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ment, commanding all manner of obedience and humility to all his disciples?

Now let us see more at large, by whom, against whom, and for what causes this war, or rather cruel proscription, groweth. That, these things being plainly set down before your eyes, not only they that be of the poorer sort, which, having excellent courages, will set to their hearts and hands to defend their prince, their country, and religion, if they may be enabled thereunto, but chiefly those that have substance, lands, and living, which God hath given them, not to consume in their own pleasures and vanities, but especially to these ends and purposes, may be persuaded with a full and perfect resolution, forsaking the pomps and vanities of this life, to live frugally, honestly, and temperately, as shall best become the loyal servants of so godly a prince, and the valiant defenders of so Christian a commonweal; and henceforth be ready, not alone with their lands and goods, but also with their bodies and lives to defend so just, so godly, and so holy a cause.

What time as it pleased our most merciful and heavenly Father, in this our age, to discover unto his church, by certain preachers of great courage and magnanimity, the manifold abuses and heap of traditions, which the bishops of Rome, by their letters, decrees, and canons, have brought into the church, by little and little, from the second age of Christ unto that time : whereby the sincere and plain religion of Christ, pronounced, written, and established by his apostles over all the world, was so corrupted and overshadowed, as even unto this day, unless it be those, whose minds God hath lightened with the bright beams of his spirit, men can hardly remove that vale of vanities from their hearts : even then also, it pleased his fatherly goodness, to open the eyes of that noble prince of everlasting memory, King Henry the Eighth, father to her excellent Majesty ; that he plainly saw how long the princes and people had been abused, and, as it were, bewitched, with that ungodly antichrist of Rome. Who being putfed up with certain liberal donations of some well-minded princes, by little and little, became, of the poorest of all human creatures, the most mighty Pope and primate and commander of all Christian princes, Wherefore, by the advice of his most prudent and godly council, with the as sent of the whole realm in parliament, he discharged himself of the Romish yoke, which many of his progenitors, the Kings of England, for fellowship of other princes had so long submitted themselves unto, And therewithal, delivering to all his subjects the law of the Lord* in their own mother tongue, so many years excluded from them, gave power unto godly preachers to publish the truth, maugre all the enes mies of the same.

Whose godly example, his virtuous and prudent son, King Edward the Sixth, faithfully following, utterly chased away in one moment all the remnant of traditions, that men had been so long in devising, and restored religion to the self-same form, that the holy apostles left tho same.

• The Holy Bible.

According whereunto our most gracious Sovereign, leading us out of the captivity of Babylon, where God for our manifold sins made us by the space of six years, or thercabout*, to serve under antichrist, till we were returned unto him by prayer and amendment of life, perfectly restored us again to all those heavenly gifts which her royal father and brother had bestowed upon us.

Wherefore, these things being thus godly and sincerely taken in hand, the Pope in his greatness sore appalled; fearing at the very first, that, if these things should prosper and have good success, he and his whole religion should be overthrown, and himself cast down from that high dignity of a Pope, to the poor degree of Peter; from being carried on men's shoulders to be sent abroad to preach in his own person ; from the wearing of Paul's sword, to be obedient to princes laws ; from being served as a king at his table, to serve as a minister in the church; and from being an universal head, to be content with his own city of Rome. He at the very first, in a great fury, persuaded the Christian princes, that were taking in hand a noble action against infidels, to turn their forces against such their own neighbours as were enemies to bis superstition.

So, then, it is the Romish antichrist that hath blown the trumpet of this cruel sedition. It was that man of sin, which caused the commotion of the north against King Henry the Eighth. It was he that raised up divers rebellions against that virtuous young Prince, King Edward the Sixth, and also against her Mac jesty. It was he that cursed the Queen our Sovereign, and, in his own fund imagination, deposed her royal person from her crown and dignity; and of his own free gift (forsooth) bestowed the same upon others, but never durst give livery and scisin' of the same himself. He it is that Hatly against the word of God (wherein it was said : ! let every soul submit itself to the king as to his headt:) discharged all her Majesty's subjects of their due obedience towards her, and sent in swarms of false hypocrites, to steal away the hearts of the simple people from her, and to carry away their consciences captive unto Satan. 'He it is that hath sundry times laid plots for the destruction of her royal person; and, so far as in him lay, committed cruel murder by assenting unto vile persons to slay her, and by giving them pardons beforehand for their villanies. Finally, he it is, that hath sown sedition in the kingdom; that hath driven men, women, and children from true religion to perdition ; from sincere worshiping to damnable superstition. And he it is, that hath made not the holy, but the hellish league, with the great and mighty princes of his religion, to devour and consume us. But God be blessed for evermore, which hath lately delivered us, and turned some of their own weapons, prepared against us, into their own bowels, and hath drowned Pharaoh and his horsemen in the sea. For, though the Spanish King lately approached to the kingdom with wonderful force and preparation to have conquered the same, yet was he but a deputy therein to the Pope, and should have taken posses

