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necessary relief from the Pope, and the King, having no other means to keep them from starving or begging) yet, because I would not have you further deceived by them, who have not been present in the realm, to see such contrary proofs against all their conceits, as I and others have done : I will shew you a great number of manifest arguments, though I am sorry at my heart to remember them, whereby you, in your wisdom (if you be not blinded by others) shall see it most certain, that these foriner opinions, for comfort to be had from hence, will prove the next year as strong against us, and, in some part, more strong than they proved this year, if any account should be made thereof.

First, for the navy of England, which hath this year, to the sight of the world, proved to be of great force and value, for those seas, and able to overmatch, in their manner of fight, double to their number, of the great galleons, carracks, galliasses, or gallies, it is certain that it will be greatly increased this next year: for, I know, that, within these few days, bargains are already made, and imprest of money delivered, and certain sent into the Estlands, for great store of all maritime provisions. And, as for the increase of the number of good ships for the Queen's proper use, there is already a great quantity of timber ready, and order given to fell more in November and December Hist, in the countries near both to the sea, and to the Thames, to build a number of ships of war, equal to those whose service was seen this year, to have overmatched the great Armadas and castles of Spain and Italy. And, furthermore, to join with the navy of England, this Fear following, not only the Hollanders and Zelanders, but also ships of Denmark, and other parts of Estland, will certainly be had in great numbers, whereof there was none at all required this year past, to join with the navy of England ; only certain Hollanders and Zelanders offered their service (according as they are bound) in the end of this summer, since the conflict near Calais, to join with some of the English navy in the narrow seas, to detend the issuing of the Duke of Parma out of the ports of Flanders : and in that service, at this time, there are above forty and six good ships of war, with the Vice Admiral Justinian, of Nassau, a man that agreeth too well with the English nation, and is a sworn enemy to all Spaniards, and catholicks : and as it is reported, for certain, there are threescore more coming out of North-Holland to the seas, for the same purpose : so as it is to be doubted, that tbis realm, this next year, will be double as strong as it was this last year.

As to the second branch of our hope depending upon opinion of some great miscontentment of sundry persons against the Queen, the proof of the contrary so appeared this year, both of her actions, to maintain the liking of all her people, and of the general earnest devotion shewed to her by all estates, noble and mean, rich and poor, as I think no prince christened ever had greater cause of comfort in her people; which I may judge to breed a pride in her. And, to recoinpense the same, she did most notably shew herself in this time, even when most danger was threatened, in all her actions towards her people, as careful for their weal, and for the safety of her realm, without any special or particular provision, or regard to her own person, as ever any prince could do. First, to let her people understand what care she had to make her realm strong against invasion, she politically, yca most carefully, by her own frequent directions, caused her whole realm to be put in arms; she took account thereof herself by monthly certificates, from such as were made her lieutenants, in every shire of her realm; she caused armour, powder, weapons, to be sent to all countries, and ordnance to all maritime countries : there were also sundry arıniis described; to defend every coast of the sea, and as I heard it reported, by some that did know the secrets of the court, was importunate with her council to leave no day unoccupied, to bring these services to effect; and yet she did still continue her commissioners, in the Low Countries, to ireat of peace, which, surely, she desired to have obtained, so that she might have had the same, with certain conditions. So as to content her people, she did both treat and desire peace, and did not, in the mean time, neglect to make her realm strong for defence, if peace could not be gotten. But in the end, when her demands were wholly refused (whereof we and all catholicks were most glad) and that she understood very certainly, that the army of the duke of Parma should come first to destroy the city of London, she revoked her commissioners, approached London in person, and did lie, as it were, in the suburbs of the same, whereby they of the city took great comfort, having daily in shew and muster of their own ten-thousand men armed and trained of very able men of the city, and in readiness thirty-thousand more, able to fight.

She caused also an army to be brought to incamp, near the sea-side upon the river of Thames, betwixt the sea and the city, twenty iniles beneath the city; and after the army was come thither, she would not by any advice be stayed, but for comfort of her people, and to shew her own magnanimity of heart (as she said, she would so do, though she was a woman) she went to that army lying betwixt the city and the sea, under the charge of the Earl of Leicester, placing herself, betwixt the enemy and her city, and there viewed her army, and passed through it divers times, lodged in the borders of it, returned again, and dined in the army; and first, saw the people as they were, by their countries, lodged and quartered in their several camps, which she viewed from place to place. Afterward, when they were all reduced into battles, ready as it were, to fight with any enemy, she rode round about them, and did view them curiously, being accompanied only but with the general, and three or four others attending on her: but, yet to shew her state, I well marked it, she had the sword carried before her, by the Earl of Ormond.

