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tense that he had for many years been obliged to these terms, and yet shortly after a demand was have constant recourse to opium for relief. Toward made on the Nabob for fifty lacs of rupees; and as the end of November, 1774, he had a very severe no indulgence would be given, he was forced to attack; he had recourse to large doses of laudanum, borrow money at a most usurious rate, in order to and in a paroxysm of pain he terminated his discharge it. It was also stipulated that he should existence, on the 22nd of that month, having just repay the expenses of the siege of Pondicherry, completed the forty-ninth year of his age.

and to this he agreed, on condition of all the stores The name of Clive must ever stand prominent in taken there being given up to him. These, howBritish history, as that of the founder of an em- ever, the servants of the Company had appropire the most extraordinary that has ever appeared. priated to themselves; and on his complaint, they As a military man, though he had not the oppor- promised to allow him a certain sum for them in tunity of fighting great battles like Coote, his repu- his account. But their masters no sooner heard tation stands high, for all the military virtues were that he had gotten credit for this sum in their united in him ; he was, as his friend Lawrence de- books, than they ordered it to be recharged to him, clared, a born soldier. As a statesman, we think and thus he lost the stores altogether. he has been underrated ; his vision, it is said, was The only way the Nabob saw of getting money, clear, but not extensive. It seems to us that it was by forcing it from those who were supposed to was nearly as extensive, as it was possible for that have it. As Mortiz Ally, of Vellore, was believed of a practical man to be at that time. It certainly to have great treasure, he was the first object of did not penetrate vacancy, like that of Dupleix, attack. The English gave troops, and after a siege and aim at the impossible ; but his opinions on of three months the place was taken, but the most questions of Indian policy were sound and wealth which it contained was far below what had judicious. In private life Clive was amiable, and been anticipated. strongly attached to his family and friends. That The conquest of Tanjore was what Mohammed he was covetous of wealth is not to be denied ; but, Ally next proposed ; but in this the English would like another eminent person, if “unsatisfied in get- not give him their aid. As the king of Tanjore ting, in bestowing he was most princely 6." He was was an independent prince, they offered their meuntainted by the mean avarice that degraded Marl- diation, to which the Nabob yielded a most relucborough ; if he loved wealth, it was not for itself, tant consent. It was arranged that the rajah should but for the dignity, power, and influence it be- pay twenty-two lacs of rupees, in five instalments, stowed. His example, no doubt, was injurious, as arrears; four lacs as a present; and four anand produced many mean imitators; but there was nually as tribute. When the Directors heard of this essential difference, that Clive thought of the this treaty, they expressed their opinion that the Company and his country first, and of himself last, present of four lacs ought to have been given to and gave way, without a pang, where their in- the Company for their good offices, and directed terests were at variance; while the gentlemen at that the twenty-two lacs should be paid to them, Calcutta and Madras seemed only concerned for and credit given for them to the Nabob in his their own gains, and heedless of all other interests. account.

On the 10th February, 1763, peace was signed between France and England. By the eleventh article of the treaty, all the factories which the French possessed in India, in 1749, but not their

subsequent acquisitions, were to be restored. They CHAPTER XII.

were not to keep troops, or erect fortifications in

any part of the dominions of the Sûbahdâr of Affairs in the Carnatic-Rajah of Tanjore - Mohammed Bengal. Both crowns were to acknowledge Salabut

Issoof —Mound of the Caveri—The Northern Circars, Jung, as lawful Sûbahdâr of the Deckan, and Hyder Ally-His Early History-War with Hyder-Bat- Mohammed Ally, as lawful Nabob of the Carnatic. tle at Trinomalee-Siege of Amboor-Ill-success of the

As the English were able to dictate in the forEnglish-Conclusion of Peace-Affairs of Bengal.

mation of this treaty, nothing could be more imWe now return to the coast of Coromandel, where, politic than the restoration of the French settleafter the capture of Pondicherry, the English French government were guided by the judgment

