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The declarative or indefinite article un or une, before a noun, is thus exemplified, masculine and feminine :

Un parlementaire, une chaloupe ca- A flag of truce, a gun-boat, has put to nonnière a mis à la voile.

sea or set sail. J'ai été à bord d'un parlementaire, I have been on board of a flag of truce, d'une chaloupe canonnière.

of a gun-boat. Ils out débarqué d'un parlementaire, They landed from a flag of truce, from d'une chaloupe canonnière.

a gun-boat. Nous fimes des signaux d un parlemen. We made signals to a flag of truce, to a taire, à une chaloupe canonnière.


The indicative or definite article le, the, before a noun masculino :


Le roi a prononcé son discours.
Avez-vous vu passer le roi?
Il est monté dans le carrosse du roi.
Il vint de la part du roi.
Il a été présenté au roi.

The king bas delivered his speech.
Have you seen the king pass ?
He went in the king's coach.
He came from the king.
He was presented to the king.

The indicative or definite article la, preceding the noun feminine ; thus :

La reine est aimée de son peuple.
Il conduisit la reine à l'église.
C'est un présent de la reine.
Elle l'a reçu de la reiue.
Elle l'offrit à la reine.

The queen is loved by her people.
He attended the queen to church.
It is a gift of the queen.
She has received it from the queen.
She offered it to the queen.

The indicative or definite article le, or la, becomes l', de l', à l', before a singular noun, masculine or feminine, beginning with a vowel, or h mute. This elision is merely used for the sake of harmony.



l'esprit, m.
de l'esprit,
à l'esprit,
l'ame, f.
de l'ame,
à l'ame,
l'homme, m.
de l'homine,
à l'homme,

the mind.
of or from the mind.
to the mind.
the soul.
of or from the soul.
to the soul.

the man.
of or from the man.
to the man.

The indicative or definite article les, invariably corresponds with both genders in the plural; as,


les pères, m des pères, aux pères, les mères, f. des mères, aur mères, les amis, m. des amis, aux amis,

the fathers.
of or from the fathers.
to the fathers.
the mothers.
of or from the mothers.
to the mothers.
the friends.
of or from the friends.
to the friends.

S. You have said that prepositions, joined to the articles preceding common nouns, are used instead of the cases or varying terminations of the Greeks and Latins; but I do not observe any prepositions before au, du, singular, and aur, des, plural, expressed in English by to the, and by of or from the.

M. I will explain this difficulty. The article au is the contraction of à le; du of de le; aux of à les ; and des of de les. I am much pleased with your remark, as I think it will lead you

to avoid a very common and natural solecism, which the English learner is often apt to slide into, by frequently saying à le for au*; de le for du; à les for aux; and de les for des.

We shall now proceed to the demonstrative article, or demonstrative pronoun, as it is called by many grammarians, ce, cet, m. cetle, f. this or that; ces, pl. these or those. Ce precedes a consonant; cet a vowel or h mute.



Ce jardiil, m.
de ce jardin,
à ce jardin,
cet homme, m.
de cet homme,

à cet homme,
s cet enfant, m.

de cet enfant,
à cet enfant,

This or that garden.
of or from this or that garden.
to this or that garden.
this or that man.
of or from this or that man,
to this or that man.
this or that child.
of or from this or that child.
to this or that child.

So natural is it to fall into a mistake, that I have heard French children usc ench a mode of expression in j'ai mal a le doig t, for j'ai mal au doigt, I bave a pain in my finger.

