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by the wyser sort of people, kepte in store, as it were to be wyshed that the whole were.
Also by continuance of this sort of base monies, although Almyghtie God hath gyven, now of late yeares, plentifull increase by the earth, for the which he is to be thanked, without any such plages of scarcitie, as in our forefathers tyme hath bene read, when many hundrethes and thousandes of people have dyed for famine; yet the prices of all thynges growing, or commyng from the earth, hath inmeasurably and dayly risen, as all maner of grayne, fruite, cattell, bestiall, victuel, wolle, leather, and such like, and no remedy could be deuysed to amend the same, but to cause that the same base monies sbuld be currant for no more than they were in iust value. For every man, of the least understanding, by one means or other, knew that a teston was not worth six-pence, nor the peece of two-pence was worth so much, and therefore no man woulde gyve gladly that thing which was and ever had ben worth six-pence, for a teston, but woulde rather require two testons: and so, a thyng, being worth six-pence, was bought and sold eyther for two testons, or one and a halfe, which was in reckenyng xii or ix pence, and now every teston being brought to the just value, it must needs follow, that one shall buy of another hereafter that for jjii pence halfpeny, which was wont to cost vi pence. And, when the teston shall be brought into fine sylver, then shall all men be as desyrous to sell any ware for suche fine monies, as they have.of late ben loth and unwyllynge to sell any thyng for the base monies, except they might have had twyce as much of the base monies, as they were wont to have of the fine, or els that for necessitie they were dryuen to sell the same.
By this meanes also, now that the base monies are brought to the just value, and that every man shall have fine monies for them, all poor people that lyved of theyr hand labour, aswell artificers in cities or townes, as labourers in husbandrye, or men that toke dayetall wages, eyther by land, by sea, or by freshe waters, and all meane gentlemen that lyved but upon pensions and stipendes, and all soldiours and seruyng men, that lyved upon solde and wages, shall have theyt pensions, stipendes, soldes, and wages, now payde in good and fine monies, and therewith shall bye more necessaries for theyr sustentacion, then could afore be bought; who surely hauyng heretofore after the rate of xxs. xxvis. viiid. v nobles, xl. s. iv marks, v marks; iv pounds, v pounds, xx nobles, and so upward, by the yere payde to them in these base monies, could not have so much victual, apparel, weapon, armure, horses, or such lyke, with the saide stipend, by more than a fourth part, as they shall now have, because in dede the saide base monies were of themselves no more worth.
By this reformation also of base monies shall necessarely folowe a more profitable accoumpte betwixt the monies of this realm, and of other countries, and thereby the accoumpte, which, by merchauntes, is called the Eschaunge, shall also aryse in estimation of the monies of Englande, in suche sorte, as in former tymes hath ben, and the forreine commodities thereby also be bought for easyer pryses, to the benefit of all such as shall use the same.
So as, the matter well considered, the greatest numbre, and especially the poorest, shall have most commoditie hereby; yea, and such others as have moste gayned by excessive prices, shall have also (if they will consider themselues) no small profyte and helpe; and, fynally, no manner of person in the whole realm shall have, after one or two monethes, hurt hereby, except onely the traytour which hath lyved by counterfaicting. And, therefore it is to be allowed and imbraced of all people, and every man to thinke, that, although at the first he may suppose that he hath lesse monie in his purse, yet shall he have, for the same metal, as much as that was worth, eyther in ware, or at her Maiesties inint, in fine monies. And, whensoeuer he shall utter that base monies, which, at the tyme of the proclamation, he hadde, the nexte that he shall gette, eyther by his band labour, or for his wages, shalbe eyther fine monies, or such as he may have as much fine monies in the mint for it. And, consequently, every man ought to thank Almyghtye God, that he may lyve to see the honour of his countrey thus partely recouered : sylver to come in place of copper, pryces of thynges amende, all people to be more able to lyve of theyr wayes, every mans purse, or coffer, made free from the privie thefe, which was the counterfaictour. And, fynally, the treasure of this realm to be of sylver and golde, as was wonte in our forefathers tyme, and not of brasse and copper, besides many other great commodities that hereof must needs ensue, which, but for length, might be declared; and, for all the same, no losse to any, otherwise, but in opinion at the begynnyng, not much unlyke to them, that, being sicke, receive a medicine, and, in the takyng, feele some bitterness, but yet, thereby, recover health and strength, and save theyr lives.
And, because it is sene by experience, that many tymes, when good thynges be deuysed and aitempted, the deuyl slea peth not to hinder the same, but causeth them eyther to be defeated, or to be defamed and mistaken: Therefore it is meete, that no manner of person gyve any credite to such as shall caste abrode any mistrust or amendment of the money, or shall pretend this decree to be greater, or more burdenous than it is. For, truely, this amendment is so fully purposed by her Maiestie, as besyde that, experience shall trie it within one moneth, or vi weekes, within which tymes, necessarie thynges for the mint must be prouided. It is sene, that her Maiestie may refourme these monies according to her proclamation, without any such great losse as might move ber to forbeare it: And, on the other syde, the monies be so iustly valued, as, indede, the base testons being set at iid. farthyng, and her Maiestie giving at her mint, for euery pound of them, xxs. and iii. d. in rewarde, sball, thereby, gyve rather more than they shall be worth, beynge melted, than lesse.