But while in this matter the power had become supreme. As the expenses of the war had been consider

of Bussy, the English ministry, as Lord Clive was able, and it had ostensively been carried on for the however, wrote to Lord Bute, and it was on his

in opposition, did not deign to ask his advice. He, advantage of Mohammed Ally, he was called on to suggestion that the article relating to Bengal was repay them. Before the surrender of Pondicherry, inserted. It is a remarkable instance of the genehe had made an offer to pay at the rate of twenty: ral ignorance, with respect to Indian affairs in eight lacs of rupees a year; and, in case of that place being taken, if the Company would give him Europe, that Salabut Jung is spoken of as Sûbahthe aid of their forces, to make the renters and

dâr of the Deckan, though in 1761, two years beothers pay up, he would discharge the whole in fore, he had been dethroned and imprisoned by his one year. Mr. Pigot wrote to him, agreeing to

brother, Nizâm Ally. The effect of the treaty was

to hasten his death; for Nizâm Ally, who had been 6 Even before he got the jagheer he gave 50,0001., a sixth

hitherto restrained by dread of the French, seeing of his property, to his family and friends. A portion of it

he had nothing to apprehend from them, caused was devoted to the purchase of an annuity of 5001. a year

him to be murdered. for his old commander, Gen. Lawrence, and offered in so

The reader of Orme's interesting History must handsome a manner, that he could receive it without a be familiar with the name of Mohammed Issoof.

He had enlisted with Clive a little before the battle


A.D. 1765.



of Coverpauk, and he rose by his merit tili he the rajah of Mysore, and he soon rose to command. came to be commander-in-chief of all the Sepoys | Hyder, the younger son, spent his time till he was in the service of the presidency. He was a cool seven-and-twenty between hunting and voluptuous resolute man, and eminently faithful to the Com- living. He then joined his brother's corps as a pany. The chief scene of his exploits were Ma- volunteer in 1749, and distinguished himself so dura and Tinivelly, which countries, after the over- much at the siege of a Polygar's fort near Bangathrow of the French, he offered to take as a renter. lore, that he drew on himself the notice of Nunjeraj, But from their wasted condition he was, it would the commander, by whom he was speedily proseem, unable to raise any revenue; at least he had moted. paid no rent. Accordingly, in August, 1763, the The kingdom of Mysore was one of those Hindoo Nabob and Company sent a force to reduce him. states which rose on the fall of Bejayanugur in the But he was not a man to fall without a struggle; | 17th century. Its rajahs had consequently by this the month of October of the following year saw time sunk into imbecility, and as in the parallel him still unsubdued, after causing his assailants case of the Marattas, their power had passed into great loss of men and treasure. _Treachery, how- the hands of their ministers. The holders of this ever, prevailed against him; a Frenchman named power, at the present time, were two brothers Marchand, who was in his service, betrayed him named Deoraj and Nunjeraj, the latter of whom to the Nabob, who put him to death.

we have seen aiding the French at Trichinopoly, A dispute now arose between the Nabob and the and in whose service Hyder Ally was engaged. rajah of Tanjore respecting the Mound of the In 1755, Hyder was made foujdar of Dindigul, a Caveri. For the island of Seringham, as it is fortress built on a high rock in the middle of a named, which is formed by the branches of the plain half-way between Madura and Trichinopoly. Caveri, runs very narrow toward its eastern ex. He had before this time organised a regular band tremity, and the long strip thus formed, and which of freebooters, “ brave and faithful thieves," as is called the Mound, if not kept in constant repair, Wilks styles them, who were bound to deliver up would be swept away, and the remaining waters of to him one-half of all the plunder they acquired', the Caveri be carried into the Coleroon or northern and with the aid of a wily brahman named Koonde branch, and the lands of Tanjore thus be deprived | Râo, he devised such a system of checks as made of the waters necessary for their cultivation. The it almost impossible for them to defraud him. Nabob now asserted that the Mound belonged to Having occasion to act against some refractory him of right, as it really did, but the rajah in Polygars, he sent to court a flaming account of his sisted that he was bound to keep it in repair, and successes, and of the difficulties he had surmounted, this it was not the Nabob's intention to do, as he adding a formidable list of killed and wounded. plainly designed to let it be washed away. The A messenger was despatched with rich presents for English were obliged to interfere, and it was the officers, and with money to give to each of arranged that the Mound should be repaired by the wounded men fourteen rupees a month till he the rajah.

