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and especially to Caan to Mounsyr de la Verune, gouernour and bayly at Caan, and to the court of parliament established at the saide place, with hope, that there was no daunger of death. Asmuch was written vnto them from Mounsyr de Mountpensier, gouernour-general for his Maiestie in Normandy, who was then at Andely upon the riuer of Seyne, where hee caused his whole armie to take the like oath ; exhorting the heades to maintaine the Kinges will. Whiche was accord-, ed vnto him, with hope, as the saide lord gouernour demed, that there shold be no daunger of the Kinges death, by Gods helpe.

But, the next daie following, the saide lord gouernour chaunged that kind of language, writing to the saide bayly of Caan, whereby hee gaue him to vnderstand, how the Kinge dyed the Wednesdaie next following the daie wherein he was wounded.

An assembly was holden at Caan, vpon Sonday the sixt daie of August, of all the citizens and inhabitantes of the same place, in the presence of the bayly of Caan, and the court of parliament, the bodie of the towne, and the gentlemen of the countrie, where the skilful person Moansyr de Lisores, President in the saide court of parliament, did sit as president; and when he had deliuered and shewed to all the whole company what matters had happened, with admiration of the speach of thys lord, as protesting perfect loyalty on his owne behalfe: publication of his Maiesties letters, and of Mountpensiers letters, was publiquely made, where all vniformally sware their acknowledgment and fidelity, euery man protesting to mayntayne the will of Henry de Valois, thus deceased, in all thinges that it conteineth.

A DISCOURSE

CONCERNING THE

SPANISH FLEET INVADING ENGLAND,

IN THE YEAR 1588,

AND

OVERTHROWN BY HER MAJESTY'S NAVY,

UNDER THE CONDUCT OF

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE THE LORD CHARLES HOWARD,

High Admiral of England. Written in Italian by PetruccIO UBALDINO, Citizen of Florence, and translated for A. RYTHER; to be sold at bis Shop, being a little from Leadenhall,

next to the Sign of the Tower. MDXC.

The constant attempts which the Romish powers have made upon our religion and

liberties; the many private treasons they have fomented against our establisb. ment in church and state; their vast armaments that have been made from time

to time, since we forsook the superstition of Rome, and believed in the gospel ouly; and especially the late combined force of France and Spain, to ruin us by sea and land, calls upon us to be thankful to God, who still continues to fight for us, as he did in the infancy of the reformation ; as will better appear by comparing our present state with the following account. The Pope bad suffered so great a loss in his revenue by the utter separation of

England from his authority, when Queen Elizabeth confirmed and established the reformation begun and continued by her father and brother, that he tried all means to take her out of the way; and working more especially with tbe potent King, Philip of Spain, they both determined either to cut her off by private artifices, or, if those should fail, to subdue the nation by open force. The Pope leads the way.

For, it being so shocking to human nature, to contrive the death, and to take away the life of God's anointed, or the governor of bis people, be, with his pretended dispensing power, was to strive to quiet the consciences of those bigots to he made use of ov that occasion. The Krst step was lo excommunicate the Queen and all her council, and their adherents; and then to absolve all those her subjects, that were willing to be rebels and traytors, from their obligated allegiance. Then he assumed a right to dispose of the crown of England; gave it to the King of Spain, and exborted Philip, to reduce it to his yoke by force of arms; engaged other states, and largely assisted him otherwise to enable him to make a successful invasion and to conquer, and decreed it a virtue and a werit, deserving of heaven, in those English subjects, that could be so cajoled to arm for Spaju, and rebel against their lawful sovereiga. Philip of Spain, thus prompied and supported, resolved upon the execution of a design that would, if successful, add so much power and riches to his crown : but still be pretended friendship, disavowed his intention, and solicited Queen Elizabeth's reconciliation to the Romish religion, that he might the better cover the wicked design of taking away her life privately or by treason. For, in the year 1584, William Parry, whose trial is proposed to be printed at large in this collection, instigated by Benedicto Palmio, and Christophero de Salazar, secretary to King Philip, undertook to murder ber Sacred Majesty; and Hanibal Codreto, a Spanish priest, approved the same diabolical design. But this was providentially detected; and su her Majesty escaped the bloody hands of that monster of ingratitnde, whom she had before saved from the gallows; yet again, in the year 1586, Babington and Ballard agreed with Bernardin Menduza, then the King of Spain's ambassador, to betray the land to a Spanish invasion, or to kill the Queen; but they were both preserved from their wickedDess by the Almighty power and goodness of God. Thus Philip hoping for no success in this private scheme, his intentions being so often detected, and his armaments already compleated, resolved to fight against God and his servants, by the help of the Pope and the whole strength of his own power"; and, in consequence of that resolutim, in the year 1568, he sent from Lisbon, on the 19th of May, that sea armament, which he called, The Invincible Navy, or, as the Pope Sixtus the Fifth termed it, The great, noble, and invincible army, and terror of Europe, consisting of 134 sail of tall towering ships, besides gallies, galliasses, and galleons, stored with 22000 pounds of great shot, 40200 quintals or hundred weights of powder, 1000 quintals of lead for bullets, 10200 quintals of match, 7000 muskets and calievers, 1000 partizans and halberts ; besides double cannons, inortars, and field-pieces for a camp, upon disembarking, and a great many mules, horses, and asses, with six months provision of bread, bisquet, and wine; 60500 quintals of bacon, 3000 cheese, 12000 pipes of fresh water, besides a full proportion of other sorts of Aesh, rice, beans, pease, oil, and vinegar. To which he added a great quantity of torches, lanthorns, lamps, canvas, hides, and lead, to stop leaks, &e. according to some

