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A. D. 1768–70.
PROCEEDINGS IN ENGLAND.
culty of obtaining the necessary sums continually and a half per cent., a bill passed the house forincreased. Add to this, that the war with Hyder bidding any increase of dividend for the present, was a great drain on the exchequer of Bengal, and directing that dividends should only be voted
Toward the end of 1769 it appeared that there by ballot, and in general courts summoned exwas an excess of disbursements over receipts, and pressly for the purpose. It was insisted on the the remedy proposed was, “to open their treasury part of the ministry, that the territorial acquisi. door for remittances;” that is, to receive the large tions of the Company, or those of any subjects, sums which the servants of the Company were belonged to the crown. But they did not observé annually sending home, and to give bills for then that the devannee was of quite a different nature; on the Company in England. This was, no doubt, and that the Company was merely a zemindâr to a very agreeable mode to all parties in Bengal, the emperor, to whom, or to the Nabob, the debut it threw the Company at home into great wannee should of right revert, if the Company difficulties when the amount of these bills hap- were required to resign it, or if their charter pened to exceed that of the sale of the investments should expire; and the only question was, whether out of which they were to be paid. To prevent the crown or the Company should have the surthis evil, the Directors limited the amount for plus revenue of Bengal, a thing which, in reality, which they permitted the government of Bengal had no existence at the very time they were disto draw bills on them, and their wealth-amassing puting about it. After a vast deal of argument servants then paid their surplus cash into the and contention, an act was passed in April, 1769, French and Dutch factories, getting in return bills allowing the Company to retain the revenues of on Europe, and thus these Companies were enabled, Bengal for a term of five years, on condition of in a great measure, to trade on British capital. paying every year 400,0001. into the exchequer ;
Such was the condition of the finances of Bengal they might, if the revenues allowed it, increase when Mr. Cartier succeeded to the office of gover- their dividends up to twelve and a half per cent., nor on the 24th December, 1769. In the follow- at the rate of one per cent. in each year ; if the ing year, the annual rains were withheld by Pro- dividend fell below ten per cent., the payment into vidence, and India was visited by dearth and the exchequer should be reduced in proportion, famine, which swept away one-third of the popula- and should cease altogether if it fell to six per tion of Bengal, and made a proportionate reduction cent. It was also provided that the Company in the revenue. In the same year the young rajah should annually export a certain quantity of British died, and was succeeded by his brother Mubark- goods, provide for the payment of their simple ud-dowlah. The president and council continued contract debts, the reduction of their bonded debt, the allowance to him which had been arranged by &c. &c. Clive, but the Directors wrote out that, as he was The whole blame of the disappointment of the a minor, they thought sixteen lacs of rupeees quite golden dreams of India was thrown on those who enough for his support, and ordered no more to be had the management of the Company's affairs in paid, and thus, how justly we need not say, they that country, and it was resolved to institute a added thirty-four lacs a year to their revenues. strict investigation on the spot. For this purpose,
While such were the proceedings in India, the under the title of Supervisors, and vested with proprietors at home were not negligent of their nearly the whole powers of the Company, Mr. Vanown interests. Filled with vague notions of the sittart, Mr. Scrafton, and Col. Forde, all of whom inexhaustible wealth of the East, and having be- had been high in office in India, were selected to fore their eyes the huge fortunes accumulated in a proceed thither. They sailed in a frigate which few years by the servants of the Company, and was sent out at the desire of the Company ; but which were displayed in many cases with an Ori. the frigate and those on board of her were never ental pomp and magnificence, they panted for a heard of more. She probably foundered or went share in the golden harvest.
For some years
down in a hurricane. past, the dividends on East India stock had been The debt of the Company in India went on acsix per cent.; but, in 1766, a vote of the Court of cumulating ; they were utterly unable to provide Proprietors raised it at once to ten per cent. In for the bills drawn on them, and yet, with all their vain did the Directors, who knew the real state of difficulties staring them in the face, the Directors things, and that money must be taken up at a had the temerity to propose to the proprietors, in heavy rate of interest to pay this dividend, remon- 1770, to raise their dividend to 12, and in the two strate; in a general court on the 6th May, 1767, a following years, to 12} per cent. These augmentadividend of twelve and a half per cent. was voted 5. tions were cheerfully voted ; but such a desperate But their cupidity was destined to meet a check. course had its inevitable results. In July, 1772, The idea of the wealth of India and the desire to the deficit in their accounts was 1,293,0001. They partake in it, had also seized the ministers of the applied to the Bank for a loan of 400,0001., and crown ; & committee of the House of Commons to when they had obtained this, for a further loan of inquire into the state of the Company had been 300,0001., but that body would only give 200,0001. ; voted by parliament, which met early in Novem- and on the 10th August, the chairman and deputy ber, 1766, chiefly for this purpose, and a few days waited on Lord North, the minister, and told him after the proprietors had voted themselves twelve that nothing short of the loan of a million would
save the Company from ruin.
