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THE

STUDENT'S MANUAL;

DESIGNED,

BY SPECIFIC DIRECTIONS,

TO AID IN

FORMING AND STRENGTHENING THE INTELLECTUAL AND

MORAL CHARACTER AND HABITS

OF

THE STUDENT.

BY JOHN TODD,

PASTOR OF THE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH OF PHILADELPHIA, AUTHOR OF

THE SUNDAY-SCHOOL TEACHER, LECTURES TO CHILDREN,” ETC.

1839.

TENTH EDITION.

12 25.

PHILP AND EVANS, PRINTERS, CLARE-STREET, BRISTOL.

CONTENTS.

OBJECT OF STUDY. INTRODUCTORY.—The mind of man. Ferguson. Why so accomplished. Want of ex-

perience in the student. Character acquired while a student indelible. Responsibility as to character. For whom

writing. Frigate “Constitution” in a storm at sea. Presence of mind. The helmsman. Inference. Time and

opportunities lost. Savage and cultivated mind compared. All capable of excelling. Clavius. The boy on the

top of the steeple. Eccentricities of character. Folly of expecting to be a genius. Education your own work.

Student must labour. Tomaso Anello, the fisher-boy. No excellence without toil. The ocean insect. The motto.

The object of education. A shrewd suspicion. Improve through life. Concentration of thought. Example of ab.

straction. Appetites and passions must be subdued. Necessity of cultivating attention. Example. Demosthenes.

Patience. Mistaken views on this subject. Benjamin Franklin's beginning. Example of patience. Student

must have a character of his own. Folly of being an imitator. Anecdote of Andrew Faller. Greatness not to be

copied. The judgment must be formed. Wasting life-remarkable example. Second example. What is wanted

Good habit-example. The mind will bear hard usage. Continued efforts. Hamilton. President Porter. The

two monks. Knowledge of human nature necessary. Jonathan Edwards. Who understands human nature best?

Self-knowledge. Measure yourself. Vanity unacceptable. Modesty of a well-disciplined mind. Memory. Origi-

nality not common. Originality not necessary. Object of study repeated. Power of memory. Away from home.

Tediousness of the Student's life. Conclusion.

CHAPTER II.

HABITS.-Power of habit. Easily formed. They are formed by all. It ought to be so. How to form a habit

Example. The prisoner. Second example. First direction in regard to habits have plans. The snow-path

How to calculate for a day. Reviewing the day. Character formed. A student's day. Second direction-untiring

industry. Folio volumes. Indian maxim. Who is a blasterer. Who has leisure. Seneca. Rutherford. Lutber.

Jeremiah Evarts. Idleness certain death. Third direction-perseverance. Example of the contrary habit. Deci-

sion an attendant on perseverance. Effect of changing plans. Results of perseverance. Habit of putting off.

Charles XII. Fourth direction-punctuality. Brougham. Difficult attainment. Why we love a punctual man.

Blackstone. Brewer, while a student. Loss by the want of this habit. Mistakes made. Fifth direction-early

rising. Swift's remark. Former times. Curious instance in Buffon. Frederic II. Doddridge. Early rest ne-

cessary. How to form the habit. The clock. Yale and Amherst Colleges. Many fight against forming the habit. Beset-

ting. Sixth direction--learn from every thing. Walter Scott. Wisdom in a servant girl. Value of this habit.

Spencer. Wirt's view of this subject. The principle illustrated. Seventh direction-fixed principles. What makes

a firm character. The tried shelf. Characters and books to be classified. The martyr Latimer. Eighth direction-

personal habits. Tobacco. The “Royal Counterblast." Effects of the system.

Dress. Change of garments.

Economy in dress. Dandyism. Alexander's courtiers. The teeth. How preserved. Singularity. Manners at

table. What society demands as to manners. Cleanliness. The fable. Ninth direction-doing every thing well.

Johnson. The prize lost. Common things. Euripides. Buonaparte. M‘Donough's Victory. Tenth direction-

temper. Goldsmith's temper. Danger to a student. Manliness. Contentment. Petty troubles. Imaginary inferi-

ority. Reverie. It is common. Sours the feelings. Eleventh direction-sound judgment. The troublesome watch.

Judging of your own character. The officer's method. Twelfth direction-treatment of friend's. Their anxiety.

