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OF QUI, QUE, &c. Rule 1.-Who, that, and which, not acted upon by a preposition, are expressed by qui, which, when those words are placed before a verb, in English, if some one of the active pronouns I, thou, &c. be not interposed between them and the verb, is appropriate to any object to be determined.-EXAMPLES : L'homme qui parle est un de mes The man who speaks is a friend amis.

of mine. La demoiselle qui me parle a été The young lady who speaks to dangereusement malade.

me has been dangerously ill. La femme qui prend soin The woman who takes care of her ménage est estimable.

house is estimable. Voyez-vous ces chevaux qui cou- Do you see those horses that run?

rent? Passez-moi le plat qui est sur la Hand me the dish which is on the table.



RULE II.-When whom, that, or which, are placed before a verb attended by the active pronouns 1, thou, &c. they are translated, in French, by que.-EXAMPLES: La dame que vous avez vue doit se The lady whom you have seen is

marier la semaine prochaine. to be married next week. Est-ce là le chapeau neuf que vous | Is that the new hat which you avez acheté

bought? La leçon que j'ai apprise, est The lesson which I learnt is long longue et difficile.

and difficult.

EXCEPTION.--Who or whom, though placed before an active pronoun, when it is meant to express what person, must be translated by qui, which stands for quel est or qui est celui que.--EXAMPLES: Je sais qui vous voulez dire. I know whom you mean, Devinez qui j'aime,

Guess whom I love.
Je ne saurais deviner qui vous | I cannot guess whom you

love. aimez. Eh bien! vous ne saurez jamais Well! you will never know who

it is.

qui c'est.

RULE III.-Of whom, of whose, or whose, are generally expressed by dont, for all sorts of objects (singular or plural, masculine or feminine,) when the noun they relate to is the subject or object of a sentence. Of whom, or whose, relating to persons only, may also be rendered by de qui.--EXAMPLES :



Dieu de qui, ou dont nous admi- God whose works we admire.

rons les cuvres. C'est l'homme de qui ou dont je It is the man of whom I spoke to

vous ai parlé. Les héros de qui ou dont il tire The heroes of whom he draws his son origine.

origin. Est-ce là le cheval dont vous venez Is that the horse of which you have de faire l'acquisition ?

just now made a purchase? Le moyen dont il s'est servi n'est The means of which he made use pas honnête.

is not honest. C'est une maladie dont on ne co- It is an illness, the cause of which nnaît point la cause.

is unknown. C'est un événement dont il n'est It is an event of which no account

point fait mention dans l'histoire. is given in history.

Observe, that from whom is always rendered by de qui, and never hy dont.--EXAMPLES: Le jeune homme de qui j'ai reçu The

young man from whom I une lettre, il y a quelque temps, ceived a letter, some time ago, est mort.

is dead. Le négociant, de qui vous réclamez The merchant, from whom you

cet argent, vient de faire ban- claim that money, has just bequeroute.

come a bankrupt. Les gens, de qui vous attendez tant The people from whom you expect

de services, vous trompent. so many services, deceive you.

RULE IV.-Instead of dont, we usc, 1st, de qui, m. and f. s. and p.or duquel, m. s. de laquelle, f. s. &c. for persons; and 2dly, duquel, m. s. de laquelle, f. s. &c. (and never de qui) for things, when the sense or construction of the phrase admits of a noun acted upon by a preposition placed between them and the noun it relates to.-EXAMPLES: 1st.

Ist. C'est un homme à la prudence dc He is a man to whose prudence,

qui, ou duquel, vous pouvez or to the prudence of whom, vous fier.

you may trust. Il me faut une femme de chambre I want a chambermaid, in whose

sur la conduite de qui, ou de la- behaviour, or in the behaviour

quelle, il n'y ait rien à redire. of whom, there is nothing to Je cherche un négociant sur l'ho- I am looking after a merchant, of

nneur et la probité de qui ou di- the honour and probity of whom quel il ne puisse y avoir de there is no doubt. doute. 2d.

2d. La Seine, dans le lit de laquelle vi- The Seine, into the bed of which

ennent se jeter plusieurs rivi- several rivers empty themères, arrose la Champagne, l'Isle selves, waters Champagne de France, &c.

the Isle of France, &c.


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Voilà un régiment à la valeur du- | This is a regiment whose valour quel l'ennemi n'a pu résister, the enemy has been unable to

resist. 1 Les passions violentes sont des ma-Violent passions are ills, against ladies aux progrès desquelles on

whose progress

ne cannot apne saurait apporter des remèdes ply too speedy remedies. trop prompts.

RULE V.-When whom, and which, are governed by the prepositions to, on, in, &c. the former, applying to persons or personified beings only, is translated by qui; and the latter, applying to animals, and things in general, by lequel, &c.—EXAMPLES: Ist.

'1st. Votre père est un homme à qui Your father is a man to whom I

j'ai beaucoup d'obligations, en am much obliged, in whom I qui j'ai mis ma confiance, et sans have put my confidence, and qui je serais mort à présent. without whom I should have

been now dead. Le négociant pour qui je tiens les The merchant for whom I keep livres est très-opulent.

accounts, is very wealthy. Les amis sur qui vous comptez, The friends on whom you depend, vous abandonneront.

will forsake you. Dieu, vers qui vous tournez votre God, toward whom you turn your ceur, vous aidera.

heart, will help you. La Mort, à qui tout cède, n'effraye Death, to whom every thing yields, pas le sage.

does not frighten the sage.