The minister had the Company now completely 5 The Directors had instituted legal proceedings against
in his power. There had been two committees Johnstone, and the others who had taken presents at Nujum-ud-dowlah's accession. These men, who were now
sitting on the subject of Indian affairs; the one at home with plenty of money, and of course of influence,
called the Secret, the other (which was open) the seized the present occasion of procuring a vote of the pro
Select Committee ; and thus some, though rather prietors to drop the prosecutions. Life of Clive, ill. 185, imperfect, knowledge of the subject had been eli
cited. The proposal of the Company to send out to the eye of candour they will perhaps appear as
The first was financial. Government agreed to lend the Company 1,400,0001. at 4 per cent., and
CHAPTER XIV. not to demand the 400,0001. a year till that debt had been discharged ; the Company during that time was not to divide more than
Early History of Warren Hastings-New Mode of collecting per cent., and
the Revenue-New Courts of Justice--Arrest of Mohamnot more than 7 per cent. till their bond-debt was
med Reza Khân and Shitab Roy-Arrar.gement of the reduced to 1,500,000. After this, the Government Nabob's Household— Emperor joins the Marattas – The was to receive three-fourths of the surplus re- Robillas- Treaty of Benares—Treatment of the Emperor ceipts, and the other fourth to go to the liquidation -Extermination of the Rohillas. of the bond-debt, or to the formation of a fund for contingent expenses ; the territorial possessions to
MR. CARTIER was succeeded in the beginning of remain to the Company for the remaining six 1772, as governor of Bengal, by Warren Hastings, years of their charter.
Esq., the second member of council at Madras. By the other bill, the qualification for voting in
This distinguished man, whose name will ever the Court of Proprietors was raised from 5001. to
be associated with that of the British empire in 10001. ; the holder of 30001. stock to have two of India, was born in the year 1732, of an ancient, 60001. three, and of 10,0001. four votes ; the stock honourable, but greatly reduced family. After to have been in the possession of the voter for having been at one or two ordinary schools, he was twelve months. The Directors were to be elected placed by his uncle at that of Westminster. Here for four years, a fourth to go out annually. The he greatly distinguished himself; but on the death government of Bengal, Bahâr, and Orissa was to of his uncle, the charge of him fell to a very distant be vested in a governor-general, with a salary of relation, who being an East India Director, and 25,0001. a year; and four councillors, with 80001. a not liking to be at the expense of giving him a year each. The other presidencies were to be classical education, resolved to send him out as subordinate to that of Bengal. A supreme court
a writer to Bengal. of judicature was to be established at Calcutta,
Hastings reached Calcutta on the 8th October, consisting of a chief justice, with 80001. a year, 1750, just within two months of completing his and three puisne judges, with each 60001. a year, eighteenth year. After stopping a couple of years to be appointed by the Crown. The first governor
in that city, he was sent to the factory of Cossimgeneral and councillors were to be named in the bazar, and he was there when it was taken by act, and were to hold their office for five years ; Sůraj-ud-dowlah. He was made a prisoner, but the Company were then to appoint, subject to the suffered to go at large, the chief of one of the approbation of the Crown. All the Indian cor
Dutch factories giving bail for his appearance, and respondence relating to civil, military, or financial he remained at Moorshedabad. He afterwards affairs was to be laid before the ministry. No joined the fugitives from Calcutta at Fulta. In person in the King's or Company's service was to the subsequent negotiations with that prince, Hastreceive presents ; the governor, councillors, and ings was joined with Mr. Amyatt, and after his judges were not to engage in trade.