should be cured. The actual number of these was In 1765, Nizâm Ally, whom henceforth we shall sixty-seven, but on the inspection which took call the Nizâm, invaded the Carnatic at the head place Hyder mingled with them 700 men whose of a large army, and committed great ravages ; limbs were well swathed and bandaged. These but he retired when he saw the forces of the Eng- passed muster with the rest, and Hyder drew the lish and the Nabob in the field. Clive, whose money for the whole, and he allowed the wounded power over the emperor was absolute, easily pro- men each seven rupees a month. Another trick cured a sunnud conferring the Carnatic on Mo- which he played the government was, making hammed Ally, independent of the Nizâm, and he what a native, who witnessed it, terms “a circular also obtained a similar grant to the English of the muster," that is, making 10,000 men be counted four northern Circars. In March, 1766, General and passed as 18,000. Calliaud was sent with a force to take possession In this way Hyder went on augmenting his of these provinces: but the Nizâm threatened to wealth, and increasing the number of his adinvade the Carnatic; and the government at Ma- herents. Meantime Deoraj retired from public dras, who had an exaggerated idea of his power, cares, and left the whole burthen of them to Nunagreed to pay him a large annual tribute, and as jeraj, Hyder's patron. In 1758, the troops, havhe had given one of the Circars as a jagheer to his ing mutinied for payment of their arrears, Hyder brother Bazâlut Jung, not to claim it till after the came to his aid, and by carefully going through death of that prince, and very unwisely, for it was the accounts 8 (in which he was an adept), and well known that he was going to attack Mysore, thus reducing them, and by a partial payment he they agreed to support him with their troops. restored harmony. His rewards, in consequence,

The person who now wielded the power of were ample; among others, Bangalore and its disMysore was one of those adventurers who, by dint trict were given to him as a jagheer. In the beof courage and capacity, joined with freedom from ginning of the following year the Marattas made moral restraint, so frequently rise to empire in the an inroad, and when the army was ordered to East. His name was Hyder Ally Khân; he was march against them, most of the chiefs declared the younger son of a man who, from the rank of a that they could not obey on account of the arrears common peon, to which family misfortunes had due to the men. Hyder, who knew that the reduced him, rose to that of a foujdar in the ser

7 Thus, in the confusion which ensued on the death of vice of the Nabob of Sera. But misfortunes coming on his master, he lost his life in his defence, leav

Nasir Jung, in 1750 (see p. 66), they contrived to carry off

two camels laden with gold coin. ing a widow and two sons. Shabas, the elder of

8 Though Hyder could neither read nor write, he had the these sons, when he grew up, was recommended by

power of making long arithmetical calculations in his mind, his mother's brother to an officer in the service of

with great rapidity and correctness.


arrears were very small, offered to discharge them. and defeated. He was soon able to dictate terms He thus got the chief command, and most of the to the rajah, one of which was, the surrender of other commanders, who were of ancient families, Koonde Râo, whose life, however, he engaged to then resigned. He soon brought the Marattas to spare'. Districts were then assigned for the supterms, and, on his return to court, he was received port of the rajah and of Nunjeraj, and the fortuwith extraordinary honours, Nunjeraj, a thing un- nate Mussulman adventurer thus became in effect precedented, even rising at his approach and em- the sovereign of the Hindoo realm of Mysore. bracing him.

