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Toi, tu oserais le faire! Je n'en | Thou wouldst dare to do it! I crois rien.

disbelieve it. Nous, nous pensons ainsi ; mais We think so, but he thinks quite

lui, il pense tout autrement. differently. 4th. When they are united to nouns or pronouns by a conjunction. -EXAMPLES: Moi et mon domestique, nous ! My servant and I will repair

nous y rendrons sur le champ. thither immediately. Ma sæur et moi, nous y étions. My sister and I were there,

5th. After a preposition, as has already been noticed in the first part of this volume. See page 145, &c.

Rule II.-When a rerb relates to subjects of different persons, the pronouns subject are disjunctive, and the verb agrees with the first person, in preference to the second; and with the second, in preference to the third. The active pronouns must attend the verb, though they be omitted in English; and, through politeness, we first name the person to or of whom we are speaking, and ourselves last.–EXAMPLES: Vous et moi nous sommes bons | You and I are good friends,

amis. Lui, votre frère, et moi, nous lisi. He, your brother, and I were read

ons ensemble la nouvelle bro- ing together the new pamphlet.

chure. Elle et moi, nous sortimes pour She and I went out to take a aller nous promener.

walk. Vous, votre ami, et son cousin, You, your friend, and his cousin, vous viendrez me trouver.

will call upon me. It is natural to suppose, that when superiors, such as a father or a master, mention what they have done in conjunction with a child, a servant, &c. the pronoun of the first person is mentioned first, which forms an exception to the above rule; so we may say, Moi et mon fils.

I and

1 Moi et mon domestique.

I and my servant. It is essential to observe that, if the subjects relating to the verb are all of the third person, the verb then is not, as in the above cases, preceded by a pronoun active.-EXAMPLES: Lui et eux ne partiront point, j'en He and they will not set off, I am

suis sûr. Lui et ce monsieur, que vous voyez He and that gentleman you see là-bas, sont associés.

yonder, are partners. Lui et son frère apprennent le | He and his brother are learning

Français, l'Allemand, la danse, French, Gerinan, dancing, fencl'escrime, le dessein, la tenue des ing, drawing, book-keeping, livres, et les mathématiques. and mathematics.

my son,

sure.

LESSON THE TWELFTH.

OF THE USE OF THE PRONOUNS LUI, EUX, ELLE, ELLES, SE,

LUI-MEME, SOI. Rule I.— The personal pronouns leur and lui, eux, elle, elles, acted upon by a preposition, are not, in general, used for animals or things, except both the pronoun and preposition cannot be rendered by any of the adverbs and prepositions en, y, dessus, dedans, auprès, &c. EXAMPLES: La fortune de son frère va bientôt. The fortune of his brother will

augmenter la sienne: il ne devait soon increase his own: he could pas y compter sitôt; and not, il not have calculated on it so ne devait pas compter sitôt sur soon.

elle. En traversant le désert, j'en avais In crossing the desert, I was very

grand' peur; and not, j'avais much afraid of them-(tigers).

grand' peur d'eux. J'en ai été content; and not, j'ai I have been pleased with ilma été content de lui.

poem). Je m'en approchai; and not, je I came near it-(a table).

m'approchai d'elle. Je m'y suis assis ou je me suis a- I sat upon it-(a chair).

ssis dessus; and 101, je me suis

assis sur elle. J'y ai compté ou j'ai compté de I relied upon it-(fair weathor). SSUS ; and not, j'ai compté sur

lui. Il faut y opposer de la résistance; We must oppose resistance to

and not, il faut leur opposer, &c. them- (beasts). J'y donue mon consentement; and I give my consent to it-(a pronot, je lui donne, &c.

position). Mon bonheur en dépend; and My happiness depends upon ilnot, dépend de lui.

(a law-suit).
y
fiez
and not, ne

Do not trust to it-a bad bridge). vous fiez pas à lui. Servez-vous-en; and not, serves- Make use of it (a stick).

vous de lui. Ne crachez pas dessus; and not, Do not spit upon it—(a carpet).

ne crachez pas sur lui. Ne montez pas dessus ; and not, Do not get on him (a borse).

ne montez pas sur lui. Je ne m'en suis pas encore servi; I have not yet made use of him

and not, je ne me suis pas en- -(a horse).

core servi de lui. Nous allâmes camper auprès ; and we went to encamp near it1.0t, près d'elle

(an army).

Ne vous

pas;

Vous pouvoz être sûr

que l'oiseau | You may be sure that the bird is n'y est plus ou n'est plus dedans; no longer in it-(the cage).

and not, dans elle. Voyez-vous cette maison? Il de- Do you see that house? He lives

meure vis-à-vis; and not, vis-à over against it. vis d'elle.

sans

After the prepositions sans, avec, or après, the above pronouns, acted upon by thcm, may be always properly used for animals or things.--EXAMPLES : Elle en raffole, elle ne saurait faire | She doats upon him, she cannot un pas sans lui.

go a single step without him

(a lap-dog). On m'a dit qu'il ne sortait jamais I have been told that he never

sés pistolets. Cela est went out without his pistols. It vrai, il ne sort jamais sans eux. is true, he never goes out with

out them. Ce torrent est si rapide qu'il en- This torrent is so rapid, that it

traine avec lui tout ce qu'il ren- carries with it every thing, it contre; il ne laisse après lui que meets; it leaves nothing behind du sable et des cailloux.

but sand and pebbles. Les plaisirs ne laissent souvent Pleasures often leave nothing after après eux que des regrets.

them but regret. In many other cases, which custom alone can point out, the above pronouns may be used for things with other prepositions.

