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Ne prenez ni cette fleur-ci, ni celle-là. Take neither this flower nor that. Ni l'or ni les grandeurs ne nous rendent Neither gold nor greatness make us heureux.
But, though ni is repeated in an enumeration as often as there are things to which the denial is applied, ne is used but once.
Il n'entend ni les vents qui grondent sur sa tête,
OU. This conjunction leaves the liberty of choice, and implies doubt.
C'est ou moi, ou vous, ou Ini. | It is either I, or you, or be.
Enfin votre rigueur emporta la balance,
SI comes from the Latin sit, which means qu'il soit ; and, whereas some verb must be understood before qu'il, as no phrase could begin with it, it follows that si stands for, or is the abridgment of, such a conjunctive phrase as Je suppose qu'il soit vrai que, I suppose it is true that.
EXAMPLES. Pensez bien et parlez peu, si vous vou- Think well and speak little, if yon wish
lez qu'on vous regarde comme un to be looked upon as a man of unhomme d'esprit.
• It is to complete the metre that un is used. D'usurpateur (alone) should have been used; for the epithets parricide and usurpatour are applied in a general
Si mon cæur, de tout temps, facile à tes désirs,
MAIS is a word that once signified plus, as may be ascertained principally by the works of the old French romance writers, where this expression often occurs: now, that it is used to connect a phrase with another, it has preserved a part of its ancient meaning, and sig. nifies that “quelque chose de plus que,” sometbing more than has been said, is going to be said, that will fix the ideas completely about the subject of the discourse. It may also be solved by the expressions et de plus.
EXAMPLES La satisfaction qu'on tire de la ven- The satisfaction we derive from regeance ne dure qu'un moment; mais venge lasts but a inoment; but that celle que l'on tire de la clémence est which we derive from clemency, is éternelle.
il chérit la critique,
CAR is used to account for a proposition brought forward.
EXAMPLES. Je ne pourrai y aller, car je suis rete- I shall not be able to go thither, for I nu au lit par une fièvre ardente. am confined to my bed by an ardent
Tout ce que les mortels ont de plus redoutable,
In the above sentences, car stands very clearly for par la raison que.
answers to the English now.
bave told you.
This conjunction designates the actual existence of a condition, without which what one was speaking about could not take place; it is derived from the Latin word hora, which became hor, and then or in French. Here is an application of this conjunction :
Tous les hommes sont mortels. All men are mortal.
Now you are a man.
Therefore you are mortal.
DONC, which generally follows or, may, according to SICARD, be thus analysed :
“Tous les hommes sont mortels,"
or vous êtes homme.
Thus, the word DONC contains in itself the value of the preposition de, the Latin adverb undè, and the Latin word quod. The French donc is the equivalent of these words: de-là vient que. The guttural c supplies the place of q, aud reciprocally; it is easy, therefore, to find in the word donc the representation of the four Latin words, de undè renit quod.
S. Is the que denoting comparison, and the que denoting admiration or desire, of the same species with the que just mentioned ?
clearly see two propositions; but, in “Le soleil est plus grand que la lune; que vous êtes bonne et aimable! que le ciel comble vos vêux !" I see but one proposition in each: this que must, therefore, certainly be of a different species from the first que, which serves to connect two propositions.
M. I profit by your remark to speak of the ellipsis, a mode of expression by which man abridges his speech, in order the more speedily to manifest his sentiments. It occurs frequently in all languages, and is one of the chief causes of grammatical error.
The sentence, " Le soleil est plus grand que la lune,” stands in the place of another, “ Le soleil est plus grand que la lune n'est grande,” in which you may perceive the whole part of the second proposition which the que was designed to unite with the first : Le soleil est plus grand. In the sentences
s Que vous êtes bonne et aimable !
the whole of the first proposition is suppressed. In the first it is such a one as, On ne peut répéter assez que, &c. It cannot be sufficiently repeated, how, &c. In the latter, Je désire que, &c. I wish that, &c.
From the above, I have a right to conclude that the comparative, exclamative, and admirative que, is neither more por less than the conjunctive que.
S. What are the compound conjunctions?
M. They are the following, which we have divided into two classes, according as they govern the indicative or subjunctive. They are called compound, because the conjunction que, which gives them a conjunctive property, is combined with some of the other parts of speech. Owing to that circunstance, they have with propriety been denominated conjunctive phrasos.
COMPOUND CONJUNCTIONS GOVERNING THE
Je l'ai fait ainsi que je vous l'ai promis. As, as well as. I have done it as I promised you.
Une place aussi forte que l'était cette ville, n'aurait
pas dû être prise. So, as,
A place so strong as that city, should not have been
taken. Aussi peu que.
Vous en prendrez aussi peu qu'il vous plaira.
You will take as little as you please.
. As soon as
I am come as soon as I could. Aussi bien que.
Il est en état de le faire aussi bien que vous. As well as.
He is able to do it as well as you.
Il aime la lecture autant que vous aimez le jeu. As much as.
He loves reading as much as you love play. Après que.
Nous sortirons après que vous aurez dîné. When
We will go out when you have dined. Attendu que (sel. Je l'ai puni attendu qu'il avait tort.
dom used). Since, because. I punished him because (or since ) he was in the
wrong. A (à) ce que. A ce que je vois, vous ne l'aurez
à temps. By, according as. By what I see, you will not have it in time. A(a)mesure que. A mesure qu'ils paraissaient, ils étaient accablés
d'une gréle de balles. As fast or as soon As fast or as soon as they appeared, they were over
powered by a shower of balls. A (à) cause que.
Faut-il qu'il soit insolent, à cause qu'il est riche ? Because.
Must he be insolent, because he is rich ? A (à) condition J'y consens, à condition qu'il viendra.
que. Oncondition that. I agree to it, on condition that he will come. A(a) la charge Je vous loue cette maison, à la charge que vous que.
l'entretiendrez. Oncondition that. I let this house to you, on condition that you will
keep it in repair. Bien entendu que. Je vous l'accorde, bien entendu que vous tiendrez
parole. Provided. I grant it to you, provided you will keep your
word. C'est pour ceta C'est pour cela que je ne lui ai pas accordé sa deque.
mande. It is for that. It is for that I did not grant him his request.
Dès que la paix sera faite, je partirai pour l'Europe. As soon as. As soon as peace is made, I shall set off for Év