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Lévizac, who gives, in his Grammar, the foregoing rule, justly remarks, that clearness requires the repetition of the pronoun, when the second verb, besides the conjunction et, is preceded by a preposition, which, with its regimen (complement), forms a long incidental phrase, as : Il fond sur son ennemi, et après | He rushes on his enemy, and, after

l'avoir saisi d'une main victori- having taken hold of him with euse, il le renverse, comme le a victorious hand, he tlırows cruel aquilon abat les tendres him down, as the ruthless north moissons qui dorent la cam- wind crushes the tender harvests pagne.

I that gild the field. Should the verbs be in a different tense, we may either repeat the pronouns or not; but it is advisable to repeat them.-EXAMPLES: Elle est vertueuse et elle le sera | She is virtuous, and will be su toujours.

always. N n'a jamais rien valu, et ne vau- He never was good for

any thing, dra jamais rien.

nor ever will be. On must always be repeated.—Examples: On parle d'une manière, et l'on | They speak in one way, and often agit souvent d'une autre.

act in another. On dit, on écrit, et l'on assure, que ! They say, write, and speak posila paix sera bientôt signée. tively, that

peace

will

soon be

signed. On épie la fortune, ou travaille, We watch fortune, we labour, u'e on se fatigue, on cherche tous

exhaust ourselves, we try all les moyens de la fixer; et, après means to fix her; and, after bien des soins, le tombeau s'ou

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much anxiety, the grave opens, vre, et l'on s'aperçoit trop tard and, when too late, we discover que tout ici bas n’est que va- that all below is vanity. nité,

Rule III.-- Active pronouns, of whatever persons they be, ought to be repeated before the verbs to which they relate:

1st. When we pass from negation to affirmation, or from affirmu tion to negation.

2d. When the verbs are connected by a conjunction.-EXAMPLES: Vous voulez et vous ne voulez pas | You will, and will not, by turus.

tour à tour. Il ne parle pas quand il le faut, et | He does not speak when it is neil parle quand il ne le faut pas. cessary, and speaks when he

should not. Elle n'est pas riche, mais elle est She is not rich, but she is young jeune et belle.

and handsome. Nous le recevons chez nous, ce- We receive him in our house, yet

pendant nous ne pouvons pas we cannot endure bin. le souffrir.

Et and ni (when the verb is not used negatively) are an exception among the conjunctions ; for they require the suppression of the ac. tive pronouns before the verbs which follow. –EXAMPLES: Vous aimez les complimens, et les You love compliments, and al

entendez toujours avec plaisir. ways hear them with pleasure. Il donne et dépense tout son He gives and spends all his moargent.

ney: Je ne bois ni ne mange.

I neither drink nor eat. Il n'invite ni ne reçoit personne He neither invites nor receives chez lui.

any body into his house.

Rule IV.—The active pronouns, occurring without a mark of interrogation, are, in the three following cases, placed after the verb.

Ist. They are placed after the seven following verbs, when they are joined with them only by way of parenthesis : dire, répondre, répliquer, repartir, continuer, poursuivre, s'écrier.- EXAMPLES: Vous voyez, dit-il, l'état affreux | You see, said he, the frightful conoù je suis réduit.

dition to which I am reduced. Pourquoi, lui répondis-je, ne me Why, answered I, have you not

l'avez-vous pas dit plutôt ? told it me sooner? Je ne pouvais vous l'apprendre I could not inform you of it be

auparavant, me répliqua-t-il. fore, replied he. Cependant, repartis-je brusque- Nevertheless, retorted I, bluntly, ment, vous m'avez vu plusieurs

you

have seen me often. fois. Oh! continua-t-il, je n'ai jamais Oh! continued he, I never dared osé le faire.

to do it. Il fallait, poursuivis-je, avec cha- You should, pursued 1, with leur, avoir plus de courage avec

warmth, be bolder with the le meilleur de vos amis.

best of your friends. Ah! s'écria-t-il, avec l'accent de Ah! exclaimed he, with an emo

la plus vive reconnaissance, tion of the liveliest gratitude, vous m'avez rendu trop de ser- you have rendered me too mavices, pour que j'osasse vous en ny services for me to presume demander un nouveau.

to ask another.

2d. Principally aftur such expressions, as dussé-je, dút-il, &c. fussé. je, fussiez-vous, &c. puisse-t-il, puissiez-vous, &c. in the subjunctire.

- EXAMPLES: Je l'entreprendrai, dussé-je é I will undertake it, though I chouer.

should miscarry. Il partira cette nuit, dút-il être He will set off to-night, though assassiné.

he should be murdered. Dussiez-vous m'en vouloir, je vous Though you may hate me for it,

dirai ma façon de penser. I will tell you my mind.

Fussé-je le seul de cette opinion, | Though I were the only one of

cela ne m'empêchera pas de la that opinion, it would not premanifester.

vent ne from manifesting it. Fussiez-vous plus nombreux, vous Though you were more numerous, éprouverez de la résistance. you

would experience resistance. Puisse-t-ilse guérir de sa maladie, May he be cured of his illness,

et vivre encore long-temps pour and still live long to render votre bonheur !

you happy! Though the subject were not an active pronoun, it should always be placed after the verb, as in the two cases below.-EXAMPLES: Rien n'est plus commun que de Nothing is more conimon than to prendre un engouement passa

mistake a momentary partiality ger pour de l'amitié. Il faut

for friendship. We ought (says (dit Plutarque) avoir mangé Plutarch) to eat three bushels un iniyot de sel avec celui qu'on of salt with him we wish to veut aimer.

love. Puissent tous les vrais citoyens se May all true citizens be united

séunir contre les mal-intentio- against evil-minded men! nnés !