overthrow he was placed as a kind of resident at Such were the legislative acts which led to a new
the court of Meer Jaffier. Clive saw his talents, æra in the history of the Company. For those
and seems to have reposed much confidence in who, writing long after the events, judge all mea
him. After Clive's departure he remained at the sures and events by an imaginary standard of court of Meer Jaffier, and had a share in the act right, and make no allowance for human ignorance of his deposition, though it does not appear that he and fallibility, nothing is more easy than to find approved of it. When Mr. Sumner and others fault with, and condemn all these measures 6 ; but were dismissed, he became a member of council at
and the best that could be devised. On one point Mr. Mill 6 Mr. Mill is, if we may use the term, of the Smell-fungus gives a decided opinion in favour of a measure, namely, the school of philosophy, whose followers find fault with every use of the ballot in popular elections; but with the example thing, propose nothing, and their censures are frequently of the United States before our eyes, few now, we hope, will contradicted by experience. Thus he sneers at the idea of be found to share his admiration for that mode of voting. large salaries being any security against corruption, "as if 7 See above, p. 82. there was a point of saturation in cupidity;" yet experience, 8 Suspected to be the author of The Letters of Junius. both in India and England, has shown that it is a security, He had all the requisite malignity and disregard of truth.
A. D. 1772.
ARREST OF MOHAMMED REZA KHAN.
Calcutta, and he there gave his support to Mr. acted in the Khalsa as superintendent of the disVansittart against the domineering majority. In trict dewans. 1762 he was sent on a mission to Meer Cossim; As the new system did away with the zemindary but his prudent and moderate suggestions were courts, those great instruments of oppression, two rejected by Johnstone and his party. In 1764, new ones were appointed in each district ; a criMr. Hastings returned to England in the same minal named Foujdaree Adawlut, presided over by ship with Mr. Vansittart. He was then the pos- the colleotor with the Câzee and Muftee of the dissessor of only a very moderate fortune, and no trict, and two Moolavees or Mohammedan lawyers ; servant of the Company had ever left India with a and a civil, named Mofussul Dewanee Adawlut, of fairer character,
which the collector also was president, aided by the The narrowness of his circumstances soon obliged dewan of the district, and other native officers, Hastings to seek for employment again in India. Two courts of appeal were established at Calcutta, The knowledge which he displayed when ex- a criminal, named Nizâmut Suddur Adawlut, and amined on Indian affairs in the House of Com- a civil, named Suddur Dewanee Adawlut. mons had increased his friends in the Direction; The office of Naib Dewan of Bengal had been and in 1769 he was appointed second in council held by Mohammed Reza Khân, whom Clive had at Fort St. George, and a member of the select made Naib Nizâm to the young Nabob. Against committee there, nominated for the purpose of this man serious charges, all apparently originating restoring the Company's affairs in the Carnatic, with the infamous Nundcomar, had reached the His succession to the office of president after Mr. Directors, and they sent out strict orders to seize Dupré, the present occupant, was also secured to himself, his family, his partizans and adherents, him.
and bring them prisoners to Calcutta. This busiIn Madras, Hastings devoted his energies to im- ness was managed with great secrecy and dispatoh proving the mode of providing the Company's in- by Hastings; and one of the chief reasons he asvestments; and his conduct gave so much satisfac- signs for so doing is, that Mohammed Reza Khân tion to the Directors, that, in 1771, they nominated must, from his great wealth, have established “an him second in council in Bengal, with the assurance interest with such of the Company's agents, as, by that, on Mr. Cartier's retirement, he should be his actual authority, or by representations to the
This event took place early in 1772, Honourable Company, might be able to promote and Hastings became governor of Bengal.
