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put into a golden coffin a dead man's carcase, and beset it with pearls and precious stones, you shall perceive, that, the more adorned it is, the more horrour and fear will the body incuss into you. And if this word Caduver, for a dead carcase, is rightly termed by the Latins à cadendo, of falling, why should we not deck it being fallen, as well as that which must, and will incontinently? But it is not now meet for me to bewail, and inveigh against these vanities of external habits, cut out after all manner of foolish fashions, being used amongst us ever since the creation of the world. Thus much understand, that God hateth those beasts which are of man's countenance, savagely minded, fair-tongued, richly trimmed, with their hair platted, after the wear of most impudent women, evil conditioned, shamelessly detecting the secrets of their boclies, and inconstancy of their minds.
ACCIDIT in vita, ut in longa via, aut plurimum luti, aut pulveris: As it is with a man which travelleth, the further and longer he journieth, the more dirty or dusty he is: So it is with us, who the longer we live in this valley of tears, the more subject we are to those things which work most cominonly our confusion, hunting daily after vanities, which are nothing else but vain illusions, deceiving the senses. And, amongst all which are usually practised, that of perfuming must not be omitted, which one, by itself
, doth so intoxicate men's affections, as that he is best esteemed ot, who savoureth most of it. We use it not only in our apparel, whereof we have already spoken somewhat, but in our diet also. It is a thing so effectual, as that, by it, our affections are caused and moved to undergo the blemishes of incontinency; it is so hateful, that the perfumed sort are condemned by honest men, both of turpitude and vanity. How better were it for a man to savour of virtue and honesty, whose scents are more sensible than aromatical spices, and burned brimstone; those would comfort his languishing spirit, refreshing it with much consolation. And, as in many things, so also in this, the variety of natures is infinite, not only betweeen man and man, but between nation and nation. For it is credibly reported by Pliny, that learned writer, that there is a nation inhabiting near the river Ganges, which is nourished with nothing else save the smell of an apple, carrying, one always about them, as a thing very cordial; and so much detesting ill savours, that, as a sweet and pure smell doth nourish, so an infectious doth destroy them. Hercupon, the men which bordered upon the oriental parts, as they fell more and more into dislike with meat, so they became very greedy, and thirsted after perfumes in such a manner, as that from them the like curiosity came to us: The inconvenience whereof you may easily understand by the Romans, who, having vanquished the Assyrians, Arabians, and Sabeans, became, through
their perfumes, slaves to them; which savours, at the first, the senators (in the five-hundred and sixtieth year after the city was built! so withstood, as that there was given out, in an edict, by the censors, That no inan, upon pain of death, should, by any means, convey into the city any external perfumes. But, not long after, lasciviousness being conquere-ss, through the vices of modern men, violating the statutes of their predecessors, as it is the custom, burst into the senate, as a heady ruler, author of that decrec. Thereupon came in all manner of ointments, being especial arguments of some defects which are concealed in man; and then the care of them, which befitteth not any man or woman, brought under subjection the whole estate of man. Remember that perfumist, who being beda ubed with the same or such like ointments, as that very instant wherein he should have thanked Vespasian the prince for an office received, was highly rebuked by him, and dismissed away with much disgrace. By whom we may easily perceive, that such like odours are sometimes not only no renown, but also much hinderance unto a man, especially when a grave censor of men's behaviours ruleth. A notable example we have of one Plantius, a senator, who being condemned by the triumvirs, for some trespass, to be executed, and afterwards, for fear of death, having fled into the Salernitanian thicket, was, from thence, by reason of bis sweet-smelling savours, detected, and immediately punished. Desist, therefore, for the most mixed and less simple odours procure more dishonesty and ignominy. For every filthy thing is made worse, by how much the more it is compounded. Art is the ornament of honesty, but burden of dishonesty. Moreover, odours are used after a more vile manner than heretofore. For although, as I have said, Rome made such resistance gaainst this plague coming out of Asia, as against an arned legion of enemies; yet, notwithstanding, at the length, a troup of evil favoured vices, passing their Corps du Guard, came into Europe, and thrre subdued most strong people. And, forasmuch as it is a most frivolous thing for a man to rehearse every thing in particular, conjecture of the rest by the valour of one valiant nian thereby daunted and quailed. That unconquerable man Hannibal, in the midst of his troublesome wars, which he waged with the Romans, anointed himself, together with his fierce army; but the end of this effeminate captain, and his soldiers, whose proceeding struck astonishment into men's hearts, was very lamentable: perfumes are penetrable, but vices far more. Hereupon it cometh to pass, as it always hath been the manner, that too much labour and trouble it is for a man to read or hear of those things, which are both written and spoken against this vice. To conclude, understand this, that he, who is delighted with it, laboureth not of a vice common in these times, but of one proper and peculiar to the mind. Wherefore endeavour, that you neither favour ill of those odours which are pleasant and delectable, or be hateful, by reason of those things which are odious.