Illustration. Writing to friends. Example. Son. Letter from a son. Effects of letter-writing. Choosing friends.

What traits of character necessary. Beautiful maxims. Esteem necessary to friendship. Envy not lowed.

Friends to be chosen for the qualifications of the heart. How to keep friends. What the great duty of friendship.

Veracity essential. Part of daily habits to cultivate friends.

CHAPTER III.

STUDY.-Study seems easy. Interruptions cannot be avoided. Suggestions. Number of hours of study. Ger-
man students. Severe application. Positions of the body. Grimke's plan. Chairs and lights. No conversation in

The two
study hours. Studying aloud. Thorough. How to conquer a country. Inaccurate scholars—how made.
farms. Example from Molière. Example of a thorough scholar. Thoughts to be followed. Translations. Their
effects. Expect hard study. President Dwight. Testimony of Wirt. How to make practical men.

Franklin's
habits. How to think. Brougham's application. No quarrelling with studies. The chancellor's young horse.
Geometry. Philosophy. Perseverauce. The Icelander-a curious example. Excuses for not studying hard.
Milton. Fuller. How a student is known. Testimony of Professor Stuart. Necessity of reviewing. How to
commit grammar to memory. The jeweller's shop Wyttenbach's testimony. How to review. How far carried.
The fog. Necessity illustrated. Quintillian. Appointed exercises. President Porter's testimony. Punctuality.
Rest the mind. How done. Illustrated. Example of Dr. Good. The old adage untrue.

CHAPTER IV.

READING.-Brutus. Pliny. Anecdote of Petrarch. Bacon's aphorism. Necessity of reading. Remark of
President Porter. Queen Caroline. Object of reading. How to read to advantage. Must be deliberate. Seneca's
remark. Ancients had but few books. Scarcity of books in Europe formerly. Obstacles in the way of knowledge
formerly. Excellence of the ancients. We read much. Bad books. Caution. Their certain ruin. Guilt of selling such
books. Byron. Danger of such writers. Abuse of imagination. A delicate subject. Onanis scelus. Crimen
commune. Ethnici. Dei ira. Fructus. They cannot live long. More and Scott. Home and Paine. Effects of
such writings. Chalmers. Edmund Burke. Testimony against novels. How to know what to read. Standard au-
thors. Read no poor books. How to begin to read an author. How to know an author. How to read with the
greatest profit. Marginal marks. Read slow. Reading should be talked over. Reviewing books. Classification.
Index rerum. Newspapers and magazines. Reading with pen in the hand. Objects in reading. Style. Ilus.
trated. Edwards on the will. Illustration. Stocking the mind with knowledge. Bartholin's remark. Stimulating
the mind. Illustrated. Pleasures of Reading. Buying books.

CHAPTER V.

TIME.- Difficulties of the subject. Remark of Seneca. Earl of Chatham's habits. Minute knowledge. Must
feel the necessity of improving time. Johnson's reflections. The Indian Gymnosophists. Apuleius. Imaginary ex-
amination. Dream continued. Virtuosi. Encouraging artists. Buying books. Thieves. First Thief-sleep.
Sleeping after dinner. Second thief-indolence. Third thiet-sloth. Madame de Genlis. Author's experience.
Variety grateful to the mind. Erasmus. Fourth thief-visiting. Fifth thief-reading useless books. Novel Clubs.
Sixth thief-improper study Whipping Dogs. Seventh thief-wearied mind. Eighth thief- procrastination.
Illustrated. Duke of Newcastle. Ninth thief-not completing our plans. Papers of a genius. Order essential.
Order must be perfect. Trifling pursuits. Nero and those like him. The hunting patriarch. Dressing. Diversions.
Life may be doubled. Locke's observations. Who lives longest. Thought from the prophet. Curious illustration.
Turkish story. The exiled king. King returned. The moral. Who enjoys most. Save the fragments of time.
What might be done. Necessity of prayer. Evening review. Queen Elizabeth. Dr. Young.

CHAPTER VI.