(1759.) Gratitude, of course, was not one of Hyder's vir- In 1761 Bazâlut Jung, for the sum of three lacs tues, and a scheme was soon concerted for the of rupees, made Hyder Nabob of Sera ; and it was overthrow of his patron. The troops, as

reduced by their united forces. Hyder continued arranged, came to Hyder and demanded their to extend his conquests, and in 1763 he made himarrears of pay. He told them that he paid his self master of the realm of Bednore, in whose capiown men regularly, and that it was not to him tal he obtained a treasure which, he owned, chiefly that the others were to look. They then requested led to his subsequent greatness. An invasion of that he would obtain payment from Nunjeraj; and the Marattas occupied him during the next year, several applications were made, but to no purpose, and he was obliged to purchase their departure by as there was really no money. They finally re- the payment of thirty-two lacs of rupees, and the quired that Hyder should go at their head and sit cession of some territory. In 1766 he made a in dhurna' at the house of Nunjeraj. With affected descent on the western coast, and conquered Malareluctance he complied; and the result was, that bar. While he was there the rajah died; and he Nunjeraj, unable to satisfy them, told them that immediately sent orders for that prince's eldest the rajah had taken the direction of his own son to succeed, and he resumed the districts which affairs, and that he was retiring from public life. had been assigned for the support of the royal Some of the soldiers, as directed, then called out family, giving instead of them an annual pension. to remove the dhurna to the residence of the In 1767 the Nizâm and the Marattas made war rajah. This was done, and the rajah having re- on Hyder Ally. The latter, with their usual celequired Koonde Râo to be sent in to him, the brah- brity, were the first to take the field. To impede min returned with promise that the demands of their progress, Hyder laid waste the country in a the troops should be satisfied, provided Hyder fearful manner ; but, unchecked by his measures, took an oath to renounce all connexion with the they still advanced, and reached Sera, where usurper Nunjeraj. With this hard condition, also, Hyder's brother-in-law surrendered to them the he was forced to comply, and he then was admitted fort and district, without even a show of fighting. to an audience. On coming out he tendered his Hyder, now alarmed, made proposals to the Mapersonal security to the troops for their arrears, rattas, and they retired on being well paid. and it was cheerfully accepted, and thus ended the The troops of the Nizâm, with an English force drama. Large assignments of revenue were made under Col. Joseph Smith, entered the territories of to him for that purpose, and thus more than half | Mysore. Ere long, however, Smith saw reason to the rajah's dominions came under his control. believe that their ally was playing the English

Beside the Brahmin, his chief coadjutor in false, and that he was actually in treaty with this affair, had been a lady of the royal family, Hyder. He therefore kept his corps separate. As and she and Koonde Râo (who was now dewan) Col. Wood was advancing from Trichinopoly, he seeing that the power of Nunjeraj had fallen into put his troops in motion to join him, and on the the hands of a far abler man, conspired to over- way (Sept. 3) he was attacked by Hyder with a throw him. Taking advantage of the absence of large force. The action commenced at two, and the greater part of his troops, while he was en- ended at dusk, in the total defeat of the Mysoreans. camped with a small force under the walls of As the British troops were in great want of proSeringapatam, the capital, the Brahmin caused a visions, and feared another attack, they made a cannonade from all the works to be opened upon forced march of twenty-seven hours for Trinohim. Hyder was sending for his friend the Brah-malee, not halting for either refreshment or repose. min, when he learned the truth. He then retired Here they had hoped to find abundance of prowith his cavalry, leaving his family and his in- visions, but they were miserably disappointed ; and fantry behind. He was now thrown on the world, leaving the sick and wounded in the town, Smith and having been defeated by some troops led by had to move his troops about in quest of supplies, the Brahmin, he went unarmed and as a suppliant while the country was scoured by 40,000 of the to the abode of Nunjeraj. Being admitted, he enemy's cavalry. Hyder and the Nizâm (for they threw himself at his feet, imploring forgiveness, were now allies) deferred making an attack, until and ascribing all his misfortunes to his ingratitude the want of food should have reduced the strength to his benefactor, whom he entreated to resume of the English, but Smith was fortunate enough to his place at the head of the state. Nunjeraj, discover some large hoards of grain, and thus his though he knew him, was deceived. He gave him men were kept in a state of efficiency. On the his forces and the influence of his name ; by 22nd the enemy commenced a distant cannonade means of forged letters Hyder frightened Koonde on his left ; in order to turn their left, he made a Râo away from his army, which he then attacked movement from his right round a hill; the enemy 9 That is, without tasting food, from which the person