Cette, this or that, in the feminine, is invariably the same; as,

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The following modes of expression, which comprehend all the words of the same class, conclude the demonstrative article, or demonstrative pronoun :

Celui qui, m. s.-he who

Celui qui étudie-he who or he that


he or she that Celle qui, f. s.-she who

celle qui écrit-she who or she that

writes. Ceur qui, m.p.? Celles qui, f.p. )

ceux qui étudient--they or those who study. they or those who {

celles qui écrivent,they or those who write. Celui-ci-this. Celui-, m. s.--that.–Donnez-moi celui-ci, et gardez celui-

give me this, and keep that. Ceux-ci—these. Ceux-, m. p. those.-Donnez-moi ceur-ci, et gardez ceux-la

give me these, and keep those. Celle-ci—this. Celle-, f. s. that.-Prenez celle-ci, et laissez-moi celle-là-take

this, and leave me that, Celles-ci — these. Celles-. f. p. those.-Prepez celles-ci, et laissez-moi celles-la

take these, and leave me those. Ce qui, ce que-what, that which. Ce qui lui arrive est ce que je lui ai prédit

what befals him is that which I foretold him. Note.-The adjuncts ci and là render the DEMONSTRATIVE still more forcible: the former shows the object near; the latter more remote.

S. Have you any thing more to say on the subject of articles ?

M. Yes. Take notice, First, that the article le, &c. renders the idea more general, it gives it the greatest possible latitude, and repre. sents the whole species by a single individual, as is done in English by the very suppression of the indicative or definite article, as, l'homme est mortel, man is mortal; that is to say, all men :--L'opinion est la reine de ce monde; opinion (i. e. opinion in general) is the queen of this world.

Secondly. The article, placed before adjectives, before the infinitives of some verbs, or before adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions, transform them into nouns ; in such case, though the article may be singular or plural in some cases, according to the sense, it must be of the masculine gender.


The article (masculine) before adjectives, Le vrai et le beau sont l'objet des Truth and beauty are the objects of arts.

the arts. La mécbans sont haïs.

The wicked are hated.

Infinitives. Le boire et le manger sont indispen- Eating and drinking are indispensasables.

ble. Le rire de cet homme est niais.

The laughter of this man is silly.

Adverbs. Il veut savoir le pourquoi et le co- He would know the why and the mment de tout.

wherefore of every thing.

Prepositions. Un avocat ne peut défendre le pour et A lawyer cannot defend the for and le contre dans un procès.

against in a suit.

Conjunctions. Les si, les car, et les mais de cet homme .. The ifs, fors, and buts, of this man, renle rendent fort ennuyeux,

der him very wearisonie. Finally. Though proper names are in themselves sufficiently definite, and of course need no article, yet they take it sometimes ; as les Lockes, les Newtons, les Fénélons, et les Franklins, font un honneur immortel à l'humanité; the Lockes, Newtons, Fenelons, and Franklins, reflect eternal honour on human nature.

By thus placing the articles before the proper names of men, we form a distinct class, a separate species, the better to convey to the mind the exalted opinion we entertain of them; and, in this case, their names, becoming appellative or common, are liable to the accidents of nouns of this discription.




my, &c.

Scholar. Which are the other articles ? Master. The following: 1. The possessive article, or possessive pronoun; as mon, &c. 2. The possessive-relative article or pronoun; as le mien, &c. mine, &c.

3. The demonstrative conjunctive article, or the relative pronoun; as, qui, &c. who, &c.

4. The numerical-determinative article, or the determinative adjective of number; as, un, &c. one, &c.; certain, certain; tel, such.

5. The numerical-indeterminate article, or indeterminate adjective of number; as plusieurs, several, many; quelques, some ; certains, certain; tels, such.

6. The negative article, or negative adjective of number; as, nul, aucun, none, not any, &c.

7. The collective article, or collective adjective of number; as, tout, m. s. toute, f. s. tous, m. p. toutes, f. p. all, &c.

8. The distributive article, or distributive adjective of number; as, chaque, each, every.

S. I have noticed, that these very words, which you now treat of as articles, are set down, in many French grammars, as pronouns. Why do you call them articles ?

M. Because the province of the article is to define and set boundaries to the noun; therefore, every word possessing that property, must be classed with the articles.

I have adopted the classification of the two eminent French grammarians, Beauzée and Sicard (with some little deviation from their system), because it appears to me to be founded on sound principles.

We will now proceed with minuteness to review those words in the order adopted above.


Masculine. Fem. Of both Genders.
mon, s. ma, s. wes, pl.

1st Person de mon, ma, mes,

of or from my. à mon, ma, mes,

to my.

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