CHAP. VIII. OF ENVY, DISSIMULATION, AND GUILE. ENVY and malice I comprehend both under one, because that they are brethren of the same brood. But, if we could find some difference in them, let us make what Augustine saith : Malice is delighted with another man's evil, envy is grieved at another man's good. So then we may affirm, that evil is the object of malice, and good of envy. A malicious man is subject to the law, because he is a murderer; as it is in John iji. 13, whosoever hateth his brother, is a manslayer; and know, that no manslayer hath eternal life abiding in him. This sin of malice is that which the apostle Paul, Rom. i. 29, shewed to be condemned, and that from which we are dissuaded: He willeth also the Corinthians, in his fifth epistle, the fifth chapter, the seventh and eighth verses, that they should purge out the old leaven, saying, let us keep the feast not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of maliciousness : Because, that malicious men are stopped from the kingdom of heaven, and the wrath of God, for this vice, cometh upon the children of disobedience. Morcover, what may be spoken of love, may, vice versa, be spoken of malice; and whatsoever is spoken in the dispraise of malice, may be for the praise of love. For most sure it is, that the praise of one is the dispraise of the other; as that which is streight sheweth itself to be so, and that which is crooked to be crooked, as one streight line may shew, being drawn by a crooked line: So then, when we speak of love, we may say unto the fault of malice, Mutata vice fabula de te narratur : To malice and envy are always joined guile and dissimulation, as most agreeable one to another; for, in dissimulation, we are deceived, as in love; for none are more deceived than such as, under the pretext of unfeigned love, think well of them whom they affect. In affection, likewise, we are deluded as well as in love, the truth whereof can hardly be discerned. But that course is commended, which Constantius the emperor
did take for tinding out such as he did suppose, in his court, to be dissemblers, and said unto them, that they only, whom he found to be most constant, were worthy to be about a prince. Theodorick, the Arian King, did kill Cæso with his own hands, a servant of his, whom he perceived to abjure and deny his faith; and said, moreover, as Sigon. Occ. Lib. xvi. hath, That he could in no sort be true and faithful unto him, seeing that he had sbrunk back from Christ, and denied hiin whom before he had confessed. Metius Suffetius most fitly doth resemble unto us the person of a dissembler, who, when as the Romans were in the field against their enemies, did betake himself unto the top of an hill, from whence he might see and behold who were like to have the better in battle, that he might go unto them; yet, notwithstanding, for this fact of his, the Roman King condemned him to be torn in pieces by wild horses, a death most fit for such a dissembling person. Most like unto this Roman are all such as carry themselves aloof off, continually expecting and looking for an alteration in the state, not shewing, indeed, what they are; so that they are not unlike the Jews, who speak half the language of the Ashdodites, and half of
their own. For, by this manner of life and conversation, they cannot be perceived what they are; whereas the prophet saith, they have a heart and a heart, yea a double heart, to make outward semblance of one thing, and to mean another; whenas they, for fear, wish well, or rather, seem to be favourers of the present state, not making any shew of dislike of it at all. But such may know that, sperantes vel unto die consenescunt ; and, although they stand still gazing for some change and alteration, long may they so continue: and altho' they be not unlike that countryman which Horace speaketh of, when he saith,
Rusticus erpectat dum defluat amnis, at ille
Labitur, & labetur in omne rolubilis ævum; yet they must assure themselves, that God, who ruleth above, sitteth and seeth all their plots laid by them, and their policies, and will
, most assuredly, disappoint them of their purpose ; and altho' they go on from one evil unto another, yet shall they not escape the hands of the Lord, neither can they so cover themselves, as that, by the mighty Jehovah, they cannot be discerned. Yea, and although the pope doth continually what he can to take away life from our sovereign, in sending traitor after traitor, and always canonising them, and would make this work of theirs meritorious; yet God, who hath heretofore disappointed them of their purpose, sitteth still in heaven, and laugheth them to scorn.
