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in the sense of where, wherein, whercat; these, if the noun to which they relate metaphorically imply some kind of motion or rest, may be rendered elegantly, in French, by lequel, M. s. laquelle, p. s. lesquels, M. P. lesquelles, F. P. duquel, &c. par lequel, &c. vers lequel, 8c. instead of , d'où, par .--EXAMPLES: Voyez le mauvais état où, ou dans Behold the bad condition in which lequel, vous l'avez laissée.

you

left her. Le siècle , ou dans lequel, nous The age we live in.

vivons. Le danger , ou dans lequel, il The danger in which he finds se trouve

himself. Voilà le but où, ou vers lequel, il That is the end he aims at.

tend. Je me suis rendu à la maison où, I repaired to the house in which

ou dans laquelle, elle demeure. she lives. Philippe dit å son fils Alexandre, Philip said to his son Alexander,

en lui donnant Aristote pour in giving him Aristotle for his précepteur, apprenez, sous un preceptor, learn, under so good si bon maître, à éviter les fautes a master, to avoid the faults into , ou dans lesquelles, je suis which I have fallen.

tombé. Je connais le principe d'où, ou I know the principle from which

duquel, découle votre système. your system is derived. Voilà les raisons d’où, ou desque- These are the reasons from which lles, il conclut.

he concludes. Henri quatre regardait la bonne Henry the Fourth regarded the

éducation de la jeunesse commo good education of youth as a une chose d'où, ou de laquelle, thing upon which the felicity dépend la félicité des royaumes of kingdoms and nations de et des peuples.

pended. Voilà le chemin par , ou par le There is the road through which quel, j'ai passé.

I passed. Je sais les moyens par où, ou par I know the means by which he

lesquels, il parvint à ses fins. gained his point.

LESSON THE EIGHTH.

OF QUI, LEQUEL, &c. USED INTERROGATIVELY.

RULE I.-Who is translated, in French, by qui, or by qui est-ce qui. in familiar language, relating to persons only.- EXAMPLES:

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Qui, ou qui est-ce qui, va là ? Who

goes

there? Qui, ou qui est-ce qui, est venu ? Who is come? Qui, ou qui est-ce qui, osera le Who will dare to do it?

faire ? Qui, ou qui est-ce qui, en veut? Who wants some of it?

Rule II:-Whom, not being acted upon by a preposition, is rendered, in French, by qui, or qui est-ce que ; if by qui, the pronoun must be placed after the verb.- EXAMPLES: Qui poursuivez-vous si vivement? | Whom do you pursue so closely? Qui découvrez-vous là bas ? Whom do you descry yonder ? Qui aimez-vous le mieux ?

Whom do

you love best?

On the contrary, if it be rendered by qui est-ce que, the

pronoun must precede the verb.-EXAMPLES:

Qui est-ce que vous poursuivez si vivement ?
Qui est-ce que vous découvrez là-bas ?

Qui est-ce que vous aimez le mieux ? RULE III.—When whom is acted upon by a preposition, it is rendered, in French, by qui, acted upon by an appropriate preposition, and not so well by qui est-ce que, acted upon by the same preposition. -EXAMPLES: De qui vous entretenez-vous ? Of whom do you speak? De qui tenez-vous cette nouvelle ? | From whom have you this piece

ou de qui est-ce que vous tenoz of news ?

cette nouvelle ? A qui écrivez-vous ?

To whom do you write ? Avec qui demeure-t-elle ? With whom does she live ? Sur qui comptez-vous le plus ? Upon whom do you rely the most ? Pour qui travaillez-vous ? i For whom do

you

work?

RULE IV.Whose, interrogatively used, is rendered by d qui.EXAMPLES: A’qui est cette belle maison ? Whose fine house is that? A qui est ce ruban bleu ?

Whose blue riband is this? A qui est cette clé ?

Whose key is this? A qui sont ces bas de soie ? Whose silk stockings are these ? A qui sont ces boucles d'acier ? Whose steel buckles are these? A qui sont ces jolies boucles d'o- Whose pretty ear-rings are these?

reille?

RULE V.-Which, relating to persons or things, is rendered by lequel, w. laquelle, f. &c.--EXAMPLES:

you

Lequel de vos frères est élève de Which of your brothers is a midla marine ?

shipman? Laquelle de ces demoiselles veut-! Which of these

young

ladies does il épouser ?

he wish to marry

? Lequel de ces deux tableaux me Which of these two pictures do

conseillez-vous d'acheter? you advise me to buy? Laquelle de ces deux oranges Which of these two oranges do souhaitez-vous ?

you wish for? De ces éditions, à laquelle dois-je of these editions, to which ought donner la préférence ?

I to give the preference ? Des romans que j'ai achetés pour of the novels I bought for you,

vous, lesquels trouvez-vous les which do you think the most plus amusans ?

entertaining? RULE VI.—What, when applied to persons or things, used interrogatively, and followed by a substantive, is translated by quel, m. quelle, f. &c.-EXAMPLES: Quel capitaine commandait cei What captain commanded on that jour-là?

day? A quel homme pensez-vous avoir What man do think you

have affaire ?

to deal with ? De quel monsieur parlez-vous ? What gentleman do you speak of? De quels messieurs avez-vous reçu Of what gentlemen did you recet argent?

ceive that money

y? Quel profit vous en revient-il ? What profit do you receive by it? Quelle toile avez-vous apportée ? What linen have you brought? Quelles chemises porte-t-il ?