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sjon but of that which he gave unto him, and have held the same of him, much like as Charles, the Earl of Anjou and Provence, held from him the kingdom of both Sicilies. Ye see, therefore, who is author, deviscr, and maiutaiger of all these mischiefs.

Now let us consider, against whom this holy father and his adherents have raised up so ungodly and so unnatural a war.

This famous and noble kingdom of England (as testify all the best writers old and new) was not the slackest among other nations that re. ceived the gospel. For if Paul himself, or some other of the apostles, were not the first that planted Christian religion in England, yet it is certain, that Joseph of Arimathea, with his fellows, preached the gospel unto us within less than eighty years after Christ. . And, in the onehundred and eightieth year of our Lord, Lucius, the King of England, received new preachers; and not only was himself the first or the second king that received baptism in all the Christian world; but he also caused all his kingdom to do the like, and publickly to receive the gospel. A principal testimony hereof may be, that the Kings of England have either the first or the second place in general councils.

Afterwards, about the six-hundreth year of Christ, they received Augustine and his fellows, sent from Gregory the Pope, and rather left the more sincere worship of Christ, taught them by Fugatius and Damianus, in the time of King Lucius, and to make no commotion for the loss of four-hundred English Christians, cruelly murdered at Bangor, by the procurement of the same Augustine, than to raise any schism or division in the church.

If none of all these most antient merits (for the which England might both be called and reputed the most Christian* kingdom of all other) will move them to take pity upon us, because antiquity of time breedeth coldness and oblivion; let them remember, that though we be here removed in a corner from the rest of the world, and may be measured with a span, in comparison of all Christendom besides; yet have we been ever as ready, as any other of the mightiest and richest kingdoms, to travel over sea and land, to spend our lives, lands, and goods, to resist the fury and invasion of the Turks, and other heathen nations : whereas we ourselves, being an island, and defended by the ocean sea, had less cause than any other to fear the infidels, being so far remote from us.

An example hereof may be Richard the First, who behaved himself sƯ nobly in service, against the pagans, that he obtained the name of Cieur de Lion, that is, Richard with the lion's heart. Is this then the reward that we receive for so great desert? Is there no other city, nor kingdom, nor country that is fallen from them but we? Or be we the first that must be sacrificed by the leaguists, in example of all others;' because we most sincerely profess the truth, and most defend them that are oppressed for the gospel

But is it our Queen, the lanthorn and light of true religion, that they so much envy, because she hath reforined the church in her own kingdom? Hath she done any thing else than did those good kings of

• The title assumed by the French King.


israel, David, Hezekiah, and Jehoshaphat? Hath she sought any other way than her most royal father, and her virtuous brother, as an inheritance left unto her, together with the kingdom? or any other way than Queen Mary her sister sometimes followed, and, no doubt, but would have so continued, if she had not been seduced by certain parasites of that sinful man; and, perhaps, by some corrupt Pool *, that came from the river Tiber? Let them shew me, if it be not the self same way, that the most Christian King, Lucius, her antient predecessor, received from Eleutherius, fourteen-bundred years past; which Eleutherius had received the same from them which heard the apostles? Have not we shewed and proved, a thousand times a thousand, by writing, hy disputation, by preaching, by conference, and many other ways, the persons by whom, the times wherein, and the matters whereof, every particular piece and patch of their religion is framed ? Which things (with the presumptuous affirination of their vain opinions lately devised, either by curious · heads, or by emulation of the learned, or of a fond zeal without knowledge, or for the increase of pomp and riches) laid a-part from our religion, they shall find themselves unawares, in the self-same truth which we profess.

