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those letters, were favoured with the copies of them, to be exposed to the world.
Then there was an account given to the judge, in the court, of bis going to Deptford, and was said to be told his father at dinner, in her hearing, about a year and a half before; which put her into a swoon; and the use that was made of this, was to render her as bad as possible, and make the world believe how deeply she was in love with him. But it is matter of admiration, to most that hear it, that he did not tell his wife, as well as his fatber and brother, how fond she was of him. If it had been true, surely that would have diverted her from frequenting her company, so often as she did all the Summer following, as is before mentioned ; which all the neighbourhood can witness. If she was such a person, as they now render her, why did they seek and desire her company, as they did ? For she hath several times said, she never sought theirs.
And also, it is as much to be wondered at, that so chast a man, as he would appear to be, and one in so flourishing a condition, as he says he is; should order his wife to write, or have any thoughts of lodging at a house, for saving the charge of a guinea (for so he said at his trial, that his good husbandry, to save a guinea, had brought all that mischief upon him) where so lewd a woman, as he would have her thought to bė, did dwell: If he had been really invited, which, sure enough, he was not, but invited himself; and so she told her mother before he came.
But it is plainly to be understood, that the respect she bad for him, was not as for one that she believed to be viciously inclined, but as for an honest man, as appeared by the trust she reposed in bim: and also his being related to that family, whom she, as well as her relations, did so highly value and esteem, that she could have put not only her money, but her life, into any one of their hands.
Note, She little thought what sort of a man she had to deal with ; she was so deceived by his seeming sobriety, when in her company: and the great pretended kindness to her, by him and his wife, both for her own sake and her father's ; she could not imagine, that a branch of that family could have touched a hair of her head, to have hurt her, or have wronged her of one farthing: She was so honest and plainhearted, and so innocent herself, and so far from deserving any from hiin, or any of that family, or indeed from any else, that she, as well as her relations, could have served them to the utmost of their power : but what returns of kindness have been made, and how she hath been treated and defamed, now she is gone, and not in a capacity to defend or answer for herself, let the world judge.
But it is evident and plain, that most, or chiefly what he made use of at his trial, to defend himself and his three gentlemen, when he was not upon his oath, is proved false, even by what himself did swcar, when he was examined by the coroner's inquest: for when they asked him, if he knew any thing that troubled, or put her into a discontent, or discerned she was melancholy, or knew any one she was in love with, or any cause, why she should drown herself? Unto all whicb, he
answered, No, upon his oath; he discerned ' nothing of melancholy, neither knew he any that she was in love with : he knew one Marshall that was in love with her, but she had none for him, but always gave him the repulse; and she was a very modest woman, and he knew no cause why she should drown herself."
And yet, at this trial, when both he and his witnesses pretended to know her to be so melancholy, as was near to a distraction : and this depth of melancholy, he would insinuate, was for love of him ; and
; therefore she drowned herself,
Now, what can be more contradictory, or more fully proved that which he spoke at his trial to be false, than this, which he himself did swear? And this was evidenced by two of the coroner's inquest, and several more would have done the same, if they had been suffered to speak, but, as the trial relates, they were stopped.
Many observations might be made, and instances given, to clear her reputation, and to prove the falseness of what was cast upon her : as in particular, her so earnestly inviting an acquaintance of her's, who had kept her company that afternoon, and used to lie with her sometimes, to stay and lie with her that night, her death was; and she telling her, she could not well stay then; she engaged to come and dine with her the next day, and told her, what was for dinner; desiring her company, all day after, she not intending to go from home; which she promised tw do.
And it is very observable, from the beginning of the trial to the end, what shifts and devices he is forced to make use of, to drill out time that there might not be enough for witnesses on the other side to be heard; and also, his endeavouring to baffle the evidence against him: as, first, above twenty frivolous questions he asked her maid about poison, which she bought to poison a mischievous dog which haunted the house : and, if he could, by any means confuse, or put her out, if she had not had truth on her side, and gladly would have picked something out of it, if he could have told what.
Also, the many impertinent witnesses he calls to prove his witention to Indge at Barford's, and sending for his bag thither, and lodging his things there, which it seems was not at all expected by them; for John Barford's wife said, upon her oath, she believed Spencer Cowper did not intend to lodge at her house; but was surprised, when he sent to her, between eleven and twelve o'clock at night, to get his bed ready, and came before it was quite done.
And the next night after, when he was sent for by the coroner's inquest, to give an account where he left her: he said, in the parlour where they sat. And being asked, if he did not hear her bid her maid warm his bed ? He said, he thought she had meant her own bed. Butit is very unlikely, that she would go to bed, and leave him sitting there ; or that, when he went out, she should sit still, and not light him to the door. Now, for a man of his education and figure in the world to go away at that tiine of night, when he knew there was a fire in his chamber, and his bed was warming, and let himself out in the dark (as he must, if he left her in the parlour) and say nothing to any body, it certainly looks very darkly.
And then, his sending forhis horse three times, to her mother's house, the night after her death, before he was examined by the coroner's inquest, and would have gone out of town then, if he could have had him, as he confessed to the lord chief justice Holt; but, at his trial, he said, he sent for him, for fear the lord of the manor should seize him.
