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2d. Le, representing an adjective, or a substantive taken adjectively. --EXAMPLES :

Madame, êtes vous malade ? Oui, Madam, are you sick? Yes, I am je le suis.

(s0). Mesdemoiselles, ètes-vous musi-Young ladies, are you musicians ?

ciennes ? Oui, nous le sommes. Yes, we are (so). Messieurs, étes-vous héritiers du Gentlemen, are you heirs of the défunt? Oui, nous le sommes.

deceased? Yes, we are (so).

Passant! c'est un enfant, ton maitre.
Il l'est, le fut, ou le doit être.

Zaïre, es-tu chrétienne?

Oui, seigpeur, je le sois.

N. B. In the above phrases, the abverb, le, is the correspondent of the adverb so, which is understood in English,

3d. Le, la, or les, representing a noun, or an adjective taken substantively, according to circumstances of gender and number.-Ex


I am.

Monsieur, êtes-vous le médecin? Sir, are you the physician? Yes, Oui, je le suis.

I am. Madame, êtes-vous la malade? Madam, are you the patient? Yes,

Oui, je la suis. Mesdemoiselles, etes-vous les Young ladies, are you the musi

musiciennes ? Oui, nous les cians? Yes, we are.

sommes. Messieurs, êtes-vous les héritiers | Gentlemen, are you the heirs of

du défunt? Non, nous ne les the deceased? No, we are not. sommes pas.

N. B. In the first example, le, instead of being used for an adverb, is used to avoid the repetition of the noun médecin: it is the same in the other examples, with regard to la or les.


The words chacun and leur present great and numerous difficulties; but we shall enter into no critical investigation of the opinions of different grammarians upon this subject, because, we cannot see what advautage could be derived to the scholar, to compensate for the tedium that must attend such discussion. We shall therefore pass on ; and only give a few phrases, wherein chacun is put in its proper place, in order that they may serve as a model for forming others.EXAMPLES: Chacune de ces charrettes a perdu | Both of these carts have lost their son essieu.

axle-trees. Chacune de ces femmes est très- Every one of these women is

very attachée à son mari.

much attached to her husband. Que chacun de nous prenne son | Let each of us take his hat.

chapeau. Que chacun de nous s'en aille Let each of us go to his house,

chez soi. Chacun s'en alla chez soi. Every one went to his own house.

Instead of the above phrases, the following incorrect ones are frequently used in conversation, and even in writing:

Ces deux charrettes ont perdu chacune leur essieu (ou leurs

Ces femmes sont très-attachées chacune à leur mari (ou à leurs

Prenons chacun notre chapeau (ou nos chapeaux).
Allons-nous-en, chacun chez nous,

Ils s'en allerent, chacun chez eux. We may renask, with a judicious grammarian, that, though we can never use leur, leurs, after chacun, it does not follow one always can use son, sa, ses; as we can by no means say, “ Ils ont apporté chacun son offrande.” This is the rule: We cannot use son, sa, ses, unless that which precedes chacun offers a complete and finished sense. It is therefore necessary, that what precedes chacun be a complete phrase; because, we do not begin with a new phrase till the preceding one is completed: therefore we cannot say,

Ces deux charrettes ont perdu chacune son essieu.
Ces femmes sont très-attachées chacune à son mari.
Prenons chacun son chapeau.

Ces deux charrettes ont perdu-
Because Ces femmes sout très-attachées

Preuonsare not complete phrases. Every verb which terminates them, is in want of a complement. But, on the contrary, we may say, Ils ont tous apporté des offrandes | They have all brought offerings

au temple, chacun selon ses to the temple, each according IDoyens.

to his means. Ils ont tous jugé différemment, They have all judged differently,

chacun selon ses intérêts. each according to his interests. Ils passèrent tous en revue devant They were all reviewed by the inl'inspecteur, chacun à son tour. spector, each in his turn.

Elles partirent toutes pour Paris, They all set off for Paris, each in chacune dans sa voiture.

her coach.



S Ils ont tous apporté des offrandes

Ils ont tous jugé différemment are complete phrases; the words following chacun are not necessary to the fulness of the sense thereof; chacun begins a new pbrase, to express a circumstance of the action, which is expressed in the first.

Ils ont tous apporté des offrandes au temple, chacun selon ses moyens; that is to say, Ils ont tous apporté des offrandes | They have all brought offerings au templo, et chacun en

to the temple, and every one apporté selon ses moyens. has brought some, according to

his ineaus.


We might bere indulge ourselves with some criticisms on the modes of expressiou relative to chacun, used by several writers; but it is unvecessary: the above rules, supported by practice, will remove every difficulty concerning chacun.