Ist. With the preposition d, in speaking of an enemy's army, wo say, nous marchames à clle, we marched up to it. This is even the most proper way of expressing that idea.

2d. With de; as, ces choses sont bonnes d'elles-mêmes, these things are good in themselves.

3d. With pour; as, j'aiuno la vérité au poiot que jo sacrifierais tout pour elle; I love truth to the degree that I would sacrifice every thing

for it.

4th. With en; as, ces raisons sont solides en elles-mêmes ; these reasons are solid in themselves.

Lui and leur, without a preposition, may apply to animals or things, as in the following phrases, and the like.-EXAMPLES: Ce cheval a faim, donnez-lui à This horse is hungry, give him manger.

something to eat. Cette plante et ces orangers ont That plant and these orange-trees

besoin d'eau : il faut leur en want water: it ought to be donner.

I given to them. A nian, very partial to a house which he has embellished, may say, J'y ai fait de grandes dépenses; I have been at much expense

mais elle m'en dédommage (with it), but it has well indembien; car je lui dois ma santé et mon bien-être: je ne vivrais pas sans elle.

nificd me; for to it I owe my health and my comfort: 1 could not live without it.

We
may
also

say, with great propriety.

Ce chien et ces oiseaux font tout | This dog and those birds are all

mon plaisir: je n'aime qu'eux ; my pleasure; I love nothing eux seuls font tout mon amuse- but them; they alone are all ment; je ne songe qu’à eux. my amusement; I think of no

thing but them.

The English compound pronouns, himself, herself, itself, themselves, are rendered, in French, when they sorve to make a verb reflected, by se, as it has been shown in the conjugation of s'habiller, to dress one's self.-But, when they do not render the verb reflected, they are expressed by lui or lui-méme ; elle, or elle-même ; cur or eux-mêmes ; elles or elles-mêmes, according to gender and numbır.EXAMPLES:

Il parle toujours de lui, ou de lui. He always speaks of himself, and

même, et jamais des autres. never of others. Il m'a dit qu'il avait parlé à elle. He told me that he had spoken

même, à cux-mêmes, à elles- to herself, to themselves. mémes.

One's self, himself, and herself, in the singular, used in a vague and indeterminate sense, or after the indeterminate words, one, people, a man, everybody, nobody, whoever, &c. and itself, applying to things, are rendered, in French, by soi.--EXAMPLES:

On doit travailler non-seulement| A man should not only work for

pour soi, mais aussi pour la himself, but also for society.

société. Chacun pour soi, dit l'égoïste. Every one for himself, says the

selfish man. Personne n'est sûr de soi. None can answer for himself. L'homme qui n'aime que soi, ne The man who loves nobody but se fait point d'amis.

himself, does not make friends. Quiconque ne pense qu'à soi, est Whoever thinks only of himself, indigne de vivre.

is unworthy of liviny. La vertu est aimable de soi. Virtue is amiable in itself. L'aimant attire le fer à soi. The loadstone attracts iron to it.

self. Cela est bon en soi.

That is good in itself.

In speaking of persons, même is very conimonly, and sometimes indispensably, added to svi, as in the following EXAMPLES:

Il ne faut pas se loner soi-même. We must not praise ourselves. Il faut se rendre compte à soi- / We should be accountable to ourmême.

selves. Avoir un ami, c'est avoir un autre To have a friend, is to have anosvi-même,

ther self

LESSON THE THIRTEENTH.

OF SOME DIPFICULTIES IN THE FRENCH LANGUAGE.

FIRST DIFFICULTY.

The word le is used, in French, to represent,-1st. A part of a phrase, or even a whole one. 2d. An adjective, or a substantive taken adjectively. 3d. A substantive, or an adjective, taken substantively

In the two first instances, le is an adrorb, and of course can suffer no alteration. In the third, as it represents a substantive or a noun, it is subject to the laws of concordance, which require that it should assume the gender and number thereof.

1st, Le, representing part of a phrase, or a whole proposition EXAMPLES:

Pouvez-vous aller à la Nouvelle-Can you go to New-Orleans ?

Orléans ? Oui, je le puis.- (Le Yes, I can. is used instead of y aller, which

is understood). Si le public a eu quelque indul. If the public has shown mo some

gence pour moi, je le dois à indulgence, I owe it to yous votre protection.- Je le dois, protection. is clearly equivalent to je dois que le public ait eu quelque indulgence pour moi).

Si Rome a souvent même cstimé mes exploits,

C'est à vous, ombre illustre, à vous que je le dois. VOL II.

T

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