Also, when it was taken notice of at his trial, that he never came after that night her death was, to give her mother any account, where he left her, or, in any wise, to give her satisfaction: To this he answered, it might be thought strange for him to come and visit a woman, that he never had the least knowledge of; and yet he had several times lodged at her house, when her husband was living and that night also, that he was examined by the coroner's inquest, when they asked him, if he discerned her daughter to be melancholy? He said, no, only he thought she was not so free in discourse at dinner, as sometimes he had seen her; for most of the discourse then was between her mother and him. Surely, he will be hard put to it to reconcile himself in this discourse,
Thus, in short, upon the whole matter, it may be concluded, that the defence he made for himself, and his three gentlemen, and the most material things he made use of, whereby they got off, and were acquitted, were proved false out of his own mouth, before he went out of the court, as it may be seen in the trial, where the counsellor for the king says thus :
My Lord, said he, we insist upon it, that this is a different evidence from what Mr. Cowper gave to the coroner's inquest'; for then he said, he knew none she was in love with; nor any cause why she should do such an extravagant action, as to drown herself: But now he would make the whole scheme of things to turn upon a love-fit.': And then he moved the court to give leave to call several persons of quality, and good repute, who were there present, to speak to her reputation, in contradiction to the letters produced, declaring, that he believed the whole town would do the same. Then the judge said, they would grant, and did not question that. So there was no proof, as to that particular.
SPEECH MADE BY QUEEN ELISABETH,
(OF FAMOUS MEMORY)
In Parliament, Anno 1593 ; and in the thirty-fifth Year of her Reigy,
My Lords and Gentlemer, CHIS kingdom hath had many wise, noble and victorious princes ; other virtues : but saving the duty of a child, that is, not to compare with his father in love, care, sincerity, and justice, I will compare with any prince that ever you had, or shall have.
It may be thought simplicity in me, that, all this time of my reign, I have not sought to advance my territories, and enlarge my dominions; for opportunity hath served me to do it. I acknowledge my womanhood and weakness in that respect; but, though it hath not been hard to obtain, yet I doubted how to keep the things so obtained : and I must say, my mind was never to invade my neighbours, or to usurp over any; I am contented to reign over my own, and to rule as a just princess.
Yet the king of Spain doth challenge me to be the quarreller, and the beginner of all these wars ; in which he doth me the greatest wrong
; that can be, for my conscience doth not accuse my thoughts, wherein I have done him the least injury: but I am persuaded in my conscience, if he knew wbat I know, he himself would be sorry for the wrong that he hath done me,
I fear not all his threatenings; his great preparations and mighty forces do not stir me; for, though he come against me, with a greater power than ever was, his invincible navy, I doubt not (God assisting me, upon whom I always trust) but that I shall be able to defeat and overthrow him, I have great advantage against him, for my cause is just.
I heard say, when he attempted his last invasion, some, upon the sea-coast, forsook their towns, and flew up higher into the country, and left all naked and exposed to his entrance: but, * I swear unto you, if I knew those persons, or any that should do so hereafter, I will make them know and feel what it is to be so fearful in so urgent a cause,
The subsídies, you give me, I accept thankfully, if you give me your good wills with them; but if the necessity of the time, and your
• The Queen protests she will punish covards.
preservations, did not require it, I would refuse them: but, let me tell you, that the sum is not so much, but that it is needful for a princess to have so much always lying in her cuffers, for your defence in time of need, and not to be driven to get it, when we should use it.
You that be lieutenants and gentlemen of coinmand in your countries, I require you to take care that the people be well armed, and in readiness upon all occasions. You that be judges and justices of the peace, I command and straightly charge you, that you see the laws to be duly executed, and that you make them living laws, when we have put life into them.
DEBONAIRE DEITIE OF HIS BOUNTIFULL GODHEAD, ;
IN THE ROYALL OBSERUANCE OF HIS
GREAT FEAST OF PENTICOST.
Necessarie to be read and marked of all, for the Eschuing of like
Fæcundi calices, quem non fecere disertum ?
Printed at London, for Henry Kyrkham, and are to be solde at his shop, at the
little North-dore of Paules Church, at the signe of the Black-boy. 1593% Quarto in black letter, containing threc sheets.
The Intention of this pamphlet was to expose the Sin of Drunkenness and the folly
and danger of those who give themselves up to that chargeable, silly, and health. destroying vice. A vice, in which a man takes the utmost pains to drown bis own reason, to commence a fool, the object of a sober man's resentment and reproach, and to ruin both his own estate and constitution. And it plainly demonstrates, that drunkenness is not the peculiar vice of the present age, as some pretend, but that strong liquor was both as intoxicating, and as much abused in the reign of Queeu Elisabeth, as in our days: Otherwise it could not bave giveu occasion to tbe severe satyr of this ancient treatise; which, I apprehend, may be as useful now to be published, as it was thought necessary to forewarn tbe temptations, as to anatomise the vice, by its reputed Author Mr. Philip Foulface, wlw, it appears, was a miracle of his age, for as much as he was a reformed drunkard ; and, though he could not rub the alewife's score out of his carbuncled face, was resolved to be no more ensnared with the goodness of her ale.