There she was generally saluted with cries, with shouts, with all tokens of love, of obedience, of readiness and willingness to fight for her, as seldom hath been seen, in a camp and army, considering she was a Queen; and all tended to shew å marvellous concord, in a mutual love, betwixt a Queen and her subjects ; and of reverence, and obedience of subjects, to a sovereign; all which she acquitted with very princely thanks, and good speeches. I could enlarge this descrip: tion, with many more particularities of mine own sight, for thither I

ment, as many others did; and all that day, wandering from place to place, I never heard any word spoken of her, but in praising her for her stately person, and princely behaviour; and in praying for her life and safety, and cursing of all her enemies, both iraytors, and all papists, with carnest desire to venture their lives for her safety.

And, besides such particular acclamations, the whole army, in every quarter, did devoutly at certain times sing in her hearing, in very tunable manner, divers psalms, put into form of prayers in praise of Almighty God, no ways to be misliked, which she greatly commended, and with very earnest speech thanked God with them. This that I write, you may be sure, I do not with any comfort, but to give you these manifest arguments, that neither this queen doth discontent her people, nor her people do shew any discontentation, in any thing that they be commanded to do, for her service, as hen tofore hath been imagined. She had also an army of about forty-thousand footmen, and of six-thousand horsemen, under the charge of the Lord Hunsdon, lord chamberlain, as lieutenant of that army, made ready from the inland parts of the realm, to be about her own person, without disarming the maritime countries ; so as many marched out of sundry countries, towards her, at the very time that she was in the camp : some came to the suburbs, and towns, near London, whom she remanded to their countries, because their harvest was at hand, and many of them would Dot be countermanded, but still approached onward on their own charges (as they said) to see her person, and to fight with them that boasted to conquer the realm. But, though the greatest number of the said soldiers were compelled to return, yet the captains, leaders, and the principal knights and gentlemen came to the court, to offer their service, and those were graciously accepted of her, with many thanks, and are now for the more part returned with a full determination, and firm promise to continue their bands in such readiness, as, upon a few hours warning, they will assuredly return with them in good array:

Beside these foresaid arguments to disprove the opinion of discontentment of the people, which heretofore hath been thought a great furtherance to this honourable action, I will also remember you some other more notable actions, to prove both contentation and readiness, in all the nobility of the realm at this time, that were not tied to abide in their countries by reason of their offices, as lieutenants and governors there, for martial services. For, as soon as it was heard that the Queen was come near London, and that the armies were in gathering to come out of the countries, for defence of all invasions, and reports brought from the sea-coasts of the appearance of the Spanish navy, all the noblemen in the realm, from east and west, from north and south, excepting only such great lords as had special governments in the countries, that might not lawfully be absent from their charge, and some few that were not able to make forces according to their desire, came to the Queen, bringing with them, according to their degrees, and to the uttermost of their power, goodly bands of horsemen, both lances, light-horsemen, and such other as are termed Carbines or Argeletiers", lodging their bands round about London, and maintain:


ing them in pay at their own charges all the time, until the navy of Spain was certainly known to be passed beyond Scotland. And of these noblemen, many shewed their bands of their horsemen, befure the Queen, even in the fields afore her own gate, to the great marvel of men of good judgment (as I heard reported) for that the number of them was so great, and so well armed, and horsed, as knowing that they were no parcel of the numbers of horsemen limited in every country, and put into bands with the armies described, it was thought, before they were seen, that there had not been so many spare horses of such valour in the whole realm, excepting the north part of England, towards Scotland, whose forces consist chiefly of horsemen.

