Images de page
PDF
ePub

He is either a Frenchman, an Ita

lian, or a Spaniard.

Il est ou Français, ou Italien, ou

Espagnol; ou, c'est ou un Français, ou un Italien, ou un Espagnol.

Rule XVII.-In the following cases, the declarative or indefinite article is not expressed in French: 1st. Before a noun beginning an incidental phrase, which is an observation on what has before been said.- EXAMPLES: Cet artiste a obtenu cinq cents | This artist has obtained five hun.

guinées : récompense qu'il mé- dred guineas; a reward which ritait bien.

I he well descrved. Fontenelle était membre de l'Aca- Fontenelle was a member of the

démie Française, et de celle des French Academy, and of that Sciences: preuve

de l'universa- of the Sciences: a proof of the lité de ses talens.

universality of his talents.

2d. Before the title of a book, or any other performance. EXAMPLES : Dictionnaire Critique de la Lan- | A Critical Dictionary of the gue Française.

French languuge. Plan de la ville de Londres. A Plan of the city of London. Catalogue de livres.

A Catalogue of books.

3d. After the word quel, (what!) &c. when used to express surprise.--EXAMPLES : Quel homme vous êtes !

What a man you

are ! Quel tintamarre vous faites ! What a thundering noise you

make! Quelle noavelle vous m'apprenez! What a piece of news you tell

me !

M. Your particular attention is now required to a mode of expression, which is truly idiomatical. The following rules will explain it.

Rule XVIII.—Whenevor two nouns are joined together, in English, if the first adjectively modify the second, and, without trespassing on the sense, may be placed after the second, by placing the preposition with, or such an equivalent as having, containing, &c. before it; then, in French, the first noun is put last, and is joined to the second by the preposition and articles, au, d l,d la, aur, according to circumstances of gender and number.-EXAMPLES :

[ocr errors]

aut

Appelez l'homme au beurre; aux Call the butter-man; the oysterhuîtres ; à la volaille

man; the poultry-man; the paniers; aux vieux habits ; aux basket-man; the old clothesmarionettes ; la femme aux man; the showman; the flowerfleurs ; aux pommes; aux allu- woman; the apple-woman; the mettes.

match-woman. Je préfère la sauce aux câpres à I prefer the caper-sauce to the

celle au vinaigre, aux æufs, ou vinegar, the egg, or onionà l'oignon.

sauce, On nous servit de la soupe au ver- They served us with vermicelli,

micelle, au riz, aux pois, aux rice, peas, cabbage-soup, and choux, et une tourte à l'an- an eel-pye.

guille. Il demeure au marché au foin, He lives at the hay or at the cornou à celui au blé.

market. Il a cassé le pot à l'eau et la bou. He has broken the water-pot and teille à l'encre.

the ink-bottle. Ello vend dans sa boutique de la She sells pink-scented powder,

poudre à l'aillet, à la rose, et rose-scented powder, and vanildu chocolat à la vanillo.

la-chocolate, in her shop.

Note, that, in French, the prepositon and article are sometimes rendered by the preposition d alone, instead of au, dla, &c.—Ex. AMPLES: foulez-vous coucher dans le gre- I Will you lie in the hay-loft or in

nier à foin ou dans celui à ble? the corn-loft ? Il suivait la voiture à huit places He followed the long coach in a

dans un cabriolet à deux che- two-horse chaise,

vaux. Sa boîte à mouches est dans la | Her patch-box is in the powderboite à poudre.

box. On servit sur la table à dix cou- On the table calculated for ten verts une cafetière à vingt ta- persons, they served up a twen

ty-dish coffee-pot.

4

sses.

Rule XIX.-An English adjective, expressing the idea of pattern or resemblance, is rendered, in French, in the same manner as the first noun in the preceding rule; it then becomes feminine in the singular, and is substantively taken.—EXAMPLES: Les habits à la Française sont à | French coats are now fashionable, présent à la mode.

or in fashion. J'ai troqué ma selle à l'Anglaise i I bartered my English saddle for

pour une à la Prussienne. a Prussian one. Il porte un manteau à l'Espagnole i He wears a Spanish cloak and et des bottes à l'Américaine. American boots,

[ocr errors]

RULE XX.-When the words good, fit, &c. are understood, in English, before the second noun, when transposed as mentioned before, they are rendered by the preposition d.-EXAMPLES: Je voudrais avoir une terre à bois I wish I had some wood-land, and et une à blé.

some for corn. La colline est couverte de moulins The hill is covered with windà vent, et la vallée de moulins mills, and the valley with water

mills.

à eau.

Rule XXI.-When, in English, the past participle of a verb is preceded by the infinitive to be, and such adjectives as fit, good; in French, the adjective fit, and infinitive to be, are both rendered by the preposition d; and the past participle is rendered by the infinitive of the corresponding verb.--Examples: C'est une fille à marier.

She is a girl fit to be married; or

She is a marriageable girl. Voilà du bois à couper et des ar- That wood is fit to be cut, and bres à transplanter.

those trees to be transplanted. C'est un homme à mépriser : That is a man fit to be despised. C'est un coquin à pendre. That scoundrel is fit to be hanged.

