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my lesson.

Ce que je vous dis, est vrai. What I tell you, is true.
Je sais ce que vous pensez de cela. I know what you think of that.
Avouez franchement ce que vous Confess frankly what you have
avez fait.

done, RULE III.-Whenever ce qui, ce que, o: ce dont (de quoi), and ce a guoi, be in a sentence composed of two members, ce must be repeated before the verb étre, which begins the second member, provided it be followed by another verb, a noun plural, or a pronoun.--ExAMPLES: Ce qui m'an use, c'est d'apprendre | That which amuses me, is to learn

ma leçon. Ce qui me chagrine, c'est de n'a- That which vexes me, is to be voir point d'occupation.

without employment. Ce que je crains le plus, ce sont That which I fear most, is trea

les trahisons. Ce que je deteste le plus, ce sont | That which I hate most, is injusles injustices.

tice. Ce que j'aime le mieux, c'est d'être What I like best, is to be alone,

seul. Ce dont je nie plains, c'est qu'il That which I complain of, is that

soit sorti sans permission. he is gone out without leave. Ce à quoi l'avare pense le moins, That which a miser thinks the

c'est de jouir de ses richesses. least of, is to enjoy his riches. Ce qui m'attache à la vie, c'est That which keeps me attached to

son.

vous.

life, is you.

But, should the verb étre be followed by a noun singular, instead of a verb, then ce may or may not be repeated, according to the choice or taste of the writer, which circumstances ought to regu'ate.---EXAMPLES: Ce qui m'indigne est, ou c'est, l'in- | That which provokes me, is injuse justice.

tice. Ce que je dis est, ou c'est, la vé- Thut which I say, is the truth.

rité. Ce que je hais dans un jeune That which I hate in a young man,

homme est, ou c'est, la paresse. is laziness.

Ce should be omitted before étre, if it be followed by an adjective or a past participle.--EXAMPLES : Ce qu'il dit, est fait pour vous That which he says, is calculated effrayer.

to frighten you. Ce que vous venez de m'appren- That which you have just been dre, est bien fâcheux.

informing me of, is very unfor

tunate. Ce dont j'avais peur est arrivé. That which I was afraid of, has

happened. Ce que j'ai mangé, était délicious. That which I ate, was delicious.

S. I have observed that many people commit errors in the use of ce qui, ce que, in French, by substitutiug one for the other; which mistake appears so much the more natural, as the two expressions above are rendered, in English, by the same words, that which. Could you not give me such rules as would effectually prevent these mistakes?

M. I assigned the real difference between ce qui and ce que, wben I first mentioned these idiomatical terms; I will now speak plainer. When that which, is placed immediately before a verb, it is rendered, in French, by ce qui.--EXAMPLE: Ce qui coûte peu, est trop cher, That which costs little, is too dear, dès qu'il n'est pas nécessaire. .

when it is not necessary. Should a pronoun come between that which and the verb, that which, is always rendered by ce que.—EXAMPLES: Nous ne devrions jamais parler de | We ought never to speak of that

1 ce que nous ne savons pas.

which we do not know, Ce que vous proposez là pour le That which you propose to cure

guérir, n'est que de l'onguent him with, is mere powder of miton-mitaine,

post. RULE IV.-This, that, these, those, when used in order to avoid the repetition of the noun they relate to, are rendered, by celui, M. celle, P. ceux, M. P. celles, F. P.-EXAMPLES : Il dépense tout son bien et celui He is spending all his estate, and de sa femme.

that of his wife also. Cette maison est plus petite que This house is smaller than that of

celle de votre frère. Ses chevaux sont plus beaux que His borses are finer than those of ceux du roi.

the king. Mes vaches donnent plus de lait My cows give more milk than que celles de mon voisin.

those of my neighbour. Observe, that ci and are annexed to the above words, in pointing or alluding to the contrast or comparison of objects.- EXAMPLES: Voici plusieurs draps; choisissez | Here are several cloths, choose celui-ci, ou celui-.

this or that. Je ne veux ni de celui-ci, ni de I will have neither this one nor celui-.

that. La vertu et le vice produisent des Virtue and vice produce different

effets différens; celui-ci cause effects; this causes the misery le malheur de l'homme, celle-of man, that makes him happy.

le rend heureux. Voilà des poires et des abricots ; There are pears and apricots; these

ceur-ci sont mûrs, celles-ne are ripe, but those are not yet le sont pas encore.

BO,

your brother.

Le corps périt, l'ame ost immor- The body perishes, the soul is im

telle; cependant nous négli- mortal; nevertheless, we neglect geons celle-ci, et nous sacrifions

this, and sacrifice every thing celui-.

for that.

tout pour

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RULE V.-Such expressions as he who, she who, they who, that which, those who, such as, &c. are expressed by celui qui, M. celle qui, F. ceux qui, M. P. celles qui, F. P. Whom, &c. that which (being objects), are rendered by celui que, &c.—EXAMPLES: Celui qui ne sait pas garder un | He who does not know how to secret, est indigne de confiance. keep a secret, is unworthy of

confidence. Celle qui vient de passer, est ma- She who just went by, is married.

riée. Ceux qui sont paresseux, ne co- Such as are idle, know not the

nnaissent pas le prix du temps. value of time. Ceux qui sont contens de leur sort Those who are contented with their sont heureux.

condition, are happy. Celles qui ont le mieux dansé ont Those who have danced the best, été récompensées.

have been rewarded. On doit encourager les efforts de We ought to encourage the efforts

ceux qui s'appliquent aux arts of those who apply themselves et aux sciences.

to the arts and sciences. Celui que vous voyez a manqué He whom you see, had like to have d'être pendu.

been hanged. Ceux que vous protégez, vous tra- They whom you protect, betray bissent.

you. Observe, Ist. That qui may be separated from celui; in that case, is joined to it; so, instead of saying, Celui qui médit de son prochain ; He who slanders his neighbours est un homme méchant,

is a wicked man,

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We may say,

| Mhis neighbours.

