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PAST, OR COMPOUND OF THE PRESENT.
There has not or there have not been, il n'y a pas eu.

PAST ANTERIOR, OR COMPOUND OF THE IMPERFECT.

There had not been, il n'y avait pas eu.

PAST ANTERIOR PERIODICAL, OR COMPOUND OF THE

PRETERITE.

There had not been, il n'y eut pas eu.

PAST POSTERIOR, OR COMPOUND OF THE FUTURE.

There shall not have been, il n'y aura pas eu.

PAST JUST ELAPSED.

There has not or there have not just been, il ne vient pas d'y avoir.

FUTURE INDEFINITE.

There is or there are not to be, il ne doit pas y avoir.

INSTANT FUTURE. There is not or there are not going to be, il ne va pas y avoir.

CONDITIONAL.

PRESENT.

There should not be, il n'y aurait pas.

PAST, OR COMPOUND OF THE CONDITIONAL.
There should not have been, il n'y aurait pas eu.

SUBJUNCTIVE.

PRESENT.

That there may not be, qu'il n'y ait pas.

PRESENT ANTERIOR, OR IMPERFECT.
That there might not be, qu'il n'y eút pas.

PAST, OR COMPOUND OF THE PRESENT.
That there may not have been, qu'il n'y ait pas ou.

PAST ANTERIOR, OR COMPOUND OF THE IMPERFECT.

That there might not have been, qu'il n'y eut pas eu.

INTERROGATIVELY.

INDICATIVE,

PRESENT.

Is there or are there?

y

a-t-il?

PRESENT ANTERIOR, OR IMPERFECT.
Was there or were there?

avait-il?

PRESENT ANTERIOR PERIODICAL, OR PRETERITE. Was there or were there?

eut-il ?

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PAST, OR COMPOUND OF THE PRESENT.
Has or have there been?

y

a-t-il eu?

PAST ANTERIOR, OR COMPOUND OF THE IMPERFECT. Had there been?

y

avait-il eu?

PAST ANTERIOR PERIODICAL, OR COMPOUND OF

THE PRETERITE.
Had there been? y eut-il eu?

PAST POSTERIOR, OR COMPOUND OF THE FUTURE.

Shall there have been? y aura-t-il eu?

PAST JUST ELAPSED.
Has or have there just been? vient-il d'y avoir ?

FUTURE INDEFINITE.
Is thore or are there to be? doit-il y avoir ?

INSTANT FUTURE.
Is there or are there going to be ?' va-t-il y avoir?

CONDITIONAL.

PRESENT.
Should or would there be ? y aurait-il?

PAST, OR COMPOUND OF THE PRESENT.

Should there have been? y aurait-il eu?

INTERROGATIVELY AND NEGATIVELY.

INDICATIVE.

PRESENT.

Is or are there not? n'y a-t-il pas ?

PRESENT ANTERIOR, OR IMPERFECT.
Was or were there not? n'y avait-il pas ?

PRESENT ANTERIOR PERIODICAL, OR PRETERITE.

Was or were there not? n'y eut-il pas ?

PRESENT POSTERIOR, OR FUTURE.
Shall or will there not be? n'y aura-t-il pas?

PAST, OR COMPOUND OF THE PRESENT.
Has there or have there not been? n'y a-t-il pas cu?

PAST ANTERIOR, OR COMPOUND OF THE IMPERFECT.

Had there not been? näy avait-il

pas eu ?

PAST ANTERIOR PERIODICAL, OR COMPOUND OF THE

PRETERITE.
Had there not been? n'y eut-il

pas

eu?

PAST POSTERIOR, OR COMPOUND OF THE FUTURE

Shall there not have been? n'y aura-t-il pas eu'

PAST JUST ELAPSED.

Has there or have there not just been? ne vient-il pas d'y avoir ?

FUTURE INDEFINITF

Is there or are there not to be? ne doit-il pas y avoir 3

INSTANT FUTURE.

Is there or are there not going to be ? ne va-t-il pas y avoir ?

CONDITIONAL.

PRESENT

Should there not be? n'y aurait-il pas?

PAST, OR COMPOUND OF THE PRESENT.

Should there not have been ? n'y aurait-il pas eu!

REMARK.

Such other verbs as are conjugated in the third person singular are called impersonals ; but this denomination, which was intended to characterize those verbs, is improperly applied,- for the word impersonal means what is without person,

which is not the case with respect to those verbs, which admit of the pronoun il, and this word represents a subject understood, which must exist; for verbs have been introduced to speak of the existence of subjects, together with an attribute. When we say, for instance, il pleut, it rains, it represents such a subject as heaven, sky, atmosphere, weather, &c.; and the expression it rains, implies that the heavens or skies issue or pour rain. Had the Romans, when they used the word pluit, been asked, what rains ? they would have readily replied, cælum. The term impersonal can only be given to the infinitive mood, which is indeed without person. Wailly and Beauzée are, therefore, very correct in denominating the infinitive the impersonal mood.

FAMILIAR PHRASES

ON IL Y A, THERE IS, THERE ARE, SOME, MANY, &c.

Is there'a steam-boat froin Dover | Y a-t-il un bateau à vapeur do to Calais ?

Douvres à Calais ? There are now about twenty-five N y a maintenant environ vingt

millions of souls in France. cinq millions d'ames en France. There are but nine in Spain. Il n'y en a que neuf en Espagne. There is a gentleman below who Il y a un monsieur en bas (ou là wishes to speak to you.

bas) qui désire vous parler. There was a great fire yesterday. Il y eut hier un grand incendie. Was there any body killed ? Y a-t-il eu quelqu'un de tué? No: but there have been above Non: inais il y a eu plus de vingt twenty people hurt.

personnes de blessées. There will be a grand display of Il y aura un grand feu d'artifice fire-works next week.

la semaine prochaine. There will be no bonfire on ac- Il n'y aura pas de feu de joie count of this news.

pour cette nouvelle. I thought there would have been Je croyais qu'il y aurait cu plus more people.

de monde. Some people have seen him. Il y a des gens qui l'ont vu. Some authors pretend that Homer Il y a des auteurs qui prétendent was born at Smyrna.

qu'Homère naquit à Smyrne. Many physicians are of this opi- | Il y a bien des médecins qui sont nion.

de cette opinion. Many lose our esteem on a close Il y a bien des gens qui perdent à acquaintance.

l'examen. That great man died thirty-nino Il y a trente-neuf ans que ce years ago.

grand homme est mort. I did it ten years ago.

Il y a dix ans que je l'ai fait. Where were you six months ago? Où étiez-vous, il y a six mois ? I have not been there these five Il y a cinq ans que je n'y ai été.

years. She arrived there six weeks ago. Il y a six semaines qu'elle y est

arrivée. How far is it from Versailles to Combien y a-t-il de Versailles à Paris?

Paris? It is four leagues.

Il y a quatre lieues. How far is Lisle from Paris ? Combien y a-t-il de Lisle à Paris ? It is one hundred and fifty miles. Il y a cent cinquante milles. How many regiments are there in Combien y a-t-il de régimens dans the army?

l'armée ? There are thirty-seven,

Il y en a trente-sept. How many houses were burnt? Combien y a-t-il eu de maisons de

brûlées ? There werc twelve.

Il y en a eu douze.

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