and English good qualities, and by no means devoid of talent; and natives joined in offering him their congratubut he wanted that which is of vital importance to lations. a man placed as he was—he wanted firmness of Thus, in violation of the treaty existing with purpose and energy of character, and he therefore him, and with a sacrifice of British honour, was soon ceased to be master at his own council-board. Meer Jaffier dethroned. Various frivolous reasons, The expenses of the Company at this time in Ben- such as his countenancing the Dutch, his being in gal were very great, and their resources were be correspondence with the emperor, and such like, coming every day more limited ; the unthrifty were assigned, to justify the deed ; but the real Nabob was of course in arrear, and Mr. Holwell reason was-money. The Company got five lacs ; therefore found little difficulty in persuading the but on the night the treaty was signed, Meer Cosgovernor to adopt his views, and to enter into the sim had presented to Mr. Vansittart a paper, which plan for the dethronement of that prince.

proved to be a note for the payment of twenty lacs As Mr. Holwell had laid the plan, the task of to the members of the Select Committee. One can conducting it was committed to him. Meer Cos- hardly be much astray in supposing that this also sim obtained permission to come to Calcutta, where had been arranged between him and Mr. Holwell, he conferred with Mr. Holwell, who agreed to who, however, with the others, rejected it, and every thing he proposed, except the assassination bade the president inform him that he mistook of the Nabob. At this the former expressed his their motives. Still he pressed it on them, and at fears that the latter was not so much his friend as length, as he seemed distressed at their not allow. he had supposed. As, however, he could not go on ing him to give proofs of his gratitude, the kind. without the English, he consented to waive that hearted president told him that, when affairs were point ; and it was arranged that the title of Nabob settled and the country flourishing, they would should be left to Meer Jaffier, while all the execu- accept such marks of his favour as he might be tive power, along with the office of Dewan, or pleased to bestow. It is needless to add that, in treasurer, should be transferred to Meer Cossim. due time, the money was offered and accepted?. The Company, to defray their expenses, were to As it was only the members of the Select Comhave the districts of Burdwar, Midnapore, and mittee that were thus considered, the other memChittagong. These terms were approved of by the bers of council were highly offended, and, in a Select Committee, and a treaty to this effect was letter to the Directors, they did not hesitate to signed by them and Meer Cossim.

hint that this was the real cause of the revolution. All that now remained was, to inform Meer They also took great credit to themselves for Jaffier that he had ceased to reign. Mr. Holwell having had the fortitude to resist the repeated was expected to undertake this task also ; but he declined, for various reasons, and quitted the Com

. In the division of the spoil Mr. Vansittart had five lacs pany's service. Mr. Vansittart then resolved to

of rupees (58,3331.); Mr. Holwell, 2,70,000 (30,9371.); Mr.

Sumner, 2,40,000 (28,0001.); Mr. M'Guire, 2,55,000 (29,3702.); undertake the office himself, and, on the 14th Octo

Mr. Smyth, the Secretary, 1,34,000 (15,3541.); Major Yorke, ber, he arrived at Moorshedabad. Next day he

who commanded the detachment attending on Meer Cossim, was visited by the Nabob. He dwelt on the evils

a like sum (15,3541.); and finally, Col. Calliaud, two lacs of the government, and Meer Jaffier expressed his (22,9161.); in all, 17,33,000 rupees (200,2691.).

A, D. 1761.



offers of Meer Cossim. As we shall see, however, with the whole board, as well as with the army they were in reality little more virtuous than those and navy," and what was intended for five gento whom they were in opposition.

tlemen only.” The motion, which was purely facTo raise the necessary funds for the payments tious, was carried of course, but they got nothing, he had to make, the new Nabob began to squeeze perhaps expected nothing, by it; for the Nabob, in the relations and friends of his predecessors, going a very spirited reply, utterly denied their claim, as back as far as the time of Aliverdi Khân. The he had neither borrowed from them, nor engaged emperor being still in the vicinity of Patna, the to pay them any thing. “I owe nobody a single discontented sought refuge with him ; and in order rupee, nor will I pay your demand,” is the conto get him out of the way, Major Carnac, who clusion of the reply he delivered to Mr. Hastings. commanded there, gave him battle and defeated In fact, they had completely mistaken their man, him (Jan. 15, 1761). M. Law and his French when they substituted Meer Cossim for Meer were made prisoners ; negotiations were then Jaffier on the musnud. The latter was weak, and opened, Major Carnac visited the emperor in his could be bullied or cajoled; the former had both camp, and was accompanied by him back to Patna, energy and capacity. He had reduced his subjects whither also came Meer Cossim, who, on engaging to obedience, and he had, by his financial skill and to pay an annual tribute of twenty-four lacs of attention to the collection of his revenues, been rupees, was acknowledged Sûbahdår of Bengal, able to discharge the whole of his obligations to Bahâr, and Orissa.

