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LESSON THE FIFTH.

ON THE POSSESSIVE ARTICLES OR PRONOUNS. Master. The French and English languages exhibit, perhaps, no greater opposition or difference in any part of their syntax than in that of the possessive articles or pronouns, on which, in French, there are some very difficult and intricate rules, totally foreign to the idiom of the English. It will, therefore, be expedient to make these rules the object of your most attentive study.

Rule I.--Possessive articles, or pronouns, must be repeated before euch noun, according to the gender and number.-EXAMPLES : Mon père, ma mère, mes frères, et | My father, mother, brothers, and

mes sours, sont à la campagne, sisters, are in the country. J'ai parlé à son maître, à sa | I spoke to his master, mistress,

maîtresse, et à ses camarades and schoolmates.

d'école. Ne sortez pas sans votre parasol, Do not go out without your um. ros gants, et votre tabatière.

brella, gloves, and snuff-box. Observe, that, though a noun be feminine, should it begin with a rowel or h mute, the possessive article or pronoun masculine singular, mon, ton, son, must be respectively used before it, instead of ma, ta, sa. (See examples, page 129.)

RULE II.- Possessive articles, or pronouns, which, in English, agree with the possessor, must, in French, agree with the gender of the thing possessed.--EXAMPLES: Ramassez son mouchoir.

Take

up

his handkerchief. Ramassez son mouchoir.

Take

up

her handkerchief. Connaissez-vous son mari ? Do

you

know her husband ? J'ai dansé avec sa fille.

I danced with his daughter. Rule III.-In French, the possessive article, or pronoun, must be used, when we speak to or answer relations, friends, &c.—EXAMPLES: Mon cousin, apportez-moi ce que Cousin, bring me what you provous m'avez promis.

mised me. Ma tante, irez-vous ce soir à la Aunt, will you go to the play this comédie ?

evening? Non, mon neveu, car j'ai promis | No, nephew, for I have promised d'aller à un bal.

to go to a ball. Mon frère, prêtez-moi votre Brother, lend me your pen.

plume, Je ne puis, ma sæur; car j'écris I cannot, sister; for I am writing mon thème.

my exercise.

Mon ami, approchez-vous de moi. Friend, come near me.
Mon capitaine, je suis prêt à vous Captain, I am ready to obey you.

obéir. Mon camarade, étiez-vous à ce Comrade, were you at that sancombat sanglant?

guinary engagement ? RULE IV.-When, in English, the possessivc articles or pronouns, its, their, relating to inanimate objects, can be rendered by of it, of them, or thereof, they are always expressed, in French, by the adverb ER : otherwise, they are expressed by son, sa, ses, leurs, respectively, as will appear in the following EXAMPLES: La Tamise est une bello rivière ; | The Thames is a fine river; its

le lit en est assez profond pour channel is deep enough to admit

admettre de gros vaisseaux. large vessels. Comment trouvez-vous sa maison How do

youl

like his country-seat? de campagne ? la situation n'en is not its situation pleasing?

est-elle pas charmante ? Cette affaire est délicate: le suc- This business is delicate; its succès en est douteux.

cess is doubtful. Ce simple est fort commun; ce- This plant is very common; yet

pendant je n'en connais pas les I do not know its properties.

vertus. Il y a un très-grand verger de. There is a very large orchard be

rrière sa maison; les arbres en hind his house; its trees are sont très-bien plantés; les fruits very well planted; its fruits en sont excellens.

excellent. La rivière est sortie de son lit. The river forsook its channel. C'est une petite maison, qui a ses It is a small house, which has its commodités.

conveniences. Cette ville-là a ses beautés; j'ad. That city has its beauties; I ad

mire la régularité et la propreté mire the regularity and cleanli. de ses rues.

pess of its streete. Voilà des arbres qui étendent leurs Those trees spread their branches

branches bien loin.

Very far.

In matters of science, custom authorises the use of the possessive article or pronoun, though it might be rendered, in English, by of it: thus, in speaking of a triangle, we inay say, ses angles valent cent quatre-vingts degrés, its angles are equal to one hundred and eighty degrees. In speaking of a grammar, we may say, ses règles sont trop compliquées, its rules are too complicate, &c.

Rule V.- The English possessive articles or pronouns, my, thy, his, her, &c. are rendered, in French, by the passive personal pronouns, and the indicative or definite articles, , la, les, when the verb, which precedes them, denotes an action over any part of the body. -EXAMPLES :

Vous lui avez rompu le bras.

You have broken her arm. Vous m'avez marché sur le pied. You have trod on my foot. Il faudra lui couper la jambe. His leg must be cut off. Vous me blessez la main. You hurt my hand. Il ne peut sortir; la goutte lui a He cannot go out; the gout has enflé les jambes.

swelled his legs. Je me suis fait couper les cheveux. I have had my hair cut.

RULE VI.-- In the following instances, and the like, the English possessive articles or pronouns are rendered, in French, by their correspondents, and the article is suppressed.-EXAMPLES: Je vois que mon bras enfle. I see that my arm is swelling. Pensez-vous que sa blessure se Do you believe that his wound will guérisse jamais ?

ever be cured ? Elle lui donna sa main à baiser. She gave him her hand to kiss. Elle donna hardiment son bras au She boldly gave her arm to the

chirurgien qui devait la saigner. surgeon, who was to bleed her.