or obstruct his views ;" in plain English, he must The plan of divided sovereignty between the have bought them. Shitab Roy, the upright and Nabob and the Company, devised by Clive, had honourable Naib Dewan of Patna, probably as a not been found to answer, and the produce of the partizan or adherent, was also arrested and sent to dewannee was nothing like what had been calcu- Calcutta. Neither of them, however, was thrown
It was therefore deemed advisable in into prison, they were only required not to leave 1769 that servants of the Company, named super
that city: visors, should be placed in each district, for the The charges against Mohammed Reza Khân purpose of superintending the native functionaries; were, monopoly of rice in the time of the famine, and two councils, with authority over the super- embezzlement of the money of the Nizâmut, a visors, be established, the one at Moorshedabad, balance due and not accounted for by him since the and the other at Patna. This plan, however, was death of Meer Jaffier, as renter of Dacca, and a not found to answer any better than the former; correspondence with the emperor and the Maand the Directors, anxious to get an income in any rattas. On all these charges he was honourably way, determined to effect a social revolution, sạch acquitted, after all the evidence that could be obas had never hitherto taken place in India, and, as tained against him had been produced. Shitab they expressed it, “to stand forth as Dewan,” and Roy, against whom there was really no charge, manage and collect the revenues by the direct was likewise acquitted, and he was immediately agency of their own servants. The plan adopted appointed Roy Royan and Naib Nazîm of Bahâr; by Mr. Hastings and the council for collecting the but he died soon after his arrival at Patna, and his revenues was, to let the lands on leases of five son was appointed to succeed him in both his years; a committee, composed of the president and offices. It is due to Mr. Hastings to observe, that four members of council, should make circuits of throughout all this business he seems to have acted superintendence through the country ; the super- with great fairness. visors should be named collectors, and each have A very important part of the office of the Naib a native dewan joined with him ; no collector's Nazîm was the superintendence of the person and banyam or servant should be allowed to form any household of the Nabob. This it was resolved to part of the revenues, and no presents should be divide into two offices, analogous to the guardian. accepted by any person high or low; and no money ships of the person and of the property appointed be lent on interest to any persons connected with by our court of Chancery. There were two perthe land. As the terms offered for the lands did sons who seemed to have a claim to the former not prove satisfactory, the plan of letting them by office ; the mother of the Nabob, and his uncle auction was adopted, the preference being given to Ateram-ud-Dowlah, the brother of Meer Jaffier. the actual zemindâr or other middleman, when he Yet both of these were set aside, and the office offered a fair value; if not, he was pensioned off, was bestowed on Maoni Begum, a second wife or and the lands let to another. The ryot was secured concubine of Meer Jaffier's. The reason assigned against taxation by a lease.
was, the ascendancy she had over the mind of the The Khalsa, or supreme court of revenue, was Nabob, being the only person of whom he stood in removed to Calcutta ; the office of Naib Dewan awe, and her having no children of her own. was abolished; the council formed a board of reve- Hastings, in a private letter to the Directors, nue; and a native functionary named Roy Royan gives a further reason—her being the declared enemy of Mohammed Reza Khân, and therefore offers to the Rohillas if they would give them likely to be active in procuring evidence against a free passage through their country to Oude. him. As to the uncle, there was the danger of The Rohillas temporized; the vizîr exerted himhimself or his sons, as next heirs, practising against self to prevent that union, and, as Hafez Rahmut the life of the Nabob. The reasons for rejecting asserts, offered to give up the forty lacs of rupees; the mother do not appear.
and they finally united their troops with his and The other office, Dewan of the household, was the English, when they entered their country, to given to Rajah Goordass, the son of Nundcomar. oppose the passage of the Ganges by the Marattas. The reason assigned was, their known enmity to No action, however, took place; and in May, the Mohammed Reza Khân. It was expected that state of their affairs in the Deckan obliged this his own probity, joined with the talent of his fa- people to return to their own country. ther, by whom it was known he would be influenced, In all these transactions little, if any, blame atthough it was hoped not controlled, would cause taches to the conduct of the Rohillas. But, as we him to perform the duties of the office in a credit- have already seen', their country had always been able manner