Quelque, signifying though, although, whatever, whatsoever, howcver, or howsoever, is an adverb, when it is placed before an adjective separated from its noun, and is, therefore, invariably quelque ; it always requires the verb in the subjunctive preceded by the conjunction que.--EXAMPLES:

Quelque riches qu'ils soient, ils ont | Though they be ever so rich, they toujours peur de manquer.

are always afraid of being in

want. Quelque bonnes que soient vos raj. Although your reasons be ever so sons, on ne les écoutera

pas. good, they will not be heard. Quelque rusés qu'ils paraissent, However cunning they appear, ils sont quelquefois trompés. i they are sometimes taken io.

Quelque brillans que soient les dons de la fortune,

La vertu les efface, elle seule a du prix. But, if quelque, with the same meaning as above, be placed before a plural noun, either by itself, or joined to an adjective, it takes the mark of the plural, as it then becomes an adjective. - Examples: Quelques fautes qu'il ait commises, | Whatever faults he may have comje lui pardonnerai.


Quelques heureux talens que vous | Whatever happy talents you inay

ayez, vous ne réussirez jamais have, you will never succeeil sans application.

without application. Quelque is followed by qui, with the subjunctive, in the following examples, and the like:

Quelques avantages qui lui soient | Whatever advantages may be ofofferts, il ne les acceptera pas.

fered to him, he will not accept of them.

Quelques prix glorieux qui lui soient proposés ;
Quels lauriers me plairont de son sang arrosés?

When the verb étre is used, the construction of the phrase will sometimes not admit of a noun or adjective being interposed between quelque and the verb: then quelque becomes quel que, governing the subjunctive, and quel is liable to gender and number. The following examples will point out to the

scholar in what instances this mode of expression may be used. -EXAMPLES:

Il ne veut entendre parler d'aucun | He will not hear of any accom

accommodement, quel qu'il pu- modation, whatever it may be.

isse être. Quelles que soient les nouvelles, Whatever the news may be, imfaites m'en part.

part it to me. Envoyez-moi ces marchandises, Send me those goods, whatever quelles qu'elles soient. :

they may be. Quels


soient vos amnis, vous ne | Whoever your friends may be, l'obtiendrez pas.


will not obtain it. Quelle que soit cette demoiselle, Whoever this young lady be, she

elle est bien mal-honnête. is very unpolite. Je ne me soucie pas de lui, quel 1 do not care for him, whoever he

qu'il soit.

may be.

Mais quel que soit l'état où lon penchant t'appelle,
Que la probité soit ta compagne fidelle.
Quel que soit l'intérêt qui fait parler la reine,
La réponse, seigneur! doit-elle étre incertaine?


Tout, when it corresponds with the adverbs quite, entirely, or the conjunctions though, although, &c. is invariable; except when it precedes an adjective feminine, beginning with a consonant, or h aspirated, as custon requires that it should then assume the inflection of the adjective,

Observe, that when tout corresponds to the above conjunctions, the adjective is followed by que, which governs the verb in the indicative. -EXAMPLES: Cette femme fut toute surprise. This woman was quite surprised. Elle a la figure toute hâlée. Her face is quite sunburnt. Elles furent toutes pénétrées de They were quite overwhelmed douleur.

with grief. Elle était toute honteuse.

She was quite ashamed.
Toute charmante qu'elle est. Although she is charming.
Toute malade qu'elle était, elle est Sick as she was, she is perfectly
parfaitement guérie.

Toutes hardies qu'elles sont. Although they are bold.
Toute femme que je suis. Although I am a woman.
Toute votre amie qu'elle est. Although she is your friend.

But, before a vowel or an h mute, and before an adjective masculine plural, it remains invariably tout.-EXAMPLES: Elle fut tout étonnée.

She was quite astonished. Elles étaient tout habillées de They were entirely dressed in blanc.

white. Ils étaient tout interdits.

They were quite thunderstruck.
Ils étaient tout mouillés.

They were quite wet.
Tout innocente qu'elle était. Although she was innocent.
Tout humble qu'elle est. Although she is bumible.
Tout aimables qu'elles sont. Thorigh they are amiable.
Tout sages qu'ils sont.

Although they are wise.
Tout charmans qu'ils paraissent | Although they appear to be

charming. The adjective tout, all, on the contrary, is always obedient to the laws of concordance. – EXAMPLES : Elles furent toutes étonnées. They were all astonished. Elles étaient toutes habillées de They were all dressed in white.

blanc. Ils étaient tous interdits.

They were all thunderstruck. Ils furent tous mouillés.

They were all wet.

FIFTH DIFFICULTY. Même, a pronoun singular, after moi, toi, soi, lui, elle, takes the mark of the plural, after nous, vous, eux, elles; and is always joined to the above pronouns by a hyphen; it is used to give more energy to the expression.- EXAMPLES: Moi-même, toi-même, soi-même, lui-même, elle-même, nous-mêmes,

vous-mêmes, eux-mêmes, elles-mêmes,

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