Observe, that, as soon as the indicative or definite article may be used without apprehension of ambiguity, the articles au, à la, &c.are substituted for the possessive article or

pronoun.

2.-EXAMPLES : J'ai mal à l'oreille et aux yeux., My ears and eyes ache, or are sore. J'ai grand mal à la gorge.

I have a violent sore throat. N'avez-vous jamais eu mal aux Have you never had the toothdents ?

ache Non; mais j'ai fort souvent mal No; but I have often a pain in

my à l'estomac.

stomach. J'ai eu mal au cæur à l'église. My heart was faint at church. J'ai mal à la tête, au côté, et aux I feel a pain in my head, side, and reins.

loins.

RULE VII.- The elliptical term mine, le mien, &c. in French, must agree, both in gender and number, with the noun to which it relates. -EXAMPLES : Quand vous m'aurez dit votre sen- When you have told me your opi.

timent, je vous dirai le mien. nion, I will tell you mine. Songez-y de votre côté; j'y songe- Think about it,' on your part; I rai aussi du mien.

will also think of it on mine. Sa voiture et la mienne sont a- His carriage and mine are come.

rrivées. Ses amis et les miens s'en sont His friends and mine have intermêlés.

fered. J'ai perdu mon canif, prêtez-moi I have lost my penknife, lend me le vótre.

yours. VOL. II.

R

Leur maison est presque vis-à-vis | Their house is almost opposite to de la nôtre.

ours. Le roi était dans son carrosse, et The king was in his coach, and la reine dans le sien.

the queen in her's. RULE VIII.-- When, in English, mine, &c. are preceded by of, then they are rendered by mon, &c. as in the following EXAMPLES: Un de mes parens vient d'arriver | A relation of mine is just arrived des Indez.

from the Indies. C'est une de mes connaissances. He or she is an acquaintance of

mine. Deux de ses domestiques l'ont Two servants of his robbed him.

volé. Un de leurs chevaux boite. A horse of theirs is lame.

Rule IX.-Should any of the possessive articles or pronouns be preceded by the verb to be, having for its subject a noun, or the pronouns it, they, &c. they are expressed, in French, by à moi, à toi, a soi, à lui, à elle, à eux, à elles.-EXAMPLES: Ce livre est-il à vous? Non, il est | Is this book yours? No, it is his à lui, ou à elle.

or her's. Cette prairie est à nous, et ce bois This meadow is ours, and this est à eux.

wood is theirs. La terre était à moi, à présent The land was mine, now it is thine.

elle est à toi. On m'a dit que c'était à lui; si I have been told that it was his;

c'était à moi, je m'en déferais if it were mine, I would get rid le plus promptement possible. of it as quick as possible. S'ils étaient à moi, je les garderais. If they were mine, I would keep

them

LESSON THE SIXTH.

ON THE DEMONSTRATIVE ARTICLE OR PRONOUN, &c.

Master. It is useless to repeat what has already been said concerning the gender and number of this article or pronoun, (see pages 135 and 136 ;) I will merely observe, that, like all others, it must be repeated before every noun, with appropriate gender and number, as is exemplified in the following beautiful passage from Racine's Bérénice :

De cette nuit, Phénice, as-tu vu la splendeur ?
Tes yeux ne sont-ils pas tout pleins de sa grandeur ?

Ces flambeaux, ce bucher, cette nuit enflammée,
Ces aigles, ces faisceaux, ce peuple, cette armée,
Cette foule de rois, ces consuls, ce sénat,
Qui tous de mon amant empruntaient leur éclat;
Cette pompe, cet or, que rehaussait sa gloire,
Et ces lauriers encore, témoins de sa victoire.

In order to render the above words more fully determinative of the object spoken of, we often, in familiar language, add the small words ci and ld.-EXAMPLES: Cel homme-ci est honnête; mais This man is honest; but that man cet honime-est un coquin.

is a rogue. Cette année-ci ne nous a pas été This year has not been favourable

favorable. Ces plumes-ci sont meilleures que These pens are better than those.

celles-. Cette maison-ci est à vendre et This house is to be sold, and that celle-est à louer.

is to be let.

to us.

Rule I.-The words this and that, when used to point at some object, without naming it, are rendered, in French, by ceci, cela.EXAMPLES : Ceci est bon, cela est mauvais. This is good, that is bad. Donnez-moi ceci, et envoyez-lui Give me this, and send him that.

cela. Ceci est plus surprenant que cela. This is more surprising than that. Ceci fut approuvé de quelques- This was approved by a few; but

uns; mais cela déplut à toute that displeased the whole comla compagnie.

pany. RULE II.—That which, what, are rendered, in French, by ce qui, or ce que: ce qui is used as the subject, and ce que as the object, in a sentence.-EXAMPLES: Ce qui le fache, c'est de n'avoir | That which grieves him, is not to

have succeeded. Ce qui me réjouit, c'est de vous That which rejoices me, is to have

avoir vu, vous et toute votre seen you and all your family in famille en bonne santé.

good health. Ce qui me plait, vous déplaît. That which pleases me, displeases

you, Ce qui lui est arrivé est bien triste. That which happened to him is

very melancholy. Ce qui est agréable au goût, cst That which is agreeable to the souvent contraire à la santé. taste, is often prejudicial to

health.

pas réussi.

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