accounts. The English fleet gave them such a reception, that, by the blessing of God, it soon

defeated and dispersed that Invincible Navy, and made it vincible. In me mory of which great and miraculous deliverance from the Spanish and Popish tyranny, there was a day set a-part, by authority, to be kept holy, throughout all her Majesty's dominions; and it is much to be regretted, that so great a mercy and duty should be now laid aside: for, as a certain great writer observes, Doubtless, all men and women, who would not have bowed the knee to (Spanish) Baal, had then been put to the sword; their children had been tossed at the Pike's end, or else their brains dashed out by some in-faced Dons or other. Strangers have not been wanting to commemorate that time of Eng. land's deliverance, amongst whom I shall only mention the reverend and religious Theodore Beza (of pious memory) whose pathetick Poem gatulatory on that occasion, in Latin, inscribed to the Queen, I shall give you here translated by an excellent pen into the language of those days :

Spain's King, with navies huge, the seas bestrew'd,

T'augment, with English crown, his Spanish sway.
Ask you, what caus'd this proud attempti Twas lewd

Ambition drove, and Av'rice led the way.
"Tis well Ambition's windy puff lies drown'd

By winds; and swelling hearts, by swelling waves,
"Tis well the Spaniards, who the world's vast round

Devour'd, devouring sea most justly craves,
But thou, O Queen, for whom winds, seas, do war,

O thou sole glory of the world's wide mass,
So reign to God, still from ambition far,
So still, with bounteous aids, the good embrace,

That thou do England long, long England thee enjoy,
Thou terror of all bad, thou every good man's joy!

TO THE READER.

Who list to hear and see what God hath done

For us, our realm, and Queen, against our foe,
Our foe, the Spaniard proud, let him o'er-run

This little book, and he the truth shall know :
Which, when you read with care, retain this thought,

That, howsoe'er the means deserved well,
'Twas chiefly God, against our foe, that fought,
And sent them quick through midst of sea to hell.

Whither both quick, and thick, let them go down,
That seek to alienate the title of our crown.

T. H.

THE
THE Queen's Majesty having divers ways understood the great and

diligent preparation of the King of Spain, in divers parts, both by land and sea, not only of the strongest ships of all places within his dominions; but also of all sorts of provision and ammunition necessary for a mighty ffeet, which was to come from Spain and Portugal (for the furnishing and better direction whereof he had drawn together, into the places aforesaid, the most principal and antient captains and soldiers, as well of the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily, as of Lombardy, and other parts of Italy, and the more remote parts of India, as by every one was long before very evidently perceived, by reason that the preparation of these things, together with the number of the ships, mariners, and soldiers, the divers sorts and quantities of victuals, the great number and divers kinds of artillery, with the sum of

