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me, to give charge unto the inferiors, and those under their charge, to embark themselves, being shriven *, and having received the sacrament with competent contrition for their sins: By the which contrition, and zeal to do God such great service, he will carry and guide us to his great glory: Which is, that which particularly and principally is pretended.

In like manner, I do charge and command you, to have particular care, that no soldier, mariner, or other, that serveth in this


do blaspheme, or rage against God, or our Lady t, or any of the saints, upon pain that he shall therefor sharply be corrected, and very well chastened, as it shall seem best unto us : And for other oaths of less quality, the governors, in the same ships they go in, shall procure to remedy all: They shall punish them in taking away their allowance of wine, or otherwise, as they shall think good. And for that the most occasions come by play, you shall publickly prohibit it, especially the games that are forbidden: And, that none do play in the night, by no means.

And to avoid inconveniences that might ensue in this army and force of his Majesty, if that the here written were not put for remedy, by these presents, 1 do command, that, particularly and generally, all quarrels, angers, defiances, and injuries, that are, and have been, before this day, and until the publication hereof, of all persons, as well by sea as land, of greater or less qualities, be suppressed and suspended, so that none goeth in this army for the time that this voyage continueth and lasteth, although they be old quarrels: Yet, for my express commandment, shall break this truce and forbearance of arms, directly, or indirectly, upon pain of disobedience, and incurring into high treason, and die therefor.

In like manner I do give charge, that aboard the ships there be not any one thing offered to the disgrace of any man.

Declaring herewithal, that there cannot be any disgrace imputed to any man for any thing that shall be offered, nor yet be a reproach, whatsoever happeneth a-board any ship.

And for that it is known, that great inconveniences and offence groweth unto God, by consenting that common women, and such like, go in like armies :

I do ordain and command, that there be none embarked nor carried in the army: And if that any will carry them, I do command the captains, and masters of the ships, not to consent thereto: Who so doth, or dissembleth therewith, shall be grievously punished.

The company of every ship, one every morning, at the break of every day, according to the custom, shall give the Good Morrow by the mainmast, and at night the Ave Mariat: And some days the Salve Reginat: Or, at least, the Saturdays with a Littany. · And forasmuch as it importeth for the preservation and good success of this army, that there be between the soldiers and mariners much con. firmed friendship, and such amity, that there be not any difference, por other occasions of murmuring, I command it to be published, that no body do carry any dagger, nor thwart one another, or give any occa

• Confessed his sins to a priest. + The Virgin Mary. # A custom still observed ia Spain, and some other Popish countries, by tolling a bell three strokes thrice, in ali, nine strokes.

sions, but that all do obey the superior officers: And if any'scandal or offence come, he that was the beginner, shall straightly be punished.

When the galleon Saint Marten, wherein myself go, admiral of this feet, doth make a sign with a piece of ordnance, it shall be a sign of departure for the whole fleet, that, sounding their trumpets, shall follow without losing time, and without coming foul of each other, and cutting sail, shall do the like: Having great care of the sands and catchops, carrying their boats and skiffs ready for any thing that may happen.

Being from the land a sea-board, every ship shall come to leeward, saluting the admiral, to know what he will command: And demand the word, without going a-head the admiral, either in the day or in the night, but to have great care to his sailing.

Every afternoon, they shall repair to their admirals, to take the word, and to know if there be any thing to do.

And for that so many great ships, and so great may be, cannot come every day without boarding one another: To avoid the danger that may follow, the general of each squadron shall have particular care, to take the word in time, to give it unto the ships under their charge.

The admiral shall be saluted with trumpets, of them that have them: If not, with their whistles : Aud the people to hallow one after another, and, answering them, shall salute again: And, if it be towards night, to demand the word, and, taking it, shall salute one another in time, and depart, to give room to others that follow,

If it happeneth some days, that the wind will not suffer to take the word of the admiral, or admirals, they shall have, for every day in the week, the words following: Sunday,


The holy Ghost.

The holy Trinity.

Saint James.

The Angels.

All Saints.

Our Lady.