2d. Et cette mort, à laquelle vous ne And that death which you did not vous attendiez . pas, vous' a

expect, has frightened you. effrayé. Le cheval, auquel vous avez donné The horse to which you gavo à manger, n'est


à moi. some feed, is not mine. Le plaisir, auquel vous vous livres, The pleasure to which you devote est nuisible à la santé.

yourself, is hurtful to health. La chose, à laquelle je pense, est The thing of which I am thinkfort intéressante.

ing, is very interesting. L'emplacement, sur lequel je veux The lot on which I intend to build, batir, est très-grand.

is very large. Voilà les raisons sur lesquelles je These are the reasons upon which me fonde.

I rest. Some authors of French Grammars will have it, that quoi, with the prepositions à, sur, &c. may apply to inanimate objects; for instance, instead of saying, les raisons sur lesquelles, &c. they maintain that we might equally well say, les raisons sur quoi.

Polite custom, however, is against using quoi, in such cases, at all; but there are circumstances in which à quoi and de quoi are used, when they allude to things : for example, à quoi is used when to


be is followed by a verb or adjective, requiring after it the preposition to, or any other rendered by à, before the words that which, which or that, what.-EXAMPLES : C'est à quoi je m'applique.

It is to that I apply myself. C'était à quoi je ne pensais pas.

It was that which I did not think

about. C'était à quoi elle l'exhortait. It was what she exhorted him to. Vous devriez payer vos dettes ; You should pay your debts; it is

c'est à quoi cependant vous ne that, however, of which you pensez guère.

seldom think. Il n'y a rien à quoi je ne sois dis- There is nothing which I am not posé.

disposed to De quoi is used, when to be is followed by a verb or adjective, the correspondent of which, in French, requires the preposition de. -EXAMPLES: C'est de quoi je m'occupe sans | It is that about which I am always

occopying myself. C'est de quoi je vous assure. It is that of which I assure you, C'est de quoi je suis très-mécon- It is that at which I am very much tent.

dissatisfied. De quoi signifies also something in itself that may, &c, as in the following phrase: Une juste louange a de quoi flatter | Just praiso has something in it that un homme sensible.

may datter a man of feeling. De quoi also signifies sufficiency and oven abundance, in the familiar style. - EXAMPLES: C'est un homme qui a de quoi | He is a man who has wherewith to

vivre. On m'a dit que cette demoiselle I was told that this young lady avait de quoi.

was rich. But, if rien be used after étre, dont must be preferred to de quoi. – EXAMPLES : Il n'y a rien au monde dont Dieu | There is nothing in the world of ne soit l'auteur.

which God is not the author. Il n'y a rien dont ce coquin ne soit There is nothing that this rascal capable.

is not capable of Il n'y a rien dont il se plaigne da- There is nothing of which he more vantage.

complains. RULE VI.-Quoi may be acted upon by other prepositions, when it corresponds with the English that, what, or which, meaning, in general, that thing, what thing.-EXAMPLES :

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live upon.

pas honnête.

Je ne vois pas sur quoi ses préten- | I see not upon what his preten

tions peuvent être fondées. sions are grounded. Faites-le; sans quoi vous n'y par- Do it; without that you will never viendrez pas.

succeed in it. Dites-moi avec quoi vous préten- Tell me by what means you exdez en venir à bout.

pect to bring it about. Avec la prodigalité, vous serez gé- With prodigality, you will be gene

néreux pendant six mois : après rous for six months; after which quoi vous ne pourrez plus l'étre.

you cannot be so any ionger. RULE VII.-Should whom, that, or which, be understood, in English, as in the following plirases and the like, they must, in French, by no means be omitted.-EXAMPLES : La demoiselle, que vous avez ren- The young met is a contrée est Française

French woman. L'arbre, que vous voyez là-bas, a The tree you see yonder has been été frappé de la foudre.

struck with lightning. La compagnie qu'il fréquente n'est The company he keeps is not

reputable. C'est à vous que j'en veux. It is against you I have a grudge C'est à lui que je parle, et non pas it is to him I am speaking, and à vous.

not to you. C'est de moi qu'il se plaint. It is of me be complains. C'est contre eux que j'écris. It is against them I write. Je connais la personne avec, qui| I know the person you were convous causiez.

versing with L'homme de qui, ou dont, vous The man you received your goods

avez reçu vos marchandises, est from bas set off for France. parti pour France.

M. There are some particular cases wherein lequel, &c. is preferred to qui, even in the circumstances expressed by Rule I.; as in the following EXAMPLES : La fille de votre ami, laquelle est | Your friend's daughter who is infiinfiniment agréable, est venue nitely agreeable, is come to vous demander.

inquire after you. C'est un effet de la Providence, le- It is an act of Providence which

quel convaincra les incrédules. will convince the incredulous

If; in the first sentence, qui were put instead of laquelle, it would not be certain whether it were intended to signify, that the friend, or his daughter, is infinitely agreeable; and, in the second, were it not for lequel, it could not be determined, whether it be Providence, or its act, that will convince the incredulous.

RULE VIII.—When things are spoken of, and followed by in which, in what, to which, at what, from which, through which, &c

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