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Que je doive porter, &c. That I may have to carry; &c.
FUTURE TENSES OF ALLER.
INSTANT FUTURE ANTERIOR.
Que j'aille porter, &c. I must soon carry, &c.
INSTANT FUTURE ANTERIOR.
Que j'allasse porter, &c. I was obliged to carry, &c.
S. What are the comparative tenses ?
M. They are all past tenses, but properly termed comparative, because they exhibit an anterior event compared with an event which is also anterior, yet not so much so as the first. They are formed with the radical tenses of avoir, and its past participle cu, placed before the past participle of another verb.- EXAMPLE:
Quand j'ai eu fini mon ouvrage, votre frère est entré.
In the above sentence, you perceive clearly that the comparative tense, j'ai eu fini, is used merely to acquaint you with the precise time at which your brother came in. It is of course supposed that you know when my work was done: for, otherwise, two unknown epochs, instead of one, would be presented to your view. The comparative tense may, therefore, with propriety, be compared to a kind of needle, which, on the dial of human actions, points out the very nstant of the existence of an action till then unknown.
The comparative tenses are chiefly used in plays, epistolary correspondence, and novels. Eminent French writers, on subjects of general utility, furniśn us with but few examples of their use.
The reason, I believe, is, that the epochs of the subjects on which they treat do pot require to be determined with the same precision as common incidents.
A VIEW OF THE COMPARATIVE OR DOUBLE COMPOUND TENSES.
PAST COMPARATIVE, OR PRESENT DOUBLE COMPOUND.
J'ai eu porté, &c. I have carried, &c.
PRETERITE DOUBLE COMPOUND,
J'cus eu porté, &c. I had carried, &c.
PAST COMPARATIVE, OR PRESENT DOUBLE COMPOUND.
J'aurais eu porté, &c. I should have carried, &c.
SUBJUNCTIVE. PAST COMPARATIVE, OR PRESENT DOUBLE COMPOUND.
Que j'aie eu porté, &c. that I may have carried, &c.
ON PREPOSITIONS, Scholar. What is a preposition ?
Master. It is a word placed between two other words, to point out, or express, a relation between the ideas denoted by those two words.
S. What do you mean by a relation between two ideas?
M. A relation or correspondence, which renders them mutually necessary, and which is pointed out by the word called preposition. When, for instance, I say, Alexander was the son of Philip, in this sentence there is evidently a relation between Alexander and Philip, which is, that the former is the son of the latter : the preposition of points it out.
The relation which the mind perceives between ideas, has its foundation, or prototype, in Nature, the objects of which are dependant upon one another; thus, the universe supposcs a creator, a mother awakens the idea of a husband, children, education, &c. as Pope so elegantly expresses it in the following lines :
Nothing is foreign; parts relate to whole ;
The chain holds on, and where it ends unknown. The relations between objects, being various, have given rise to various prepositions by which they are distinguished.
S. Are there as many prepositions as there are relations ? M. No; for the same preposition is often used to express different relations: the same relation is also sometimes expressed by different prepositions. A table is annexed, which will give you an idea of the use of prepositions in the French language, exemplified in a series of familiar phrases.
S. Is the preposition always placed between two words?
M. It should be so; the preposition having been introduced as a channel of communication between two words, reciprocally necessary to each other, for the complete expression of the thought. However, exceptions have been made in favour of poetical harmony, and of brevity of language: this accounts for the preposition being separated from, or deprived of, its first term, which, to denote its place, is called the antecedent. In French poetry you will often meet with the preposition separated from its antecedent, as in the two following lines:
Aux êtres sans raison, le Ciel, par indulgence,
Gives not the useless knowledge of its end. The antecedents of the prepositions à (aux put for a les) and des are the words cache and connaissance.
In the inscription on the statue of Maffei at Verona,
A Scipion Maffei, vivant,
the antecedent words, statue consacrée, are understood.
On the direction of letters, for instance,
A Messieurs Bateson & Co. à Livourne.
The words, cette lettre sera rendue, this letter will be delivered, are understood.
S. Is the second term of a preposition always expressed in French ? M. No: there are several prepositions, after which it
be understood, - auparavant, before ; depuis, since; alentour, round; dessus, over or above; and dessous, under ;-exemplified in the following phrases :
Ce n'est pas d'aujourd'hui que je le sais; il me l'avait dit auparavant.
It is not to-day that I learnt it; he bad told it me before.
Au lieu de mettre les souliers sous la table, il les a mis dessus.
Instead of putting the shoes under the table, he put them over (or upon) it.
Il s'est trompé s'il les a mis dessus ; il aurait dû les metre dessoru.
He made a mistake if he put them on the table; he should hare put them under it.
On m'a refusé l'entrée du jardin; pour m'en dédommager, je me suis promené alentour.
They refused me entrance into the garden ; but, to make myself amends, I took a walk around it.
Vous le vites l'année dernière, mais ne l'avez-vous pas vu depuis ? You saw him last year, but have you not seen him since ?
The words aujourd'hui, table, jardin, l'année dernière, are understood. We call such words the consequents or complements* of a preposition.
$. Are prepositions useful only to express relations between objects and qualities?
M. They discharge a very important function in forming the derivatives of verbs: you have seen instances of it in our conjugation, in the derivatives of mettre, venir, &c.
Here follow those in use for that purpose, many of which are bor. rowed, in that instance, with a slight alteration, from the Latin,- Ad eu A: mettre, admettre ; prendre, apprendre.-Con, com, contre: courir, concourir ; battre, combattre; venir, contrevenir.—De, dis : faire, défaire; paraître, disparaître.—E, en, em, entre, ex : puiser, épuiser; traîner, entrainer; porter, emporter; prendre, entreprendre; traire, ertraire.--In, im, inter: disposer, indisposer ; poser, imposer; rompre, interrompre.-Me, mau: connaître, méconnaitre; dire, maudire. -Ob: tenir, obtenir.- Par, per, pré, pro, pour: venir, parvenir; mettre, permetre; munir, prémunir; poser, proposer ; suivre, poursuivre.- Re, ré: commencer, recommencer; former, réformer.-Se, sou, sur, sus: courir, secourir; tenir, soutenir; prendre, surprendre; pendre, suspendre.Trans: porter, transporter.
An accurate knowledge of the meaning of the prepositions and primitive verbs will, in general, lead you to that of the derivatives.
You are now to commit to memory the table subjoined to this conversation : in it you will find tho prepositions exemplified sufficiently to direct you.
We observe here, once for all, that, in this treatise, the word complement, of which we have already given an idea, in treating on the adjective, means, as in the grammars of Beanzée, Sicard, &c. thut which is added to a word, to determine its signification in any manner whatever.
There are two sorts of words, the signification of which may be determined by complements:-1. all those which have a general signification susceptible of different degrees; 2. all those which have a signification relative to any term whatever.
Those of the first class are, 1. nouns common. 2. every adjective and adverb, which, implying in their signification an idea susceptible of quantity, are themselves susceptible of what is called degroes of signification; and 3. etery rerb, the individual idea of which may also receive those various degrees.
Those of the second class are, 1. several nouns common, 2. several adjectives, 3. a few adcerbs, 4. erery active verb, as well as some others, and 5. every preposit on.
If we abstain from giving examples, it is to avoid swelling this note, and be. canse the doctrine of complements has been treated in a masterly manner by Beauzée, to whom we refer all those whom a love for the science induces to ex. plore that part of graminar.