And for that it importeth, that all the armies do go close together, I do command, that the general, and wings, with great care, do procure to carry the squadrons, as nigh, and in as good order, as is possible : And the ship and pinnaces, of the charge of Don Antonio de Hartado de Mendosa, keep next unto the admiral, except six: Whereof, two shall follow the admiral Dou Pedro de Valdezi, and two the admiral of Martin Bretendona; the other two, the admiral of Joan Gomes de Medina : The which shall be appointed presently, and have great care to repart themselves, without ihe one thwarting the other : And the squadron of the hulks shall go always in the midst.

That no ship of the navy, nor any that goeth with them, shall depart, without my license: And I do command upon pain of death, and loss of goods, that if by chance, with a storm, any be driven to depart* before they come to the Cape Finister, that then they follow their course

• Between Lisbon and Cape Finister.

to the said Cape, where they shall have my order what to do; or else they shall-sail to the Groyne, where they shall have it.

In departing from the Groyne, they shall set their course for Silley, and procure to make the southerside of it, having great care of their sounding. And if by chance in this course any ship, or ships, do lose the fleet, they shall not return into Spain, in any manner, upon pain of death, and the loss of goods, and taken for traytors, but follow the course, and make to the southward of the said island. And if any such do think the navy to be a-stern of him, he shall detain himself in the same height, playing up and down, and not to depart from his course.

And if it be thought, that the navy is a-head, then shall you seek them in Mont’s-bay, which is betwixt the Land's end and the Lizard, there shall you have the whole navy, or intelligence what he shall do; and yet for all this, if he do not meet with the navy, yet shall he find pinnaces, with order what shall be done.

In the night, there shall be great vigilance for the admiral, to see if he change her course, or make about. Before he goeth about, he will shout off a piece; and, being about, will put forth another light, upon the poop a-part from the lanthorn; who that doth see it, shall answer with another light.

When he doth take away bonnets, or shorten the sails, he shall shew lights, one in the poop, and other two shrowed high.

When that for any occasion he shall strike all sails, he shall shew three - lights, one in the top, another in the shrouds, and the third in the forecastle; and the rest shall shew it, with putting forth a light, each upon

his poop.

If any ship have any occasion to strike all her sails in the night, he shall shoot off a great piece, and put out a lanthorn all night, and those that are nighest unto him shall show lights, for that other may procure it, and shall take in the sails till day: And, if necessity be great, shall shoot off another piece, and those, that do see it, shall answer with other two lights, making the like board.

When the admiral will have any communication, he will make a sign, putting a flag in the after misen near the lanthurn, and so they shall repair unto him to know what he would have. If (which God for his mercy pernit not) there happen any ship to take fire, the next unto her shall make from her, sending first their boats and skiffs, to succour and help, and so shall all the rest.

They shall have particular care, to put forth their fire in every ship, before the sun go down.

In taking of their allowance of victuals, the soldiers shall let them that have the charge thereof, to deliver it, so that the said soldiers shall not go down to take it, nor choose it perforce, as in times they have done; and, for this cause, shall be present the serjeant, or corporal, of the company or companies, where they are, for avoiding disorder, and that timely they have their portions; so that before night every body may have supped.

That no ship, nor other vessel of this navy, nor of any of those, that goeth subject under my jurisdiction, shall not be so bold to enter into taken away.

any harborough, anchor, nor go a shore, without the admiral doth it first, or with my special leave, upon pain of punishment hereof.

The colonels of the field, captains, lieutenants, ensigns and officers, must have particular care, that the soldiers have always their armout clean, ready, and in order, for time of necessity, causing them to make them clean, twice every week, and using themselves with thein in such sort, that they may be expert at the time of need.

And for that; in the way, order shall be given, in what form every man shall put himself, if we do fight, I do command, that particular care be had, advising the gunners to have half butts with water and vinegar, as is accustomed, with bonnets, and old sails, and wet mantles to defend fire, that as often is thrown, as to have the like care to have shot made in good quantity, and that powder and match be ready for sis. and soldiers of

-2 the store, by weight, measure, and length; according to the order, that every ship hath to deliver unto him, that hath the charge thereof, according to use and custom.