Celui-est un homme méchant, | He is a wicked man who slanders

qui médit de son prochain. his

And, instead of
Ceux qui négligent de payer leurs | Those who neglect to pay their

dettes, se préparent bien des debts, bring upon themselves
chagrins,

many cares,

We may say,
Ceur-, se préparent bien des They bring upon themselves many

chagrins, qui négligent de pa- cares, who neglect to pay their ver leurs dettes.

debts.

2d. If a question be asked by the English relative which, it is, in French, rendered, in the answer, by celui que,

celle

que, &c, or celui qui, celle qui, &c. on such occasions as in the following EXAMPLES: Laquelle de ces deux oranges vou-| Which of these two oranges will

lez-vous ? Celle qu'il vous plaira. you have? Which you please. Lequel de ces deux draps pré- | Which of these cloths do you

férez-vous ? Celui qui vous plai- like best? That which pleased

sait beaucoup Lequel de ces deux hommes est Which of these two men is the

le plus grand ? Celui qui est à tallest? The one on your right. votre droite.

you much.

Rule VI.-Ce joined to the verb étre requires it should accord with the substantire that follows.-EXAMPLES:

C'est votre temps, ce sont vos soins, It is your time, it is your cares

vos affections, c'est vous-même and affections, it is yourself, you

qu'il faut donner à votre ami. must bestow on your friend. Si ce n'est pas la religion, ce sont If it be not religion, it is custom

les coutumes qu’ou y révère au that is venerated there instead lieu de lois.

of the law. Sont-ce là vos gens ?

Are these your people ? Ce furent ces associations qui firent It was those associations that

fleurir si long-temps la Grèce. made Greece flourish so long. Ce furent les Français qui prirent It was the French who took the la place d'assaut.

place by storm.

Poets and prose writers occasionally deviate from the above rule.

Observe, that, if étre be followed by several nouns in the singular, it remains in the singular, though those nouns, united, be equivalent to a plural.--EXAMPLES : C'est votre frère et votre ami, qui | It is your brother and your friend vous demandent.

who ask for you. Ce qui fait le triomphe d'une | That which forms the triumph of

femme, c'est la vertu et l'es- a woman, is virtue and underprit.

standing.

RULE VII.--Should the verb étre be followed by a plural pronoun, it remains notwithstanding in the singular, except that pronoun be of the third person plural; and then it assumes the number corresponding thereto.—EXAMPLES: C'est nous qui avons enlevé le | It is we who have carried the co. drapeau.

lours off. Est-ce nous qui l'avons oublié ? Is it we who have forgotten it?

cause.

Ce fut nous qu'on choisit pour It was we that were chosen for cette expédition.

that expedition. C'est vous, inessieurs, qui en êtes It is you, gentlemen, who are the

cause of it. Est-ce vous, mesdames, qui avez Was it you, ladies, who danced dansé les premières ?

first? Ce sont eux qui lui apprendront la It is they who will teach him the

vraie manière de se bien con- true manner of behaving in the duire dans le monde.

world. Est-ce eux qui s'y opposent ?* Is it they who are against it? C'étaient elles qui fesaient les ho- It was they who did the honours nneurs de la maison.

of the house.

Rule VIII.-When a question is asked, in French, by est-ce , sont-ce , &c. if it relate to one thing, the answer, in the affirmative, is oui, ce l'est; if to several, oui, ce les sont; but, if to persons, the proper pronouns are used and placed after the verb, étre.-EXAMPLES: Est-ce la maison de votre père ? | Is this your father's house ? Yes, Oui, ce l'est.

it is. Est-ce votre mouchoir ? Oui, ce Is that your handkerchief? Yes,

l'est-Non, ce ne l'est pas. it is No, it is not. Sont-ce ld vos gants ? Oui, ce les Are these your gloves? Yes, they

sont-Non, ce ne les sont pas. are-No, they are not. Sont-ce ses amusemens ? Oui, Are these his amusements? Yes, ce les sont.

they are. Est-ce leur maître de Français ? Is that their French master? Yes, Oui, c'est lui.

it is he. Etait-ce sa sour? Oui, c'était Was that his or her sister? Yes,

elle. Sont-ce ld vos amis ? Oui, ce sont Are these

your

friends? Yes, they

it was.

eus.

are.

Sont-ce vos parentes ? Oui, ce Are these your kinswomen? Yes, sont elles.

they are. Observe, Ist, When such an indeterniinate question as sont-ce des hommes que je vois ? are these men that I see? is asked, the answer is, c'en est, yes, they are: one cannot answer c'en sont, which would be quite as harsh as sont-ce eux ?

2d, The answer to such a question as est-ce nos gens? are these our people? (which can be resolved, in French, by cela est-il nos gens ? is that our people ?) is, oui, c'est eux; that is to say, cela est eur; but, if the question was expressed thus, which is the most correct way, sont-ce nos gens ? the answer would be, ce sont eux.

• In interrogation, sont-ce eux ? would be too grating to the ear; the singnlar, est-ce-eur? though it militates against the above rule, is preferred.

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