did the same, in order to intercept the English, against whom it is done, is also expected to abstain. It is 1 When the rajah and the ladies of the palace joined in usual for creditors, who cannot obtain payment, to get a entreaties for his life, Hyder replied, that he would not only Brahmin to sit in dhurna at the door of the debtor for the spare it, but keep him like a parroquet. He kept his word, guilt contracted; if the Brahmin should expire, it is of the but not as they understood it, for lie confined him in an iron deepest die.


A.D. 1767.



who they thought were retreating ; and thus, to Cananôr miscarried, with considerable loss. In their mutual surprise, they encountered. The first May, 1768, Hyder suddenly appeared before struggle was for the hill

, which Capt. Cooke se- Mangalôr, with an overwhelming force; and the cured for the English. The two armies were then English were obliged to quit the place with such drawn out in array of battle. The English had precipitation, that they left behind them all their 1400 infantry and 30 cavalry, Europeans; 9000 artillery and stores, and even their sick and Sepoys, and 1500 of Mohammed Ally's good-for- wounded, consisting 80 Europeans and 180 nothing cavalry. The army of the allies is stated Sepoys. Hyder, declaring to the Malabar chiefs at 70,000, one half of which was cavalry. It was that he had found their country a source more of drawn up in a crescent, half-circling the British expense than profit, offered to give it up if paid army. The English cannon having nearly silenced his expenses ; and he thus was enabled to retire that of the enerny, was turned on the dense masses with a large sum of money for the war against the of their cavalry, who, having stood the fire for English. some minutes in the expectation of getting orders The war this year was adverse to the English, to charge, and receiving none, at length turned very much in consequence of the Presidency and fled. Hyder, who saw that all was lost, drew having imitated the practice of the jealous repuboff his cannon, and advised the Nizâm to do the lics of Venice and the United Provinces, in sending same; but he spurned at the idea, and declared two members of council to the army as fieldthat he would sooner perish. The approach of the deputies, without whose consent no operations English, however abated his courage, and he soon

could be carried on. One of the first acts of these was one of the most forward in flight. The victors civilians was to cause the loss of the fort of Mulcaptured 64 pieces of cannon ; their loss was wâgul, by insisting on the European garrison being 150 men, that of the enemy was supposed to be withdrawn, and their place supplied by some of 4000.

the troops of Mohammed Ally. Col. Wood, in an As the rains were approaching, the English went attempt to recover it with a small force, fell in into cantonments. But the active Hyder continued with the entire army of Hyder, and he was on the his operations; and having reduced one or two eve of being totally routed, when a stratagem of small places, he proceeded to attack Amboor, Capt. Brooke, who commanded the baggage-guard, which, seated on the summit of a granite moun- turned the event of the contest. This officer, who tain, was defended by Capt. Calvert, with a small had with him only four companies and two guns, garrison. Hyder having dismantled the lower drew these last by a circuitous and concealed route fort, Calvert retired to the citadel. The Killidâr up to the summit of a fat rock, where they were being discovered to be in correspondence with to be served by the wounded artillerymen, while Hyder, he and his men were disarmed. Hyder, all the rest of the sick and wounded, who were though disconcerted, continued to fire on the fort, able to move, were to swell the ranks on the sumand at length effected a breach, but in an inacces- mit. When all was ready, the guns opened a fire sible place. He made various attempts to surprise of grape on the enemy's left flank, and all, both the fort, but in vain ; and he offered Calvert a sick and well, raised a shout of, “Hurra! Smith ! large sum of money and the command of half of Smith !" Both sides thought Smith was arrived ; his army, if he would surrender ; but he was told and Wood, taking advantage of the confusion it to send no more such messages, if he respected the caused, drew up his men in such a manner that he lives of his servants, as the bearers would be was able to repel all Hyder's subsequent attacks, hanged in the breach 3. The siege had commenced and force him to retire with loss 3. on the 10th November ; and on the 7th December, Some time after, Col. Wood, by making an atthe troops of Col. Smith, marching to the relief of tempt to relieve Oosoor, which Hyder was besiegAmboor, were in sight. At their approach, Hyder ing, left Bâglór exposed to attack, of which the retired, and ascending the Ghâts, quitted the active enemy took advantage ; and the consequence Carnatic.