the Company and its servants. We have already Meer Cossim shared his predecessor's feelings mentioned the subject of the governor's dustucks or toward Râm Narrain, who was supposed to be certificates, and their power of_exempting the very wealthy. He called on him now to settle his Company's goods from duties. By these goods accounts; but the Hindoo alleged that he owed were meant those brought from England, and nothing, the defence and other expenses of the those purchased in India for exportation, and province having consumed all its revenues. Mr. none others. This was a fair regulation, merely Vansittart supported the Nabob, Major Carnac exempting foreign traders from the onerous and upheld Râm Narrain ; by which conduct, as he no capricious tolls and duties levied on the internal doubt violated the principles of military subordi. trade of the country at the numerous chokeys or nation, he was removed, and Col. Coote, who was toll-houses by which they passed. As the servants now in Bengal, was sent to command at Patna. of the Company were allowed to engage in private But Coote also refused to be instrumental in the trade, various attempts were made, as

we have destruction of a man for whose safety the British seen, to have this trade also covered by the Comfaith had been pledged ; and he too was recalled, pany's dustuck, but in vain as long as there was and the command at Patna given to Capt. Car- vigour in the native governments. As soon, howstairs, with directions to obey the chief of the fac- ever, as, by the dethronement of Shujah-ud-dowlah, tory. The result was, that Râm Narrain was the power and influence of the English became seized and given up to the Nabob; and Mr. Van- paramount in Bengal, the Company's servants presittart was thus the instrument of placing another pared to take advantage of the altered circumstain on the purity of the British faith and honour. stances. While Clive remained in India, their

Mr. Vansittart's power, however, soon passed cupidity was held in check, but as soon as he was out of his hands. Before Clive left India, a very gone, they rushed with avidity into the internal energetic letter, signed by himself and by Messrs. trade ; salt, betel, tobacco, every thing, in short, Holwell, Sumner, Pleydell, and M'Guire, the other became objects of their traffic; the Company's members of the Secret Committee, and which told flag was held to cover every thing ; the gomastahs, the directors some unpalatable truths, had been or native agents of the Company's servants, acted sent to the India House. It excited great wrath with the greatest insolence and oppression ; the and indignation, and orders were sent out to Nabob's officers in general feared to perform their Calcutta to dismiss those four civilians. Mr. duty, and his revenue, deprived of one of its prinHolwell had already resigned, and the dismissal cipal sources, began rapidly to decline. Wealthy of the remaining three left Mr. Vansittart in natives paid even the young writers largely for the a minority in the council, so tliat the powers of use of their name, and thus mere boys were engovernment passed into the hands of his opponents, abled to live at the rate of 15001. or 20001. a year. headed by Mr. Amyatt and Mr. Johnstone. One Many natives even had the audacity to assume the of their first acts was to appoint Mr. Ellis, a habit of English Sepoys or gomastalıs, or to raise violent, intemperate man, resident at Patna, where the English flag, and thus plunder and insult the he soon contrived to irritate the mind of the Na- people with impunity. bob by various petty vexatious acts. In order to Meer Cossim made repeated complaints on this soothe him, the governor proposed sending Mr. subject to Mr. Vansittart, who, on his side, was Hastings to him on a special mission. The council anxious to remedy the disorder; and when we reconsented, but insisted on adding a clause in his collect the horror of bribes, and the high spirit of instructions, directing him to apply to the Nabob disinterestedness lately exhibited by Mr. Johnfor payment, for the use of the Company, of the stone and the rest of the majority, we might natutwenty lacs of rupees he had offered the members rally suppose him to have had their most strenuous of the Secret Committee. This Mr. Vansittart very support. But not so, his only supporter was Mr. properly resisted; and in reply to Mr. Amyatt, he Hastings; for these gentlemen were all deeply observed, that that gentleman had never thought engaged in the private trade themselves, and they of handing over to the Company his share of the affected to regard any attempt to interfere with it money received from Meer Jaffier. But Mr.