Wherefore, then, are they of the holy leagueť so deeply offended with the government of so excellent a princess, that they should seek to bereave her of her kingdom, before they have well examined the question, and to repute her as a schismatic before they well know her religion? No doubt, but she daily speaketh unto God, and saith : " Plead thou my cause, O Lord, and fight thou with them that fight against me.” For she carrieth the testimony of a good conscience, that she seeketh no glory nor praise anto herself, but peace and tranquillity unto the church ; she seeketh not the dominions of other princes, but a just defence of her own ; nor to shed any Christian blood, but to save the poor afflicted souls which cry unto her. Hath she ever broken any league with christians, or made any covenant with infidels ? Hath she not always laboured' for peace between Christian princes, and travailed therein to her exceeding charges? She never endeavoured, by any secret or subtle means, to circumvent her neighbours, but what she meant to execute, in deed, that she professed unto the world. She bare not men in hand that she prepared against the Turk, or for the Indies, when she meant to invade her neighbours ; neither did she make any semblance of peace, till she might be fully prepared unto battle: but she hath always dealt plainly and valiantly, and honourably with all promise. She never omitted any good and friendly means to pacification, wbilo any hope of friendship remained. But, when all hope of intreaty was quite extinguished, she fled unto the next remedy, trusting that the mighty God of Jacob, which had many times delivered her, would now also be her defender and keeper.

Alas! What honour shall it be for so great and mighty a princess, to bend their force against so godly and peaceable a queen, that confesseth, as much as they, one and the self-same God in trinity of

• Cardinal Pole, who was sent front Rome, which is situate on the river Tiber in Itals: + Those Pop:sh Princes, who had combined with tiae Pope, to extirpate protestants,

persons, and unity of substance; that hath one and the self-same baptism ; that looketh to be saved by one and the self-same death; that hopeth for the same resurrection of the body; that confesseth one and the same gospel; and that believeth in the self-same book of canonical scriptures ? It had been far more for their honour and credit, and for the profit of all christendom, they having such store of men and wealth, if they would have sought first' to enlarge the kingdom of Christ, by compelling Turks and Infidels to the faith, rather than to spoil themselves of their riches, and their dominions, of Christian soldiers, by making war against a maiden queen. By the charges and blood of which unnatural war, they might, perhaps, have gained many thousand infidels to the faith of Christ. No, forsooth, they would not seein to war with a woman, but to prepare so invincible * force against her, as might devour ber and her whole kingdoin in one day, without any war at all. But God, who sitieth above, casteth out the counsels of princes, and bringeth their devices to none effect. For he hath destroyed their forces, and sunk in the sea their huge and strong vessels ; seeing there is no wisdom, no policy, no counsel, no strength, against the Lord of Hosts.

We see now, by whom, and against whom, this war is made. It remaineth to declare briefly the causes thereof. Which, though they have in some part been touched, yet will I more expressly set forth the same. That it may appear, what are the lawful causes of war, and how justly we take in hand to defend ourselves.

• Wars (saith Cicero) must be taken in hand, to the end we may live in peace, without taking wrong.' Which rule, no doubt, is very good, and agreeable to our religion, and to the law of nature.

For why else did the Lord promise victory unto Abab, by the prophet, in defence of Samaria, and to many other kings of Israel, when they were assailed and besieged by their enemies ? Neither have we, in any of our actions, stepped one jot from the same rule. For when the greatest princes of Christendom had, with one consent, conspired with the sce of Rome, to make war upon all the professors of the gospel, and to reduce them again to their abominable idolatry, or else so to destroy them, that their name should be no more remembered upon the earth, but especially perceiving the Queen's Majesty to be inost zealous of the truth, and the principal pillar, on whom the church of Christ did depend, they devised many ways how to deprive her of her life and kingdom. Come (say they) this is the heir, let us slay her, and the inheritance shall be ours. Then, her Majesty, knowing, from whence the chief cause of their malice proceeded; and that the inatter, most of all, concerned the glory of God, and next unto that, the life of her own self, and of infinite thousands of her subjects: she hath, since that time taken into her possession (though not the hundreth part of that, which she might, and hath been offered her) yet some part of her enemies weapons, as lawful was for her to do, for the better defence of her kingdom, and more safety of the church of Christ : since, without those helps, she had no safe way to

Alluding to the fore.meptioned Armada.

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