was, that two thousand persons lost their lives in The Nizâm, weary of the war, had already en- the rush which they made to get into the fort tered into secret communication with Col. Smith. when the Mysoreans entered the town. Wood, on It came to the knowledge of Hyder, who affected his return from Oosoor, again fell in with Hyder's not to be displeased regarding it, as being for their army, and would probably have been defeated, had eventual advantage. The Nizâm, thus relieved not Major Fitzgerald, on hearing the firing, hasfrom anxiety, speedily concluded a treaty, by which tened to the spot with the other division of the the revenues of the Carnatic Balagât, a country English army ; and Hyder retired at his approach. now held by Hyder, were transferred to the Eng- Wood, though brave even to temerity, was now in lish, on their agreeing to pay the Nizâm seven lacs such a state of despondence that, on the representa year, and the Marattas their chout; and the tri- ations of Fitzgerald, he was removed from the bute for the Circars was reduced from nine lacs command, and ordered to proceed to Madras perpetual to seven lacs a year for a term of six under arrest. years.

The forts held by the English were now falling While Hyder was engaged in the Carnatic, some everywhere into the hands of Hyder. In Decemof the Malabar chiefs resolved to make an effort to ber he entered the district of Baramahâl; and, as recover their independence. A force was sent by he was advancing to the reduction of Eroad, he sea from Bombay to their aid. Mangalôr and fell in with a party of 50 Europeans and 200 some other places were taken ; but an attempt on Sepoys, under Capt. Nixon. When the enemy

advanced to the attack, the Europeans fired, and 2 It is lamentable to read that this gallant officer was afterwards tried by court-martial, and convicted, of defraud- 3 The Roinans defeated the Samnites by a similar strataing the Company by false returns.

gem. See our History of Rome, p. 157.


then rushed on with the bayonet. They perished, , rectors threw much vague blame on them, especioppressed by numbers ; the Sepoys were cut down ally for the very wisest part of their conduct, the in their ranks; and of the whole party no one conclusion of peace, which they said would tend to escaped but Lieutenant Goreham, whose knowledge lower them in the eyes of the natives. The reply of the language enabled him to obtain quarter of the presidency was, that “they were compelled from one of Hyder's officers. Hyder then made to make peace for want of money to wage war." Goreham translate into English a summons to While such was the state of affairs in the CarCapt. Orton to surrender Eroad, inviting him at natic, Bengal was enjoying tranquillity. Clive had the same time to come in person to Hyder's tent, been succeeded by Mr. Verelst as chief governor; and assuring him of liberty to depart if a surrender and at the close of the year 1769 this gentleman could not be arranged. Strange to say, he came, resigned, and was succeeded by Mr. Cartier. and was of course detained ; for, as Hyder alleged, In 1767, the Dûranee Shah made the last of and as we regret to say was the case, Capt. Robin. those expeditions with which India has been so son, the second in command, had been taken some often afflicted, from the mountains of Afghanistân. time before, and was dismissed under parole not to His march was directed for Delhi, in which case serve again during the war. Hyder, however, he would probably have encountered the troops of offered Orton leave to depart, if he would write an the English. But he did not come beyond the order for the surrender of the place, the garrison Punjab, where he had some contests with the having liberty to retire with their property to Tri- Sikhs. An expedition was soon after sent by the chinopoly. He at first refused, but finally con- government of Calcutta to restore the rajah of sented ; and Robinson actually obeyed the order! | Nepal who had been expelled; but from the nature The garrison, as might have been expected, were of the country it was unable to effect its purpose. marched prisoners to Seringapatam, and there In 1768 came out a peremptory order to end Robinson ended his days in a dungeon. The same the trade of the Company's servants in salt and was the fate of the garrison of another fort, which the other articles, and to leave it entirely to the surrendered on the condition of being allowed to natives ; the governor's one and one-eighth on the depart on parole ; Robinson's conduct, and that of revenue was also to cease. To replace these, a the government who employed him, being in both commission of two and a half per cent. on the net cases Hyder's excuse.