CONVERSATION.-The evening party. Power of conversation valuable. Agreeable. A gift of our Creator.
Power of persuasion. Illustrated. Use in obtaining information. Matter of study. Floating thought. City inha-
bitants. Conversation refines the feelings. Conversation a poor substitute for books. Advantages of the student.
Should cultivate his powers. First suggestion-talking upon trifles. Every circle may have profitable conversation.
Great minds. Robert Hall. A common mistake. Second suggestion-severe speaking. The ichneumon. Detrac-
tors. Notion of the Tartars. Cruelty of wit. Illustrated by the dying Socrates. A wise remark. Curious example.
Flattery. Its philosophy. Dr. Johnson's keenness. Goldsmith's character of Garrick. Third suggestion-ridicule
nothing sacred. The voice of experience. Profane language. Lord Chesterfield. The profane Bishop. Beautiful
satire. Fourth suggestion-topics of conversation. Not to use your last reading. Illustrated. A contemptible
method of Flattery. Illustrated. Conversation an intellectual feast. Talk about yourself as little as possible. Old
jests and anecdotes. Saying smart things. Spare the weaknesses of men. Danger of being witty. Example from
Gil Blas. How to become a wit. Avoid pedantry. Illustrated. Quoting Latin and Greek. Double entendres.
Impurity of expression. How to use anecdotes. Two cautions. First caution. Second caution. Illustrated.
Minuteness. Envy to be avoided. Note example cheerfulness. Mason's excellent rules. Temper to be preserved.
Disputes not proper for company. The responsibility of the power of conversation. The student's accountability.

CHAPTER VII.

POLITENESS AND SUBORDINATION.-The students' supper. Our first impressions. How a polite man is treated.
National character. Two curious examples. Danger of students. Learned children. Real politeness begins in
early life. One danger. Danger to religious students. Effects of vacations upon the student's politeness. Visiting
the ladies. Effects of radicalism upon politeness. New England Students. Southern manners.

Professional men
not polite. Jllustrated. The philosophy of the fact. Illustrated by a French lady. Politeness always receives
attentions. Consistent with independent feelings. Want of it no mark of genius. Clement XIV. Hints. Good
humour necessary. Kind feelings necessary. Conscience must be cultivated. Principles of the gospel lead to polite.

Cheerfulness essential. Health essential to cheerfulness. Friendship cultivates politeness. SUBORDINATION.
Subordination a law of heaven. Subordination to the state laws. Laws of friendship. Laws of the street. Illus-
trated. College rebellions. A book needed. Specimen of the contents of the new book. Four suggestions. The
faculty are on right principles. Their character is good. Public sentiment always in favour of the faculty. Illus-
trated. The student misses his aim in rebelling. Illustrated by the saw-mill. The results of a rebellion are ruin-
ous to some. How excitement is produced. A mistaken notion. Two reasons why a rebellion is so ruinous. The
first reason.

A great shock received. Difficult to recover. The second reason. Discipline of mind lost. Rebelling
a dishonoura business. No need of it. Student's life one of trial.

ness.

EXERCISE. Diet. ECONOMY.–Why exercise is needed. Illustrated. Health every thing to the student.

Why this necessity is not felt. llenry Kirke White. How the mind may be rapidly matured. This is not desirable.

A fashion in this country. Study must endanger health. Who is a hero. The fatigue of study. Illustrated. We

try to mature too soon. Difficulties which prevent exercise. Fi difficulty. Second difficulty. Third difficulty.

The manual-labour system. Objections to it. The best exercise for the student. Illustrated. The fourth difficulty.

How to meet this difficulty. Exercise must be regnlar. Must be agreeable. It should relax the mind. Cardinal

de Retz. Exercise to be increased at particular times. Professional men. Paul. Illustrious men have laboured with the

hands. Examples. Snmmary of the advantages of exercise. Mind strengthened by exercise. Confirmation.

DIET. Students fickle on this subject. Dryden's account of the first diseases. Hints on diet. Diet must corres-

pond with exercise. Fasting. Effects of our habits. Dr. Spring's prescription. Regularity of diet. Singular in-

stance of one indulgence. Stimulating drinks. Bad effects upon the student. Economy. Most of our students are

indigent. Indigence no injury to a student. Johnson and Savage. Poverty of Savage. Advantages of indigence.

Illustrated by men now on the stage. Should not be ashamed of poverty. Be anxious to keep out of debt.

What

to do if debts are absolutely necessary. Not consult taste in purchases. Do not buy because the thing is cheap.

Temptation of buying books. Form habits of economy for life. No mark of genius to be careless in regard to debts.

Make your expenses a matter of conscience.