an object of cupidity to the rulers of Oude. In a The emperor Shah Alum had, from the time that meeting between the vizîr and Mr. Hastings at Clive had made the arrangement with him, been Benâres, in the month of September, the former most anxious to prevail on the English to convey asked for an English force to put him in posseshim to Delhi, and replace him on the throne of his sion of the Rohilla country. In this project he ancestors. Unable to prevail on them, he had lis- was actually encouraged by the latter; and it was tened to the overtures of the Maratta chiefs Tûkajee finally arranged that he should bear all the exHolkar, Madhajee Sindia, and Kishn Visajee, whom penses of the English troops which should be given the Peishwa had sent with a large force into Hin- him, and pay the Company forty lacs of rupees on dûstan, in order to recover the influence lost at the the accomplishment of the enterprise. battle of Pânîput, and to punish the Rohillas for In his own account of this transaction, Mr. Hastheir share in that event. They of course exacted tings never says one word of its justice or the conhard conditions for their services; the emperor trary; he only speaks of expediency. The vizir, had no alternative but to submit, and on the 25th he says, was the only useful ally of the Company; December, 1771, he made his entrance into Delhi. the acquisition of the Rohilla country would be The Marattas, having suffered him to remain there very beneficial to him and the Company; and he only a few days, hurried him into the field, and dwells on the advantage of getting forty lacs of their united force entered the nearest part of the rupees, and having a large portion of their army Rohilla territory, Seheranpûr, the jagheer of the supported at the expense of their ally. When late minister, Nujub-ud-Dowlah, and which was writing an account of this Benâres treaty (the now held by his son, Zabita Khân. This chief, whole of which we have not yet seen), he says, “I though he made a spirited defence, was defeated am not apt to attribute a large share of merit to and forced to fly to the camp of Shujah-ud-Dowlah, my own actions; but I own that this is one of the and his country was ravaged by the Marattas, who, few to which I can, with confidence, affix my own regardless of their ally, kept all the plunder to approbation.” themselves. The principal remaining Sirdar (chief) The remaining part of the treaty related to the of the Rohillas now was Hafez Rahmut Khân ; emperor. On the pretext of his having joined the and through him an agreement was formed with enemies of the Company, and given to them the Shujah-ud-Dowlah, by which, on the Rohillas en provinces which had been assigned him, they were gaging to pay him forty lacs of rupees, he under resumed, and were given to the vizîr for fifty lacs took to cause the Marattas to retire from their of rupees, twenty to be paid down, and the recountry. Of these lacs Hafez paid five; and as mainder in two equal annual instalments. On the the Marattas soon after retired of their own accord application of the emperor for the arrears of his on account of the rains, he demanded that the bond tribute, and his demand of punctual payment in should be cancelled ; but the vizîr still retained future, Mr. Hastings' reply was, that he would it. In all these transactions Sir Robert Barker not consent to let a rupee pass out of Bengal, till acted a prominent part, with the approbation of it had recovered from its distresses, which had the government of Calcutta.
been principally occasioned by the vast drains that The emperor had returned to Delhi, highly dis- had been made of its specie, for his remittances ;" gusted with his allies. On his refusal to comply in other words, that he should get nothing more with some more of their demands, they invested from the Company. Delhi, and on the 22nd December, 1772, about a No act more flagrantly unjust than this is to be year from the time they had put him into posses- found in history. The emperor's right to confer sion of it, he was forced to surrender it to their the dewannee, and other advantages acquired for arms. He became now a mere instrument in their the Company, was undoubted, and the annual sum hands, and the first use they made of their power which he was to receive was their own offer. was to force him to cede to them the provinces of There was no condition made with him that he Allahabad and Corah.
should not attempt to regain possession of his The Marattas now prepared to cross the Ganges paternal dominions ; and though the Company and enter Rohilcund again ; and they made great might consider the Marattas dangerous, they were
not, properly speaking, their enemies. As to his
cession of the provinces, it was well known to have • Some members of the Council objected to this appoint
been an act of compulsion; and from the specimen ment, on account of the political character of Nundcomar. Hastings, in reply, asserted that it was without blemish,
he had had of the Marattas, there was little likeli. " though,” he adds, "he will not take on him to vindicate his moral character."
I See above, p. 46.
A. D. 1774.
EXTERMINATION OF ROHILLAS.
hood of his again seeking their friendship, and as his barbarous treatment, not only of the Rohillas, the vizîr was unable to defend his own dominions but of the innocent Hindoo cultivators, were shockwithout the help of the English, they might as ing to humanity. well defend the two provinces for the descendant The army shortly after marched to Bissouly, in of Timûr as for him. But even granting a political the centre of the Rohilla country, where they necessity in this matter, the refusal of the tribute found the emperor's general, Nujuf Khân, with his was robbery and breach of faith. Still the whole army. As the country might now be regarded as of the guilt must not fall on Hastings, who in this, conquered, and as the emperor had performed his as in so many other points, only carried out the part of the treaty, though the rapidity of the Engwishes of his masters, who had long been watching lish had prevented his sharing in the conquest, for a pretext to stop the payment of the tribute. Nujuf Khân demanded for him his share of the On the 11th November, 1768, they had written country and of the plunder. The vizîr was unable out, “ If the emperor flings himself into the hands to deny the treaty ; but positive orders came from of the Marattas, or any other power, we are dis- Calcutta to the English commander, to support engaged from him, and it may open a fair oppor- him in the violation of it; and of course it was set tunity of withholding the twenty-six lacs we now at nought. pay him." And on the treaty of Benares they A Rohilla chief, named Fyzoola Khân, was still bestowed their entire approbation.