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every several kind, were sufficiently specified unto all countries, by certain pamphlets, laying forth at large his whole intent; the which pamphlets were printed and published in Spain and Portugal, and other provinces of Christendom, with this title. The most puissant and most happy feet of the King of Spain, against the realm of England:') her Majesty, I say, having in this manner received so open and manifest information hereof, as also certain intelligence of horsemen and footmen, sent in so great number, that they were sufficient for the furnishing of divers camps in the Low Countries, under the government of the Duke of Parma, his lieutenant-general for those provinces, and withal knowing the multitude of the ships of war, and the possibility that the said King had to transport his soldiers out of Flanders, and land them in England, not sparing to give out thereupon open and free report, that all that provision was for the invasion and conquest of England : and for so much also as at the same time the King himself, by means of his aforesaid general, the Duke of Parma, pretended a certain treaty of peace to be made with her Majesty (albeit this offer was in truth known, in England, not to have been made, but only to take advantage of the time, and to make her Majesty negligent in preparing for her defence, although she notwithstanding desirous openly to declare her good inclination unto that, which is a just and Christian commendation, in a prudent princess) refused not in any point this treaty and offer of peace, greatly desired of all Christian people; and, therefore, for that purpose gave commandment to certain noblemen of her privy council and others, with certain governors of her forces in Flanders, to deal in this inatter with the commissioners that should be there appointed, in the name and behalf of the said King; and our commissioners after their departure and manifest declaration, that they began to parley to some purpose concerning this treaty, being driven off a long time to small effect, and without any manifest hope of agreement likely to ensue, until such time as the Spanish fleet was not only discovered in the English channel, but also with-held and bridled from their purpose, in joining with the forces of the Duke of Parma, and transporting an army into England; and, finally, until such time as it was inforced to withdraw itself, and seek some better fortune in the Northern seas, being every where else unable to make any forceable resistance. Therefore, her Majesty, as well to declare her propense readiness, if on their part any sincere intent of peace had been, as her vigilant providence, not to be deluded by so subtle and malicious an enemy, furnished herself by sea with a mighty feet, and by land with a no less diligence to resist so great forces, as by all nations were reported to come against her. For it was never known in the memory of Man", that so great preparation was ever heretofore at one time made, either by King Philip himself, or yet by the emperor Charles the Fifth, his father, although his power were much more, and his occasions of war far greater.

The diligence therefore of the Englishmen, answerable unto the care of the Prince, was such and so great, that her Majesty was pro

• See the particulars above in the introduction to this tract, and in one of the other pamphlets.

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vided of a mighty Aleet to defend her by sea from the enemy, between

а the first of November, 1587, and the twentieth of December next ensuing, a time in truth very short for such a provision, in regard of so many years spent by the said King in preparing of his fleet, which, notwithstanding, did shew of what force it was, by experience, afterwards made thereof against the English navy, gathered together within fifty days, and provided and most excellently furnished of all things necessary for such a purpose. The care and charge of this navy was commended unto the Right Honourable Charles, Lord Howard, Baron of Effingham, Lord High Admiral of England, who, for his place and office, noble courage, experience in martial affairs, and nobility of blood and descent, was thought most fit and worthy to be employed in that service. He had in his company a sufficient number of honour.“ able, worshipful, and valiant personages, famous' both in respect of their birth and the gifts of mind, desirous to serve their prince and country in such a cause as this, being judged of the whole English nation both just and necessary; likewise of sea-faring men and private soldiers so competent a number, as might be answerable unto the power of so great a prince in so weighty a cause. The Lord High Ad. miral, therefore, with these forces, keeping for a season the narrow seas and channel between England and Flanders, Sir Francis Drake, knight, mentioned here also in honour of his good deserts, was, by the advice of the lords of the council and his honour so commanding it, sent towards the west parts with certain of the Queen's ships and others from certain ports of England thereabouts, being in all not above the number of fifty sail of all sorts, there to attend the lord high admiral his coming with greater forces, if occasion should so require. In the mean season the lord admiral with his vice admiral, the Lord Henry Seymour, kept the narrow scas, accompanied with twenty ships more, very well furnished at the charge of the citizens of London, besides many other from divers parts on that side of the realm, that lieth from the town of Dover up to the northward, which met all together in good order, and well appointed for the wars.

And here the lord admiral understanding, for a certainty, that the fleet of the enemy was already launched and at the sea, he weighed anchor, and leaving the Lord Seymour with sufficient forces of the Queen's ships and other vessels to watch what the Duke of Parma would do, or was able to undertake by sea, and parting from thence the twenty-first of May, 1588, to the westward with her Majesty's navy, and twenty ships of London, with some others, he arrived at Plymouth, the twenty-third of the same month, where Sir Francis Drake, with fifty sail that he had under his charge, met with the lord admiral in very good order. And then, the two navies being joined together into one, the lord admiral made Sir Francis Drake his vice-admiral.

Arriving then at Plymouth, his lordship presently gave order for provision of victuals for the whole navy, that it might want nothing, that should tend to the necessary service ensuing. The whole navy was at this present about ninety sail of all sorts,

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