produce of the dewannee revenues was granted, to Nearly all their previous acquisitions had now be divided into one hundred equal shares, of which been wrested from the Company; and in the be- the governor was to have thirty-five, and others in ginning of 1768, Hyder sent one of his generals to proportion. Madura and Tinnivelly, while he himself ravaged the country about the Caveri. The Presidency, partly to save the unfortunate peasantry from ruin, partly urged by want of money-for they had been obliged to suspend their investments for England,

CHAPTER XIII. and even so they had not funds to carry on the war more than four months-made proposals for an

Revenues of Bengal — Proceedings in England-Appointaccommodation. At Hyder's desire Capt. Brooke

ment of Supervisors—Distress of the Company - Bills was sent to him, on whose report of his intentions,

regulating it-New Government of Bengal. Mr. Andrews, a member of council, repaired to his camp, and returned with proposals to be submitted

WHEN Clive obtained the dewannee of Bengal for to the Council. These, however, being deemed the Company, he expressed a decided opinion that, inadmissible, hostilities were resumed. Col. Smith after paying all the expenses of government, it again took the command of the army ; but no en

would leave a considerable annual surplus revenue counter of any moment occurred. In the latter Had Clive remained in India, and had his plans end of March, when the two armies were about and suggestions been acted on by the Directors at 140 miles south of Madras, Hyder, suddenly dis- home, such might have been the result. But this, missing his infantry and the greater part of his as we have seen, was not done ; adequate salaries cavalry, put himself at the head of 6000 horse, were not secured to the servants of the Company ; and, on the 29th, he appeared on Mount St. Thomas, the restrictions on private trade were withdrawn, near Madras, whence he despatched a letter to the and, moreover, a new mode of diverting to indigovernor, requesting that Mr. Dupré, a member of viduals a large share of the revenue sprang up. council, might be sent to him, As it was in Hy. This was the civil and military charges for buildder's power to plunder the town, ravage the country, ings, &c. “Every man now," says Člive, “ who is and pillage and destroy the garden-houses of the permitted to make a bill, makes a fortune.” president and council, before Smith’s troops could

The division of the powers of government bearrive, his demand was complied with at once, and

tween the Nabob and the Company was productive a treaty was concluded, of which the two principal of mischief, and had its effect in diminishing the articles were, a mutual restitution of conquests and revenue, which was further reduced by the evasion mutual aid in defensive wars.

of the payment of duties by the servants of the Thus was terminated, and with more advantage Company. Capital was continually going out of to the English than they had any reasonable right the country, for the investments to England and to expect, a war imprudently, if not unjustly com- China, which now, instead of being purchased by menced, and feebly and unskilfully conducted by goods and bullion sent from home, were to be furthe president 4 and council of Madras. The Di- nished from the revenues of the province; and as

these revenues were every day more absorbed in 4 The President was Mr. Palk, a clergyman, and a rela- the expenses of government, and checked or inter.

cepted in the ways we have mentioned, the diffi

ive of Gen. Lawrence.

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