as the very height of tyranny and injustice. The Amyatt maintained that there was an essential weak Vansittart himself seemed even to think that difference between what was received “in common their enjoyment of it for five or six years, had given them a kind of prescriptive right to it. In a strong palace held out. The troops were then one interview with the Nabob, however, he made allowed to disperse, and they were busily engaged a tolerably fair arrangement; which was, that the in plundering the houses, when the governor, who Company's servants might engage in the internal had met a detachment coming from Mongheer, trade on paying a duty of nine per cent. once for suddenly returned and fell on them. After a slight all on the first moving of the goods. This arrange- conflict, they spiked their cannon, and retired to ment was not to be published until after the go- the factory. It was surrounded, and in the night, vernor's return to Calcutta ; but the Nabob, in yielding to their fears, they got into their boats, his eagerness to derive advantage from it, sent and made up the river toward Oude ; but being copies of it in all quarters, ordering his officers to attacked on their way, they surrendered, and were act on it, and they began to do so forth with in a conducted to Mongheer, whither also were brought most offensive manner. The council met to take the residents of the factory at Cossimbazar, which the matter into consideration. There were twelve was attacked and plundered. The Nabob, in the members present; including two military men, first burst of his indignation, had sent orders to whose right to vote on any but a professional stop Mr. Amyatt, but as he fired from his boats question was dubious, and all, except the governor when hailed for that purpose, the boats were and Hastings, declared that the Company and its boarded, and himself and several of those with him servants had a right to carry on the inland trade were slain. duty free. Some, indeed, were inclined to allow a As soon as it became manifest that there must trifling duty to be levied on certain articles ; but be hostilities with Meer Cossim (possibly even it was finally determined that nothing should pay sooner), Mr. Johnstone and his friends had reduty but salt, and that only two and a half per solved to restore Meer Jaffier, and on the 7th July cent. The Nabob complained in various letters to a proclamation to that effect was issued. He agreed the governor, who could give no redress; collisions to confirm the grants of Meer Cossim to the Comtook place between his troops and the Sepoys pany, and to pay them thirty lacs for their losses protecting the English private trades; and finally, and expenses ; he was also to make good the seeing his revenue in a fair way of disappearing, losses of private persons; the former duties were he issued orders for the cessation of all transit to be levied on the trade of the natives, while that duties in his dominions.

of the English was to be free, with the exception On the receipt of this intelligence the council of the 21 per cent. on salt. He was further to were stricken with dismay; they saw all their fair support a force of 12,000 horse, and 12,000 foot; visions of enormous wealth rudely dissipated at one receive a resident at his court, and make the coinstroke. For, we may observe, the levying of age of Calcutta be current in his dominions, withduties, from which they were exempt, on the native out batta, i.e. allowance. traders, gave them a virtual monopoly of the whole Meantime the British troops, under Major Wil. trade of the country ; while now, when all were liams, of the king's service, had taken the field, put on an equality, the advantage would naturally and were advancing against Moorshedabad. On be on the side of the natives. Their impudence the 19th they defeated the troops of Meer Cossim, now passed all limits. They maintained, that the and on the 24th they stormed the lines at Mootegil, conduct of the Nabob was prejudicial to the trade and took Moorshedabad ; and on the 2nd August of the Company, and involved a violation of its they encountered the army of the Nabob, on the recognized rights; and they resolved to insist on plain of Geriah, near Sootee. These troops were his laying on the duties again, their own trade, of a superior description to any native troops that however, excepted. A deputation, composed of the English had yet encountered, for a part of Messrs. Amyatt and Hay, was sent to make this them were armed and disciplined in the European demand (April 4). They met with no success, and manner, and commanded by a Swiss named Sumroo, the council, determined not to give up their profits, who had been a serjeant in the French service. met, and resolved on a recourse to arms (14th). The battle was obstinate, and lasted for four hours. The Nabob, though weakened by a check lie had At one time the enemy broke a part of the British lately received, in an attempt on Nepaul, resolved line, and took two pieces of cannon; but victory not to fall without a struggle, and he applied to the finally remained with the Europeans. The enemy emperor and the Vizîr of Oude for aid.

fled to the fort of Outanulla, situated between hills On the 25th May, some boats, laden with arms and a river, and defended by an intrenchment on for Patna, arrived at Mongheer. The Nabob, which were 100 pieces of cannon. The English judging that they were to be employed against him, approached, and while a feigned attack was made ordered the boats to be detained. The deputies by the bank of the river, the real one was made at applied for their release, which was refused, unless the foot of the hills, and after an obstinate contest, the British force was withdrawn from Patva, or they made themselves masters of the fort and all Mr. Amyatt, Mr. M'Guire, or Mr. Hastings, was it contained. The forces of Meer Cossim in this sent thither instead of Mr. Ellis. They then de place were said to be 60,000 men, while that of manded their dismissal, and Mr. Amyatt was the English, Europeans and Sepoys, did not exallowed to depart, but Mr. Hay was detained, as ceed 3000 men. security for the safety of the Nabob's agents at The army now advanced to Mongheer, which Calcutta. Meantime, Mr. Ellis, who had been long Meer Cossim had made his capital, and strongly urgent for discretionary powers, at length extorted fortified. At their approach he fled to Patna, them, and he immediately began to prepare for an having previously put to death several persons of attack on the fort at Patna. As soon as he heard eminence, among whom was Râm Narrain. On of the departure of Mr. Amyatt, he surprised and his way he murdered the two Seits, the bankers, took the town. The governor, after a brief resist- whom he had forced to accompany him, lest they ance, fled toward Mongheer, and only the fort and should aid the English, and left their bodies ex

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