3d. When the verb is preceded by any of the following conjunctive words, aussi, peut-être, autunt, du moins, au moin, en vain, encore, peim.-EXAMPLES: Ls rose est la reine des fleurs; / The rose is the queen of flowers;

aussi est-elle l'emblème de la therefore it is the eniblem of beauté.

beauty U lu a manqué essentiellement; He has affronted him grossly; aussi est-il très-fâché.

therefore he is very angry. Si vous allez chez lui à présent, if you go to his house now, per

peut-être le trouverez-vous o- haps you will find him engaged. ccupé. Autant vaudrait-il, une bonne fois, It would be as well, once for all, to lui dire ce qu'il en est.

tell him how the matter stands. On le soupçonnait d'être le chef They suspected him to be the head

de la conspiration, du moins of the conspiracy, at least it is est-il certain qu'il était instruit certain he was acquainted with du complot.

the plot. En cela, au moins, ou du moins, In that, at least, you were very aviez-vous raison.

right. En vuin lui porta-t-il ses plaintes ; In vain did he lay his complaints tout cela ne lui servit à rien. before him; all that was of no

service to him. Il a été long-temps à se faire He suffered himself to be long enprier, encore, ne l'a-t-il accordé

treated, and finally he granted que de mauvaise grâce.

it with a bad grace

A peine César fut-il entré au sénat, Scarcely had Cæsar entered the

que les conjurés se jetèrent sur senate, when the conspirators lui et le poignardèrent.

rushed on him and stabbed him.

In some of the above examples the English construction might have been safely followed, but at much expence of the grace and energy

of the sentence. Rule V.—The active pronouns which, in English, are considered as useless in an interrogation in which a noun is the subject of the verb, must, in French, be always expressed.--EXAMPLES: Votre maître est-il à la maison ? Is your master at home ? Mes souliers sont-ils décrottés ? Are

my

shoes cleaned ? Mes bas sont-ils raccommodés ? Are my stockings mended ? Votre montre va-t-elle bien ? Does your watch

go

well? Votre scur dessine-t-elle bien ? Does your sister draw well ? Ces demoiselles ont-elles un mai- Have these young ladies a musictre de musique ?

master? Le tailleur a-t-il apporté mon ha- Has the tailor brought my new bit neuf ?

coat? Votre marchande de modes a-t- | Has your milliner received the elle reçu

les nouvelles modes ? new fashions ? Votre frère n'est-il pas arrivé des Is not your brother arrived from Indes.

the Indies?

RULE VI.-If the verb used interrogatively were in the first person, and ended in e feeble, this e should be made open, by placing over it an acute accent, owing to the weak syllable je that follows it. -EXAMPLES : Révé-je ? Pensé-je ? Dussé-je ? | Do I dream? Do I think ? Should

I ?

you will

Should the verb in the first person be a monosyllable, terminated by two consonants, the pronoun je cannot follow it: thus, avoid saying, sors-je? mens-je ? sers-je ? Instead of it, you will place, in order to ask the question, est-ce que before the verb preceded by je, and say: Est-ce que je sors? Est-ce que je | Do I go out? Do I lie? 'Do I mens? Est-ce que je sers ?

serve ? Observe, that est-ce que, which is a very familiar mode of expression among the French, is applicable, in the same manner, to other persons

and tenses of the verb.-EXAMPLES : Est-ce que vous écrivez? Est-ce | Do you write? Do you not write? Est-ce qu'il est venu? Est-ce qu'il Is he come? is he not come ?

que vous n'écrive

pas ?

D'est pas venu ? Est-ce

que votre frère obtiendra Will your brother obtain leave ? permission ?

LESSON THE TENTH.

OP THE PASSIVE PRONOUNS.

Rule I.-Passive pronouns, in French, Ist. immediately precede the verb. 2d, They must be repeated before coery verb in the sentence to which they belong.-EXAMPLES: 1st.

1st. Il m'a dit cela–Je ne vous ai ja- He told me that-I never told mais dit cela,

you

that. Je vous apporte des fruits murs I bring you ripe fruits-He tires

- Il nous ennuie beaucoup- Je us much-I will speak to him lui parlerai en particulier-Je in private-I shall make them leur ferai entendre raison).

listen to reason.

2d.

2d. Je vous aime et vous estime-L'i- I love and esteem you—The idea

dée de ses malheurs le poursuit, of his misfortunes pursues, torle tourmente, et l'accable-Un ments, and overwhelms him fils bien élevé ne se révolte ja- son well educated never rebels mais contre son père; il l'aime, against his father; he loves, hoPhonore, et le respecte-On nours, and respects him-They nous veille et on nous observe.

watch and observe us.

N.B. To the above rule, verbs in the imperative afford an exception; for which, see Rule IV. of this Lesson.

Rule II.- If a verb be attended by two passive pronouns, they must both precede the verb; and the one affected by the preposition à (understood) corresponding to to (expressed or understood) in English, should precede.-EXAMPLES: Il me l'a promis - Je vous la mon- | He promised it to me-I will show trerai- Elle nous les renverra her or it to you-She will send

- Je crois qu'elle ne vous les them back to us, I believe she reoverra pas.

will not send them back to you.

RULE III.-Should the two pronouns belong equally to the third person, the contrary of what is required by the preceding rule takes

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