The first that shewed bis bands to the Queen, was that noble, virtuous, honourable man, the Viscount Montague, who, howsoever men do judge of him for opinion in religion, yet, to tell you the truth, he is reported always to have professed, as now also at this time be did profess and protest solemnly, both to the Queen, and to all her couri, in open assemblies, that he now came, though he was very sickly and in age, with a full resolution to live and die in defence of the Qucen, and of his country, against all invaders, whether it were pope, king, or potentate whatscever; and, in that quarrel, he would hazard his lite, his children, his lands and goods. And, to shew bis mind agreeably therito, he came personally himself before the Queen, with his band of horsemen, being almost two-hundred; the same being led by his own sons, and with them a young child, very comely seated on horse-back, being the heir of his house, that is, the eldest son to his son and heir: A matter much noted of many, whom I heard to commend the same, to see a grandfather, father, and son, at one time on horseback, afore a Queen, for her service; though, in truth, I was sorry to scé our adversaries so greatly pleased therewith. But I cannot conceal it from your lordship's knowledge, because I think this nobleman is known unto you, having been used as an ambassador to the catholick King many years past by this Queen (as I have heard) to require confirmation of the treaties of amity, betwixt both their fathers. And of this nobleman's conditions, I think, there be some others, of whom there is no account to be made, that they will give favour to any attempt against the Queen, or to any invasion of the realm.

There were also many, at the same time, that made shew's of great numbers of serviceable horses, whereof, though it be no comfort for you to hear, yet it is good that you be not abused for lack of knowledge, how the present state is here; that you may better judge bereafter, what may

be done to recover this late loss and dishonour. At this time the Earl of Lincoln, and the Lord Windsor, with some knights and gentlemen with them, shewed their bands, as the Lord Montague had done; and, after them, the lord chancellor shewed goodly bands of horsemen and footmen at his own house, very many and strong. And, within one or two days after, the Earl of Warwick, the Lord Burleigh, Lord Treasurer, the Lord Compton, and, in the end of the day, the Earl of Leicester, and the Lord Rich, besides suudry knights of the realm, shewed every of them several strong bands of horsemen, to the great liking of the Queen, and of all the people that were there, being


many thousands. And, within two days after that, the Earl of Essex, being master of the Queen's horse, with certain principal gentlemen, his servants, friends, and followers, shewed before the Queen above three-hundred horses of all service, and a great number of carbines, and a fair band of footmen, all musqueteers.

This shew exceed in number any other particular band, and the Earl himself, with a great number of lances, horsed and armed, did run very many courses, and especially with the Earl of Cumberland, as they call it, the course of the field' which I had never seen before; and did also himself, and his company, tournay on horseback a very long time, and caused also his carbines, and his footmen, to make many skirmishes there, to the great liking of the Queen, and of the multitude of people, which were many thousands. Amongst whom I heard many vehement speeches against all English papists, calling them all traytors, wishing also, that the Spaniards had been there in that field with treble the number, to make proof of the value of Englishmen; all which I heard to my great grief, with many curses against all their countrymen, suying, that they, as arrant traytors to their native country, had villanously sold, as far as in them did lie, the liberty of their own country to Spaniards and other papists. It behoved me not there to have contraried any of them, for surely, if I had, their rancour was so stirred up, by the comfort of these fair shews of horsemen, as they would there in the field in their rage have killed me, and cut me in a sbousand pieces.

Besides these lords above-named, there were brought to the town other fair bands, by the Earl of Worcester, the Earl of Hertford, the Lord Audley, Lord Morley, Lord Dacres, Lord Lomly, Lord Mountjoy, Lord Sturton, Lord Darcy, Lord Sands, Lord Mordaunt, and by every one that were of the privy council; so as, by estimation, there were about London, at that time, above five-thousand horses ready to serve the Queen, besides all the horsemen that were raised in all other countries for the armies and the sca crasts. And besides these, I heard in a very good place, where I was silent, that there were, by account, twice as many in readiness, with the noblemen that were absent, attending on their charges in their several lieutenancies. As the Marquis of Winchester, one counted to be the strongest man of his own furniture for horse and armour, who is lieutenant of Hampshire, with the Earl of Sussex, captain of Portsmouth, and lieutenant also of Dorsetshire. Next to him is in account the Earl of Shrewsbury, Earl marshal of England, lieutenant of a great number of counties, and of great power of his own, both for horsemen and footmen, besides the power of the Lord 'Talbot his son. The Earl of Darby also, though he was in Flanders, from whence he came lately, yet his son, the Lord Strange, lieutenant of Lancashire and Cheshire, in his absence, is said to have raised a great power of horsemen. And to shew the popular affection to this earl in his country, I heard it for certain reportedl

, that, when the earl continued longer in Flanders than they liked, and doubting of his return, for that they supposed the Duke of Parma would stay him, and the other commissioners there, the people of his country, in a generality, did amongst themselves determine, that

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