Also I order and command, that there be a care, that all soldiers have their room clean, and unpestered of chests, and other things, without consenting in any case to have cards; and, if there be any, to be taken away presently: Neither permit them to the mariners; and, if the soldiers have any, let me be advertised, that I may command them to be

And, for that the mariners must resort unto their work, tackle, and navigation, it is convenient, that their lodgings be in the upper works of the poop, and fore-castle, otherwise the soldiers will trouble thein in the voyage.

The artillery must stand in very good order, and reparted amongst the gunners, being all charged with their balls, and nigh unto every piece his locker, wherein to put his shot and necessaries, and to have great care to the cartridges of every piece, for not changing, or not taking fire; and that the ladles and sponges be ready at hand.

Every ship shall carry two boats lading of stones, to throw to profit, in the time of fight, on the deck, fore-castle, or tops, according to his burden; and shall carry two half pipes, to fill them with water in the day of battle, and repart them amongst the ordnance or other places, as shall be thought necessary and nigh unto them, old clothes, or coverings which with wetting may destroy any kind of fire.

That the wild-fire be reparted to the people most expert, that we havo for the use thereof, at due tinze; for that, if it be not overseen, giving charge thereof to those that do understand it, and such, as we know, can tell how to use it, otherwise it may happen to great danger.

By the commandment that no ship shall go a head the admiral, at the least in the night, none shall tarry a stern the vice-admiral, and every one to have a care to the trimming of his sails, according to the charge he hath, and the sailing of his ship; for the much that it importeth that alt our navy do go close as possible as they may, and in this the captains, masters, and pilots must have such great care, as of them is hoped.

These my instructions are delivered unto every ship, and have their copy, firmed by my hand, and registered by my secretary, the which shall

be read by every purser of every ship publiekly, to come to the note of all soldiers and mariners, whereby they may not pretend ignorance: And to the said pursers I ordain and command, that, thrice in the week, they be bound to read these my instructions publickly, and that they take witness of the fulfilling hereof, upon pain of him, that doth the contrary, shall receive punishment to the example of others.

All the above said, we command to be manifested, and be kept without any breach for the service of his Majesty, none to break them, or any part thereof, in no manner, upon pain they shall be severely punished, every one according to his estate and offence; all others reserved to our discretion. Made in the gallion Saint Marten, at the road of Belline, the twenty-eighth of May, 1588.






UPON THE WEST COASTS OF IRELAND+, In their Voyage intended from the Northern Isles beyond Scotlandi, toward


Imprinted at London, by J. Vaatrollier, fot Richard Field, 1588.

By the foregoing accounts, it is visible, that the whole power of Spain, and its Popish allies, was sent against us. But as the greatness of any armament dues appear more intrinsically, by the certain proofs of its losses; I shall, for the greater satisfaction of the reader, subjoin the following testimonies. Yet, before I conclude this wonderful history, let me observe, that this invincible Armada, which had been some years a preparing, with immense labour and cost, was, by God's arm, overthrown withiu a month, and chaсed away with the loss of many, both men and

ships ; whereas the English lost but one skip, and about one hundred men only. In this distress, they were past all hopes of returning by the way they had entered the Channel, and forced to secure a retreat through the dangerous and unknown coasts of Scotland, Orcades, and Ireland, which compleated their utter ruin. This is not only testified by the ensuing informations, but confirmed by very late discoveries made of their wrecks on those coasts.. Upon this occasion, a universal joy overspread every true-born English counte nance; and, after publick thanks to God, the state endeavoured to perpetuate

• A village, three miles below Lisbon. +Where some were killed by the wild Irish, and others by the Deputy's command ; lest, com. ing on shore, they should join with the rebels against the state ; and the remainder, taking to their wracks and boats, were mostly drowned. Seven hundred men were saved alive wrecked on this coast, whom the King of Scotland, by the Queen's consent, sent, at the Duke of Parma's request, after one year's imprisonment, into Flanders. & Without glory.

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