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EXAMPLES FOR THE ADJECTIVE, IN THE SINGULAR. Du bon pain et de la bonne viande | Good bread and meat suffice for

suffisent à l'homme tempérant. a temperate man. Il nous a envoyé de l'excellent fro- He sent us excellent cheese, but

mage, mais du mauvais beurre. bad butter.

RULE VI.-If the word some be placed, or understood, before one of those adjectives, whose correspondents, in French, are put before their nouns, and are in the plural number, the preposition de, and no other, must be placed before the former. If the adjective be one of those that may change place, and come so immediately after the noun, de is changed for des ().-EXAMPLES: Il a de beaux chevaux dans son He has fine horses in his stable.

écurie. Ce boulanger nous fournit de bons This baker gives us large loaves.

pains. J'ai vu de bonnes viandes à la bou-i I saw good meat at the market.

cherie. De célèbres auteurs (* ou des au- Celebrated authors think so.

teurs célèbres) pensent ainsi.

with you,

S. You appear to differ very widely in opinion with the writers of French grammars for the use of Englishmen. They all invariably maintain that de (preposition,) answering to some, expressed or understood, must constantly be used before an adjective, whether singular or plural, when preceding its noun: for instance, instead of saying

du bon pain et de la bonne viande suffisent,” &c. they would, according to their rulc, say, “de bon pain et de bonne viando suffisent,” &c.

M. This impropriety of expression not long ago struck some of our best grammarians; and they maintained that a preference should be given to the mode of expression I recommend, and which now also begins to be sanctioned by polite custom. In fact, when you say, "de bon pain et de bonne viande suffisent,” owing to the pronunciation, which is the same in both cases, it cannot be discriminated, whether you do not mean, de bons pains et de bonnes viandes suffisent, &c.; the meaning of which is very different.

Please to give your attention to the following rule, which is rather difficult, and has been very wrongly explained in such French grammars as have fallen into


hands. RULE VII.-When a French noun is accompanied by several adjectives, the article must be repeated before each of them, if they do not qualify the same object individually, although the same noun may be qualified: but, should the adjectives qualify both the noun and an object, which is the same individually, the repetition of the article is dispensed witb.

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In the above examples, it is evident that the sense requires the repe. tition of the article; as bon and mauvais cannot qualify the same ob. ject; for a thing cannot be good and bad at the same time: two kinds of fruit, therefore, must be contrasted together; one good, and the other bad. The article must consequently be repeated, as there are two nouns implied, though only one expressed. The same reasoning applies to the second example, as also to all others of the same kind.

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In the preceding examples, the two adjectives concur to qualify an object which is the same individually, as there is but one woman who is both sage and belle, and one shepherdess who is both chaste and timide.

I shall conclude by observing, that the manner in which the above rule is treated in many French Grammars, will not hinder the scholar from making blunders; for, in them, it is generally thus explained:

“ If a substantive be accompanied by several adjectives, the article is to be repeated before both adjectives, when they, each of them, imply opposite qualities; otherwise, the article is used before the first adjective only.

According to this rule, we could not say, in French, Les beaux et les jolis objets n'in- | Handsome and pretty objects do

spirent pas les niêmes sentimens. not inspire the same feelings.

sor berur and jolis are nearly synonymous terms: but logic, which is more obligatory than the rules of grammar, would reprove this construction; and, though the two epithets be nearly synonymous, yet, as the matter does not relate to objects altogether beaux and jolis, but to some that are exclusively beanx, and some that are exclusively jolis, it requires that the article be repeated. Our rule, being founded on a distinction of objects (which distinction precludes any error,) must, of consequence, be more correct than theirs, which is founded only on the vague, and oftentimes fanciful, comparison of opposite or synonymous meanings of adjectives.

Rule VIII.-Whenever a noun is preceded by an adjective in the superlative, the article is used but once.


EXAMPLES WITHOUT THE REPETITION OF THE ARTICLE. Les plus habiles gens font quelque- | The most skilful men sometimes

fois les plus grandes fautes. commit the greatest blunders. Il parle d'un des plus savans ho- He speaks of one of the most

learned men. Les plus profondes pensées et les The most profound thoughts and

plus brillantes idées sont tou- most brilliant ideas, are always jours les fruits du génie.

the fruits of genius. RULE IX.--But, should the adjective be placed after the noun, the article is repeated immediately before the adjective.

Les gens les plus habiles font quelquefois les fautes les plus

Il parle d'un des hommes les plus savans.
Les pensées les plus profondes et les idées les plus brillantes sont

toujours les fruits du génie.

M. Though it must appear to you that the French delight in using the article where it might often be dispensed with, as in English, in correspondent cases, yet they suppress it in several cases where, in English, it must be expressed. Your attention to the following, concerning the suppression of the indicative or definite article, will serve to secure you effectually, in such cases, from Anglicisms.