What sort of shirts does he wear? En quelle monnaie vous a-t-il In what coin has be paid you?

payé ? A quel jeu jouerons-nous ?

shall we play at ? Voici mon avis; quel est le vôtre? This is my advice; what is yours? C'était sentiment; quel était le It was his sentiment; what was leur ?

theirs ? Voilà mon opinion; savez-vous That is my opinion; do

you

know quelle est la sienne ?

what is his? RULE VII.-What, signifying what thing, not acted upon by a preposition, when it is the object of the verb, is rendered,

ist. By que, or qu'est-ce que: if que be used, the active pronoun follows the verb, as is generally done in interrogations; but if, on the contrary, qu'est-ce que be preferred, the active pronoun, as in affir. mation, precedes the verb.-EXAMPLES: Que dites-vous, ou qu'est-ce que | What do you say?

vous dites ? Que craignez-vous, ou qu'est-ce What do you fear?

que vous craignez ? Que cherche-t-elle, ou qu'est-ce What does she look for?

qu'elle cherche

What game

son

2d. By que, or qu'est-ce qui, when it is the subject of the verb: in using que, the active pronoun will be necessary, as in the foregoing examples; in using qu'est-ce qui, no active pronoun will be required: the passive pronoun, if any be used, will, as a matter of course, precede the verb.-EXAMPLES : Qu'est-il arrivé, ou qu'est-ce qui | What has happened ?

est arrivé ? Que lui est-il arrivé, ou qu'est-ce What happened to him?

qui lui est arrivé ?

Observe, that why, implying for what reason, and attended by a negative, may be translated by que, followed by ne, instead of poichquoi and the negative ne pas.-EXAMPLES : Que ne le corrige-t-il, ou pourquoi | Why does he not correct him ?

ne le corrige-t-il pas? Que n'attendez-vous ?

Why do you not wait ? Que n'est-il venu plutôt ?

Why is he not come sooner? Que n'est-il plus soigneux de ses Why is he not more careful of his affaires ?

business? Que n'y va-t-il lui-même ? Why does he not go thither him

self? Que ne faites-vous ce qu'on vous Why do not you

do what dit?

bid ?

you are

Que, in a very few phrases, may be used without the negative.EXAMPLES: Que tardez-vous ? Que différons-nous ?

Why do we delay? It is safer, in general, to use pourquoi, as, by this means, no room for error is left.

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Why do

you stay?

RULE VUI.What, implying what thing, acted upon by a preposition, is rendered, in French, by quoi, with an appropriate preposition before it.-EXAMPLES: De quoi vous accuse-t-on ? Of what do they accuse you ? De quoi parle-t-on ?

Of what do they talk ? En quoi est-elle coupable? In what is she guilty ? Sur quoi en étiez-vous quand je What were you talking about suis entré ?

when I came in? Aquoi en attribuez-vous la faale 3. To what do you inpute the fault ?

Observe, 1st. That, in English, though what be not acted upcu by a preposition, its correspondent, quoi, may, in French,—owing to the French verb requiring a preposition, while the English verb does not --EXAMPLES : OL. II.

S

'?

De quoi s'agit-il ?

What is the matter ? A quoi peut-il s'attendre ?

What can he expect? 2d. That why is sometimes rendered, in French, by quoi, preceded by a preposition.-EXAMPLES: De quoi vous mêlez-vous ? Why do you concern yourself? A quoi bon tant de façons ?

?

3d. How, generally rendered by comment, or de quelle manière, is sometimes rendered by quoi, preceded by a preposition.-ExAMPLES: A quoi passez-vous votre temps à | How do you spend your time in la cainpague ?

the country A quoi nous amuserons-nous ce How shall we divert ourselves this soir ?

evening

LESSON THE NINTH.

OF THB ACTIVE PRONOUNS.

encore.

Rule I.-The active pronouns, of the first and second persons, if their verbs be in different tenses, must be repeated before every verb of the sentence in which they are found. Should the verbs be in the same tense, the pronoun, according to fancy or taste, may or may not be repeated. It is, however, most advisable to repeat it. -EXAMPLES: Je pense et je penserai toujours la|I think, and shall always think, même chose.

the same thing. Vous l'avez vue, et vous la verrez You have seen her, and will see

her again. Nous pêchons à présent, et nous We are fishing now, and intend to avons dessein d'aller à la chasse

go a-hunting this afternoon. cette après-midi. Je dis et déclare, ou je dis et je I say, and declare, that it is so.

déclare, que cela est ainsi.

Rule II.-The active pronouns of the third person are not to be repeated before verbs when those verbs are in the same tense.— EXAMPLES: La boune grâce ne gâte rien; elle Gracefulness spoils nothing; it

ajoute à la beauté, relève la adds to beauty, heightens momodestie, et y donne du lustre. desty, and gives it a lustre.

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