CHAPTER IX.

DISCIPLINE OF THE HEART.-A designed omission. An early duty. Infidel notions. What sort of men are

infidels ? Testimony of one who had been an infidel. No safety in opinions if religious views are loose. The mind

of an infidel cannot make much impression. Settle your religious views early. No one can be safe without fixed

principles. Resolutions of Edwards. Resolutions of a distinguished man. A common preju lice among students.

Religion exalts the mind. Means of disciplining the heart. First suggestion. Every thing may contribute to it.

Every event designed for moral discipline: Second suggestion. Cultivate the conscience. Use of a cultivated

conscience. Illustrated. How the great efforts of the mind can be called forth. Thoughts at a grave. We must

meet with temptations. They are constant. Examples of temptations. Third suggestion. Avoid temptations.

Easily besetting temptations. Companions. Conversation. Particular seasons. Particular associations. Vile

reading. Little failings. Natural temperament. Beware of temptations to which you naturally incline. Fourth

suggestion. Temper. Example of a subdued temper. Temper may be cultivated. Roger Sherman. His patience.

Remarkable example of a subdued temper. Necessity of attending to the temper. Example of Sir Walter Raleigh.

Irritability of the temper. Fifth suggestion. Improvement of thoughts when alone. Cautions. Advantages of

being alone. The future to be anticipated. Your own teacher. Study your own character. You will find defici-

encies. Who are your flatterers ? No other way but by meditation to correctly understand the Divine character.

Sixth suggestion. Daily reading the word of God. Mungo Park. Two revelations from heaven. A parallel between

them. Inspired eulogy. Uninspired eulogy. Sir William Jones. Comprehensiveness of the Bible. The Scriptures must

be read daily. Example of Elizabeth. Locke. Hints for reading the Bible. First hint. Second hint-translation to be

used. The book of Proverbs. Third hint-disposition. Difficulties in reading the Scripture. Fourth hint-responsibility.

Why you may not neglect the Scripture. Seventh suggestion. Faithful reviewing. Sickness. Changes in circum-

stances. Examination of the heart on Sabbath evening. A help suggested. Use of dreams upon moral character.

Review at night important. Effects of the evening review. The dying heathen philosopher. Eighth suggestion.

Daily prayer. Students especially need prayer. Excuse of having no time. Hints in regard to prayer. Regular

hours. Morning and evening the best times for devotion. Examples of praying men. Conscience to be kept pare.

Excuse of not being a christian examined. Pray in Christ's name. Ask for the Holy Spirit.

man.

The OBJECT OF Life.--Pictures of the imagination, Visions of good men. Our visions a test of character.
The youth returning from a whaling-voyage. The dying thought of Hooker. The world under an immense mistake.
The army of Xerxes. The crusade. Peter the hermit. A wonderful example of avarice. Ancient kingdoms.
Experiment of Paganism. The experiment of the Romish Church. Fate of Galileo. The spirit of war universal.
Career of Buonaparte. A striking contrast supposed. Estimation in which war is now held, A horse-race.
Prostitution of mind unlamented. The hopes of each generation of men. The world left to sink. Who is great?
Individual examples. The merchant. The politician. The refined scholar. Thought of Paschal. Every one has
an object. The appetites and passions. Seeking after wealth. Life of ambition. The vexations of an ambitious

Admiration short-lived. Difficulties in sustaining a reputation. No one satisfied with his reputation. Rest-
lessness of ambition. Example of a disappointed man of ambition. Curious example. Character of fame. The
worth of ambition imaginary. By expelling this principle we do not leave the heart empty. We need a high motive
of action. What it is. A high standard is practicable. Illustrations. Examples of a wrong standard. Example
the right standard. We have the power of selecting the object. What is daty. Testimony of reason. Testimony
of conscience. Advantages of the true standard. The sonl is filled. Engrosses the whole heart. Conquers sin.
Leads to activity. Shows valuable results. No waste of efforts. Ensures the approbation of conscience. Obtains
the approbation of the world. Obtains the approbation of heaven. The dying mother. Feelings of an author on
closing his book. How the reader is entreated to act. State of the world much depends on students. Circum-
stances in which we are called to act. Responsibility of our situation. Power of reaching men, The Bible the
great instrument. Encouragements to action. Rewards of a life well spent. Conclusion.

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