Rule X.-- The indicative or definite article, le, &c. is not expressed, in French, Ist, before ordinal numbers, and cardinal numbers used in the same sense as the ordinal numbers, when the preceding noun is mentioned with a view of quoting it; 2dly, when they are annexed to proper names, to distinguish the same proper names from one another; 3dly, in some cases before the title of a book. EXAMPLES:

Livre premier, chapitre second, | Book the first, chapter the separagraphe trois, section sir. cond, paragraph the third, sec.

tion the sixth. George premier, second, trois. George the first, the second, the

third Louis seize roi de France, fut as- Louis the sixteenth, kingof France,

sassiné par des factieux, le vmgt-& was murdered by insurgents, on un Janvier, mil sept cent quatre- the twenty-first of January, one vingt-treize.

thousand seven hundred and

ninety-three. Histoire d'Angleterre, par Hume.) The history of England, by Hume.

RULE XI.—The indicative or definite article is also suppressed in the following modes of expression, and the like.-EXAMPLES : Plus vous étudierez votre leçon, | The more you study your lesson, mieux vous la saurez.

the better you will know it. Plus une chose utile au public est. The more difficult a thing useful difficile, plus elle est honorable. to the public is, the more ho

nourable it is. Plus une femme est belle, plus The more handsome a woman is, elle doit être modeste.

the more modest she ought to be. Moins on est riche, moins on a The less rich we are, the less troud'embarras.

ble we have. Plutót vous aurez écrit votre de- The sooner you shall have written voir, plutôt vous sortirez. your exercise, the sooner you

shall go out. Rule XII.— Before a noun common, modifying and immediately following one preceding it, the indicative or definite, and declarative or indefinite, articles, are suppressed.-EXAMPLES: Voltaire est né à Paris, ville capi- | Voltaire was born at Paris, the catale de la France.

pital of France. Jean Howard, célèbre philantrope John Howard, a celebrated Eng

Anglais, mourut à Cherson, ville lish philanthropist, died at de la Nouvelle-Russie.

Cherson, u city of New Russia. J'ai lu la Vengeance, tragédie céld. I have read the Revenge, a cele

bre du Dr. Young, et la Femme brated tragedy of Dr. Young, Jalouse, comédie excellente de and the Jealous Wife, an excelColman.

lent comedy of Colman. Télémaque, fils d'Ulysse, roi Telemachus, the son of Ulysses, d'Ithaque.

king of Ithaca. Marie-Thérèse, impératrice d’A- Maria-Theresa, the empress of llemagne.

Germany. Le Duc d'York, prince du sang The duke of York, a prince of the royal d'Angleterre.

blood royal of England. RULE XIII.--Nouns common stand without articles, when an appeal is made, or an exclamation used.—EXAMPLES:

O héros de la France! c'est à toi | O hero of France ! it belongs to

de rétablir la religion de nos thee to restore the religion of pères.

our fathers. Rois ! soyez attentifs. Peuples! į Kings ! be attentive. Nations ! prêtez l'oreille.

listen. Courage! matelots, à l'abordage. Courage! sailors, let us board

Rule XIV.-The article may also be omitted in the enumeration of objects, in the most general sense, or for the purpose of rendering the diction more lively. - EXAMPLES: Femmes, enfans, vieillards, trou- | Women, children, old men, flocks, peaux, cabanes, maisons, pa

huts, houses, palaces, every lais, tout fut englouti par les thing, was swallowed up by flots de la mer.

the waves of the sea. Cet homme n'a ni vice ni vertu ; | This man has neither vices nor

ni talens ni défauts; ni passions virtues ; neither talents nor ded'aucune espèce.

fects ; nor passions of any kind.

Rule XV.No article is used after the preposition en, and other prepositions, when they, with the following noun, have the sense of an adjective, or of an adverb.-EXAMPLES: Il regarde tout le monde en pitié. | He looks on every body with con

tempt. Il me reçut avec amitié.

He received me kindly (or with

kindness). Il est sans amis.

He is without friends,

Note.- Many French verbs will admit of no article between them and the following noun, which is their complement. A list of such of them as occur most frequently in copversation, is subjoined to this lesson.

RULE XVI.-The declarative or indefinite article, used in English after the verb to be, before a noun expressing title, profession, trade, country, or other attribute of the preceding noun, is omitted, in French; but, should étre be preceded by ce, then the declarative or indefinite article must be used.--EXAMPLES : Il est marchand ou c'est un mar- | He is a shopkeeper.

chand. On m'a dit qu'il était négociant, I was told that he was a merchant.

ou que c'était un négociant. Il se vante que son père est noble, He boasts of his father being a

et moi, je crois qu'il est roturier, nobleman, and I believe that he ou que c'est un roturier.

is a plebeian. VOL. II.

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