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| Prepositions. 1
I will enter in spite of you.
stant leur défense courageuse. nonobstant. They have been made prisoners,
notwithstanding their courageous defence.
Il est en bonne santé, en belle
humeur. He is in good health, in good
humour. Son vignoble est déjà en fleur. His vineyard is already in blossom.
Il partira d la fin du mois.
OF THE ADVERB.
Scholar. What is an adverb ?
Master. It is a word which modifies nouns, adjectives," verbs, or participles. It frequently modifies another adverb. The following phrases shew its various modifications.
Alors roi, then a king ; ssez bon, good ough; o irons-nous ? where shall we go? Ainsi fait, thus made or done; très-bien, very well; parfaitement bien, perfectly well.
It will be proper to observe, that a preposition and the noun which it governs have the force of an adverb, and that every adverb may be resolved into a preposition and its noun.
S. In the English, we form the greatest part of our adverbs by adding to our adjectives the termination ly. What termination answers to this in the French ?
M. The termination ment. In subjoining that termination to an adjective, to make it an adverb, the three following rules are to be observed :
1. When the adjective ends with a vowel, you have only to add ment: thus, honnéte, aisé, poli, ingénu, will give the adverbs, honnètement, aisément, poliment, ingenument.
The adjectives, aveugle, commode, conforme, énorme, incommode, opiniâtre, when transformed into adverbs, agreeably to the above rule, will require an accent on the e mute, thus: aveuglément, commodément, &c.
Note.-The adjective, impuni, giving the adverb impunément instead of impuniment, is the only exception to this rule.
2. Adjectives, ending in nt, change that termination into mment: thus, méchant, ardent, will give méchamment, ardemment.
Note.—Lent and present are to be excepted : for thoy produce the adverbs lentement, présentement.
3. Adjectives, ending in consonants, require the adverbial termination ement, to be added to their feminine gender : thus, grand, égal, &c. will give grandement, également, &c.
The adjectives commun, confus, exprès, importun, obscur, précis, profond, require the acute accent on the e mute of their tern.ination feminine before ment is added to it, as communément, confusément, &c.
Note.-The adjective gentil, which gives the adverb gentiment, instead of gentillement is the only exception to this rule.
S. How many classes of adverbs are there?
M. Nine classes will comprehend them all : they are adverbs of manner, time, place, quantity, number, comparison, interrogation, affirmation and negation, doubt and reasoning. The following is a list of a few of each class; but, I consider, with Beauzée, that such classifications are objects rather of curiosity than utility.
ADVERBS AND ADVERBIAL PHRASES.
Sagement, prudemment, conformément, bien, mal, à la háte, peu à peu, &c.
Quand, combien de temps, autrefois, dernièrement, hier, aujourd'hui, demain, alors, &c.
Où, ici, là, y, en, ailleurs, auprès, autour, &c.
Combien, beaucoup, assez, peu, davantage, médiocrement, &c.
Soutent, rarement, premièrement, &c. une fois, deux fois, &c.
OF AFFIRMATION AND NEGATION. Certainement, vraiment, sans doute, nullement, point du tout, &c.
OF DOUBT AND REASONING. Peut-être, ainsi, conséquemment, pareillement, &c.
S. You have said that an adverb could be resolved into a preposition and its noun. As I cannot comprehend this in the following instances, viz. y, en, auprès, autour, hier, aujourd'hui, demain; i shall be much obliged to you to make ine sensible of it.
M. Y and en, which are indeed very elliptical expressions, are the equivalents of a preposition and a noun. The first is derived from the Latin word hic, which was itself the ellipsis of the phrase in hoc loco,* meaning in that place, dans ou à ce lieu, according to circumstances. Thus, y stands, in French, for the preposition dans or à with a complement or regimen.- Examples : J'y vais, I am going there, stands for Je vais dans ou à ce lieu. J'y pense, means, according to circumstances, Je pense à lui, à eux, à elles, à cela, à cetie chose, a ces choses, &c.
En is derived from the Latin word indè ; we can resolve it by the preposition de and a noun.-Examples: J'en viens, I come from there, is, according to local circumstances, for Je viens de ce pays, de cette ville, de ce village, de cet endroit, &c.
J'en parle, is for Je parle de moi, de nous, de toi, de cous, de lai, d'eur, d'elle, d'elles, de cela, de cette chose, de ces choses, de l'homme qui, &c.
This analysis of y and en is opposed to the opinion of some grammarians, who call them pronouns.
As to autour and auprès, they of themselves sufficiently indicate their adverbiality, being composed of the preposition à, the article le, and the noun près ou tour; from d le près, à le tour, they gradually and naturally became auprès, autour: the first is an adjective taken substantively, and signifies a neighbouring place; the second is a noun, meaning the roundness of a thing.
I will conclude by observing, that the words hier, aujourd'hui, demain, which we have ranked among the adverbs, are truly nouns; an undeniable proof of which is, that they are the nouns of various prepositions, as in the following examples, taken from the Dictionary of the French Academy: d'hier en huit jours, from yesterday week; la journée d'aujourd'hui est plus belle que celle d'hier, this day is finer than yesterday; l'affaire est remise à demain, the affair is postponed until to-morrow. Besides, these words may be inodified by adjectives, a fact which still more forcibly proves them to be real nouns.-Examples: tout aujourd'hui, the whole day; hier passé, yesterday, &c.
When the above expressions are used, by theinselves, after the verb,
• See Gebelin.
the preposition, by the help of which they would modify it, is understood : this accidental circumstance, by which they are stript of the accidents of nouns, renders them adverbs. We may, therefore, without deviating from our general principle, give them a place accordingly.
OF THE CONJUNCTIONS.
Scholar. What is a conjunction ?
M. Nine; viz, et, and ; que, that, than, or how; ni, neither, nor; ou, either, or; si, if, whether; mais, but; car, for; or, now; done, therefore. The five last might, with propriety, be denominated elliptical.
ET or 8; connects rouns and phrases or sentences together, as well as adjeclives, pronouns, verbs, and adverbs.
Bon & sage.
EXAMPLES. Alexandre & Philippe.
Alexander und Philip. Le feu & l'eau.
Fire and water.
Good and wise. Lui & moi.
He and I. (hapter & danser.
To sing and dance. Sagement & fortement.
Wisely and strongly. Ils ont été leurs égaux, & ont com. They were their equals, and formerly posé antrefois une même société composed one and the same society. avec eux,
Je crois qu'il est malade.
I believe that he is sick.
VI. This conjunction, implying a denial, requires, according to the sense, to be preceded or followed by the negative, ne.