So that her Maiestie, who, since she came to this croune, never gayaed any thing by any coynage, nor yet ever coyned any manner of base monies for this realm, will not now determine to lease the honour and fame that she shall, with small losse or gayne, recouer, by this noble acte, to benefit her realme and people.
And, as to the opinion of the burden of the losse, where the base testons be valued but at ii d. farthyng, whereby such as have them shall seme to have the greatest losse, it is to be well and reasonably construed and taken of all men, for that there hath not, by good accoumpte, which hath bene made and well proved, bene above a sixth parte compared to the other base monies of the same sort of testons coyned in the mints of this realm, and at the coynage of the same base testons, now valued at two pence farthyng, which was done in the tyme of the wars heretofore, there were set thereto certaine marks, as a lion, a rose, a flour de luce, or a harp, called the privy marks of such as were then masters of the mint, which also be specified in the proclamation. For the better understanding whereof, here be, in the end. of this declaration, set certaine stamps or prints, of every kind of the same base testons, with their saide several marks, to the intent, that every person, looking and beholding the same prints, may the better judge and discerne the same from the other, that be valued at ini pence halfpeny, although if the same be well considered, the colour of the saide base teston 'will shew the baseness thereof. And, because her Majestie meaneth to ease her subjects as much as possible may be, she is pleased to commaund her officers in her mint, that where there be many counterfaict testons, which were made by counterfaictours, when the testons were at the value of xii pence a piece, and since also that they were decreed to vi pence, and, by estimation, were so made, as they did contayn about two pence farthyng, or thereabouts, in sylver: they shall do their indeavour to receave and trye such counterfaicts, and shall gyve to the subjects, eyther for every such counterfaict two pence farthyng, or so much good fine monies, as the same counterfaicts shall contayn in sylver, whereby the people shall be relieved of such losse in some parte for counterfaicts, as, in no realm, any prince eyther hath or 'onght to do. And, for this, and for all the commodities hereof likely to ensue, her Majesty trusteth her most honourable good meaning shall be embrased of all her good loving subjects, and every person with good will yield to bear a small burden for a tyme, to avoid a perpetual and endless oppression, not only of themselves and their posterity, but also of the whole commonweal. Given under the Queen's Maiesty's signet at her Honour of Hampton
Court, the 29th of September, the Second Year of her Majesty's Reign, MDLX.
N. B. The stamps, or prints, of the base testons, which were printed at the end of the declaration, are now omitted, because there has been no such coyn in use these many years, and therefore it would bave been of no use to have printed them.
ENGLAND'S MOURNING GARMENT,
Worn here by plain Shepherds,
IN MEMORY OF THEIR SACRED MISTRESS,
Queen of Virtue, while she lived, and Theme of Sorrow, being dead.
TO WHICH IS ADDED,
After which follows the Shepherds Spring-song, for Entertainment of King James,
our most potent Sovereign. Dedicated to all that loved the deceased Queen, and honour the living King.
Non Verbis sed Virtute.
London, by V. S. for Thomas Millington, and are to be sold at his Shop
under St. Peter's Church in Cornhill. Quarto, containg forty-eight pages.
This is the fifteenth in the catalogue of the Harleian pamphlets, and contains many
peculiar curiosities : Its chief object, it is certain, was to perpetuate the de. served character of Queen Elisabeth, whom our author has, without the borrowed help of bombast, and undeserved praise, described to be most religious to . God; temperate in all things; just, merciful, and charitable to her subjects; a faithful ally, and true friend to her distressed neighbours : But, in this compass, he has adorned her just and admirable encomium, with the history of her royal ancestors, from King Henry VII. inclusive; and, among other things, his
caution to discoutented, murmuring subjects is worthy our observation. These, with other particulars, are concluded with a funeral song, by way of pas.
toral; then follows the form, or order of the procession, made at her funeral. To which is added, the Shepherd's Spring-song in gratulation of King James I's. accession to the throne of England.
To all true Lovers of the right gracious Queen Elisabeth, in her Life; being undoubtedly those faithful Subjects that now honour and affect our most potent Lord King James, after her death.
MY epistle to you is like the little town that the Cynick would have persuaded the citizens was ready to run out at the great gates, being scarce so long as the title. In a word, the negligence of many better able hath made me bold to write a small epitome, touching the abundant virtues of Elisabeth, our late sacred mistress; treating of her princely birth, chaste life, royal government, and happy death; being a lady born, living, reigning, dying, all for England's good. The manner is handled between shepherds; the form of speech, like the
persons, rude; affection exceedeth eloquence, and I have not shewn much art, but expressed the duty of a loving heart; shed some tears in reading our shepherds sorrow; and, in that true passion, let your love to our Royal Lord be shewn, who hateth hypocrites, as just nien hell: Farewel all of you, that give the dead Queen a sad farewel, and the living King a glad welcome; the rest are time-pleasers, and I write not to them.
Fælicem fuisse infaustum.
Collin, thou look'st as lagging as the day,
When the sun, setting towards his western bed,
And frolick life, with murky, clouds v'erspread,
Such is the habit of thy new array:
With night's sweet dews, and open flowers of day?
Tbere's all I'll say.
Tell me thy grief.
Who was our last and first.