And altho', with the cruel emperor, they could wish, O si caput unum haberet, that at once they might have their will, yet God will not suffer their wicked treacheries to take effect. In ihe old law was set down unto us, how that an ox and an ass ought not to be coupled together, and a garment of linsey-wolsey ought not to be worn; whereby we may learn, not to make a shew of honest and plain-dealing, and be dissemblers, full of guile and hypocrisy. For they are not fit couples to be joined together, nor garments which will agrce upon our backs at once.
And from hence proceedeth all evil-speaking, as backbiting, slandering, railing, and the like. A reason may be hereof, Tulit nos ætas iniquiores : We daily wax worse and worse.
For none will now spare to revile, and that in a shameful manner, if any hope of advantage can be found. And, although we can have no just and true occasion to defame any, yet, audacter calumniando, we will proceed against such as we would hate; and, altho' we know no such slander can be truly raised, yet we assure ourselves that the scar will still remain, some judging badly of them, because of the rumour. If any fault can be found out in any one whom we would malign, then are we still like flies, lighting always upon the bare and sore place; if we can find out any imperfection, there will we be, and shew it unto the world; but, as for vistues the slanderous person letteth them pass, and will not so much as once look upon them. In Leviticus, we read how that kites were forbidden to be eaten, because they did feed upon living beasts, and so became unclean ; even so in slanderers and evil-speakers, no clean thing can be found; for the heari, the mouth, the hands, and every part of them is unclean; so that they cannot offer up sacrifices unto God. They are more savage than the beasts, for they do not feed upon one of the same kind; but man
devoureth man, yea, killeth him with his tongue and slanderous reports, We ought to remember, that as windows are narrow on the outside, and larger within;, so should we, out of our own houses, and, in other men's affairs, see less than in our own. We mut not be like that woman of whom Plutarch giveth this report, that when she went abroad would
into her head, but when she came home would take them out, and would not, in her own house, see any longer by them : But we must, in some sort, do the contrary; we must, in our own houses, that is, in our private actions, have more circumspect eyes than in other men's. And, finally, we must take heed, that we have not that the subject of our talk which may malign others, and that our actions deserve not to be evil-spoken of by others.
OF BENEFITING AND UNTHANKFULNESS,
FORASMUCH as justice and honesty require this, that we should give thanks unto them which have bestowed benefits upon us; nature followeth this order, that we should convert the effects into their causs: forasmuch as they have their conservation and increase from whence they spring. The degrees of benefits are four:
1. First, Thou seest some, that, when they bestow benefits, they have only a respect to themselves. So do shepherds and swineherds, when they provide pasture for their cattle, whereof they have charge, since, therein only, they seek for their own gain and commodity, otherwise they have no love to sheep, and swine, &c.
2. There are others, which, in doing of good, have regard both unto themselves, and also unto them whom they do help. For the poor do serve rich men and princes, partly, because they love them, and partly, to get some commodity at their hands.
3. In the third degree are those placed, which do in such sort bestow a benefit upon any man, as they look for no recompence of him. It oftentimes happens, that, when we see one in misery, we are touched with mercy, and we help him; which, without doubt, proceedeth of humanity: forsomuch as we are men, we think that nothing belonging to a man, but it appertaineth unto us.
4. They are counted in the last and chiefest place, which benefit others, even with their own grief, hurt, and loss.
After this manner Christ dealt towards us; he redeemed mankind with the loss of his own life: Whom Jephtha, after a sort, resembleth, who delivered the Israelites unto liberty, and that to his great danger, which he declarıd by this form of speaking: 'I have put'my life in my hands', Juilges xii. 3. that is, I have not refused to endanger my life, wherefore the Ephraimites were most ungrateful for so great a benefit. The degrees of ungrateful men are likewise four:
The first sort of angrateful men is, when they require not good to those that descrve it at their hands.
· The second is, when they praise not, nor allow well of those things which good men bestow upon them.