M. I have not made any mention of the preposition de, which sometimes must be placed between the two French nouns, instead of à, au, à la, &c. To prevent mistakes, I hasten to acquaint you with the following:

RULE XXII.-When two nouns come together, in English, and the second is said to be composed or made of the materials expressed by the first; the first, in French, is transposed after the second, with the preposition de, preceding.--EXAMPLES: Il a perdu sa tabatière d'or, sa He has lost his gold snuff-box,

montre d'argent, sa chaîne silver watch, steel-chain, and

d'acier, et sa bague de diamans. diamond-ring Il demeurait dans une maison de | He ved in a stone-house: now

pierre, à présent il demeure he lives in a brick one.

dans une maison de brique. J'ai besoin de six paires de bas de I want six pair of silk-stockings,

soie, de quatre de laine, de deux four of worsted, two of cotton, de coton, et d'une de fil.

and one of thread. Il porte un habit de velours noir, He wears a black velvet coat, a

un gilet d'écarlate, et un pan- scarlet jacket, and blue ker. talon de casimir bleu.

seymere trowsers.

M. The words, for which the following table is intended, always require the preposition de after them, as :

Genre, m.

Kind. Il mène un genre de vie qu'on ne He leads a kind of life which CRDsaurait approuver.

pot be approved. Espèce, f.

Kind, species. Quelle espèce d'homme nous avez- What kind of a man have you vous amené là ?

brought us here? Sorte, f.

Sort. On voyait toute sorte d'animaux All sorts of animals were seen in dans la ménagerie du roi.

the king's menagerie. Mélange, m.

Mixture. La jalousie est un mélange d'amour Jealousy is a mixture of love and

et de haine ; de crainte et de hatred; of fear and despair. désespoir. Composé, m.

Compound. Cette femme est un composé de This woman is a compound of bonnes et de mauvaises qualités. good and bad qualities. Ne

pas ou ne point, (the latter is more forcible.)

No, not. Il n'a pas ou point de pain, de vin, He has no bread, no wine, no de viande, d'argent, d'amis. meat, no money, no friends. (Ne) jamais.

Never.
Ne me parlez jamais de ces choses- Never speak to me about those
là, ni de ce coquin de valet. things, nor of that rascally servant.
Abondance, f.

Plenty.
Il est dans l'abondance de toutes He has plenty of every thing.
choses.
Nombre, m.

Number, or many.
J'ai vu nombre de sots et de fats, I have seen many fools and cox-

qui se croyaient de grands per- combs who took themselves to sonnages.

be great people. Quantité, f.

Number, quantity. Il a recueilli cette année-ci une He has had a large quantity of

grande quantité de blé, de foin, corn, hay, and fruit, this year.

et de fruit. J'ai rencontré quantité de cabrio- I met a number of chairs, carriages,

lets, de voitures, de carrosses, coaches, phaetons, and fine sadde pbaétons, et de beaux che- dle-horses. vaux de selle. Quelque chose, m.

Something. Il a toujours quelque chose de joli, He has always something pretty, d'agréable, et de gracieux à agreeable, and kind, to tell peo

ple. (Ne) rien, m.

Nothing, none. Il n'y a rien de plus insolent qu'un None are more insolent than upparvenu.

starts. Peu.

Little, a few. Donnez-moi un

peu

de bière ou de Give me a little beer or cider. cidre.

dire aux gens.

facts and par

Je vous dirai en peu de mots toute | I will tell you in few words the l'affaire.

whole of the matter. Assez.

Enough. Il y a assez de temps que je vous I have been waiting for you long attends.

enough. Plus, moins.

More, less. Ila plus de talens et de mérite que He has more talents and merit than

son frère; mais moins de savoir- his brother, but less good breedvivre et d'usage du monde. ing and knowledge of the eti

quette of fashionable life. Autant.

As much as. Elle a autant de vertu que de dou- She has as much virtue as mildceur dans le caractère.

ness in her temper. Tant.

So much, so many. Il est doué de tant d'esprit et de He is endowed with so much un

sagesse qu'il réussira, et il a derstanding and wisdom, that tant d'amis qu'il ne manquera he will succeed, and he has so jamais de rien.

many friends that he will never

want any thing. Trop.

Too much, too many. Cet auteur embrasse trop de ma- This author embraces too much tières, de faits, et de détails.

matter, too many

ticulars. Combien.

How much, how

many. Combien d'argent lui devez-vous ? | How much money do you owe

combien de livres de chandelle him? how many pounds of canavez-vous apportées ?

dles have you brought ? Il y avait je ne sais combien de There were i know not how many gens.

people. Que!

How much, how many. Que de sang répandu dans cette How much blood was spilt in this fatale querelle!

fatal quarrel ! Que de chagrins vous aurez à How many sorrows you will have souffrir!

to bear! Quoi !

What. Quoi de plus agréable pour des What is more agreeable to parents

parens, que des enfans vertueux than to have virtuous and wellet bien élevés !

bred children! Beaucoup. Il y a beaucoup de bien, mais ils There is much property; but this sont beaucoup d'héritiers à par

estate is to be divided among tager cette succession.

ExceptiON.—Bien, when, in English, it means much or many, is an coception; for, instead of the preposition de, alone, it must be followed by that preposition and the article indicative or definite.-EXAMPLES: Il y avait bien du monde à la co- | There were many people at the

médie. Il y a bien des gens qui le croient There are many people who be. ainsi.

lieve it so.

Much, muny.

many heirs.

play.

« PrécédentContinuer »