in arms at the foot of the mountains. He sent, Another point arranged with the vizîr in the offering to hold his district as a renter from the Benares conference was, the appointment of a vizîr ; but the latter positively declared that he civil agent to reside at his court and be the me- would suffer no Rohilla chief to remain beyond the dium of communication between him and the go-Ganges. The army was then put in motion to
This task had hitherto been usually attack him ; but when they came near to where he executed•by the military officer on the spot, but it was posted, the vizîr, from some unexplained reawas a part of Hastings' policy to raise the civil son, became anxious for accommodation. After a over the military power. The first resident, as good deal of negotiation, it was agreed that Fyzoola these agents were called, at the court of the Vizîr Khân should surrender one half of his effects to was Mr. Nathaniel Middleton, and he was directed the vizîr, and receive in return a jagheer of nearly to communicate secretly with the governor.
fifteen lacs of rupees in Rohilcund. The vizîr did not seem inclined to attack the Rohillas at once. He advanced towards Delhi, and assisted the emperor in taking Agra from the Jâts, gave him some money, and finally concluded a treaty by which the troops of the emperor were
CHAPTER XV. to join him against the Rohillas, and he was in return to have a share of the plunder, and half the
Arrival of Members of Council-Quarrels with Hastingsconquered country.
Death of the Vizîr-Abrogation of Treaty-Charges against In November the vizîr unexpectedly called on
Hastings-His Conduct- Execution of Nundcomar for the president for the promised aid. Hastings had
Forgery - Death of Col. Monson – Hastings' tendered some difficulty in obtaining the assent of his col- Resignation-His Exercise of Power-Reconciliation with leagues; but in January, 1774, the second brigade Francis-Monstrous Pretensions of the Supreme Courtreceived orders to join the vizir; in. February Col. Appointment of the Chief-Justice to a new office-Duel Champion came and took the command of it, and between Hastings and Francis. it entered the territory of Oude, and on the 17th On the 14th October, the vessel carrying the new of April the allied forces entered the Rohilla country. On the 19th, Col. Champion wrote to
members of council and the judges of the Supreme the president, stating that the Rohilla chiefs were
Court anchored in the Hooghly. Mr. Hastings most anxious for accommodation, but that the de- immediately sent the second member of council to mands of the vizîr had now risen to two crores of congratulate them on their safe arrival. They rupees !
landed at Calcutta on the 19th, under a salute from Aware now that arms, not equity, must decide
the batteries, and were conducted by an officer of their fate, the Rohillas prepared for action. On
the governor's staff to his private residence, where the morning of the 23rd, the English advanced to
all the members of the government were assembled the attack. Col. Champion, as a generous enemy,
to receive them. But courtesies of this kind had bestows the highest praise on the desperate valour
little effect on the minds of those to whom they and even the military skill displayed by the Ro
were shown. The men whom Parliament in its hillas and their leaders. But valour was unavail
wisdom (that is, the favour of the minister) had ing; and after a severe contest of nearly three selected to regulate the affairs of an empire, had hours, they fled, leaving 2000 slain, including many
remarked on their landing that the batteries had
fired Sirdars, among whom were the gallant Hafez Rah
nly seventeen, instead of twenty-one guns, mut and one of his sons. The doughty vizir, it and that no guard of honour had met them on the will easily be believed, had no share in this vic- beach ; and they showed much real or affected tory. He had even refused to lend some of his indignation. cannon, and broke his promise of being at hand with his cavalry. But when the victory was gained, in 1773, there occur these terms, thoroughly exterminate the
2 In the correspondence between Hastings and the vizîr and plunder .was in prospect, then his troops put
Rohillas, and exterminate them out of the country. Mill forth their activity, and, says Col. Champion, “We
takes the word exterminate in its ordinary English sense, of had the honour of the day, and these banditti the
destroy; while Wilson would take it in its (algebraic) sense, profit.” According to the same authority, the ex- of remove, drive away. The former seems to us the more cesses committed by the vizîr and his troops, and natural sense.