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the present, I shall endeavour to explain the nice difference that exists between thein; and, at the same time, recommend an attentive re-perusal of Conversation IX. on moods and tenses, in which these, with the other tenses, are fully characterised.

The present-anterior, or imperfect, is used,

1st, To express an action co-existing with another action in a period of time elapsed.—EXAMPLES : Je pensais à vous quand vous êtes I was thinking of you when you entré.

came in. J'allais m'habiller lorsque je reçus I was going to dress myself when votre lettre.

I received

your

letter. J'écrivais pendant qu'il dessinait. I was writing while he was drau

ing. Je sortais comme il entrait. I was going out as he came in.

2d. When we speak of actions that have become habitual, or have been repeatedly done, of the habits, feelings, dispositions, &c. of persons.--EXAMPLES: Henry IV était* un grand roi; il į Henry IV. was a great king; he aimait son peuple.

loved his people. Quand je demeuruis à Paris, j'a- When I lived in Paris, I often

llais souvent aux spectacles. visited the theatres. Vous aviez l'air triste tout-à- You looked serious just now.

l'heure. J'avais raison de l'être.

I had cause for it. Qu'est-ce que vous aviez? What was the matter with you? J'avais le cæur serré de douleur; My heart was oppressed with

je venais de recevoir une nou- grief; I had just received a velle bien affligeante.

most distressing piece of news. À quoi passiez-vous le temps à la How did you spend your time in campagne ?

the country? J'allais à la pêche, à la chasse on I went a-fishing, a hunting, je montais à cheval.

rode out on horseback. Son père était un honnête homme His father was a good sort of a

qui aimait l'esprit sans en avoir, man: he was fond of wit with. et qui admirait sans savoir out possessing any; and ad

or

• A celebrated grammarian judiciously observes, “But if we speak of persons that are still living, we use the compound of the present ; as, mon père a été bel hornme, my father has been a handsome man: or, if we use the imperfect, we must mention a particular time; as, ma seur etait belle, my sister was handsome (supe posing she is dead). Ma sæur a été belle, my sister has been handsome (supposing she is still living). Ma saur était belle dans sa jeunesse, or arunt d'acoir eu lu petite vérole, my sister was handsome in ber youth, or before she had the small-pox (whether she be alive or dead)."

pourquoi, tout ce qui venait de la capitale. Il avait même des relations littéraires et du nombre de ses correspondans était un connaisseur nommé M. de Fintac.

mired, without knowing why, every thing that came from the metropolis. Nay, he even had some literary connexions; and, among his correspondents, was a connoisseur of the name of Fin tac.

3d. It is used in the descriptive style; as in the following elegant passage from Fénélon : Calypso ne pouvait se consoler Calypso could not be comforted

du départ d'Ulysse. Dans sa for the departure of Ulysses. douleur, elle se trouvait mal- In her grief she found herself heureuse d'être immortelle, Sa unhappy by being immortal. grotte ne résonnait plus de son Her grotto no more echoed with chant: les nymphes qui la ser- the music of her voice: the vaient, n'osaient lui parler. nymphs who attended her dared Elle se promenait souvent seule not speak to her. She often sur les gazons fleuris dont walked alone on the flowery turf un printemps éternel bordait with which an eternal spring son ile; mais ces beaux lieux, surrounded her island: but loin de modérer sa douleur, ne these beautiful scenes, far from fesaient que lui rappeler le soothing her grief, did but triste souvenir d'Ulysse, qu'elle recall the sad remembrance of y avait vu tapt de fois auprès Ulysses, whom she there had d'elle. Souvent elle demeurait

seen so many times with her. immobile sur le rivage de la She often stoodmotionless on the mer, qu'elle arrosait de ses beach, wbich she watered with larmes; et elle était sans cesse her tears; and was continually tournée vers le côté où le turned towards the part where vaisseau d'Ulysse, fendant les the ship of Ulysses, ploughing ondes, avait disparu à ses yeux. the waves, had disappeared from Tout-à-coup, elle apperçut les her eyes, On a sudden, she débris d'un navire qui venait perceived the fragments of a vesde faire naufrage; puis elle dé- sel that had just been wrecked. couvre de loin deux hommes Soon after, she descried, at a dont l'un paraissait âgé; l'autre distance, two men, one of whom quoique jeune ressemblait à seemed in years; the other, Ulysse ; il avait sa douceur et though young, resembled Ulyssa fierté, avec sa taille et sa ses; he had his sweet and démarche majestueuse. La noble aspect, with his stature déesse comprit que c'était Té- and majestic port. The godlémaque fils de ce héros, mais dess knew immediately that elle ne put découvrir qui était cet this was Telemachus, the son homme vénérable dont Télé- of that hero; but she could maque était accompagné; c'est not discover wbo the venerable que Minerve qui l'accompagnait,! person was by whom Telema.

sous la figure de Mentor, ne chus was attended, as Minerva, voulait pas être connue de who accompanied him in the Calypso.

shape of Mentor, would not be

known by Calypso. 4th. It is used in relation to the present time; but, in this case, it must be preceded by the conjunction si. ---EXAMPLES : Si j'avais de l'argent, je vous en If I had money, I would lend you prèterais.

some. S'il l'aimait, il l'épouserait.

If he loved her, he would marry

her. S'il arrivait, il entrerait.

If he should happen to arrive,

he would come in.

The tenses which correspond with the present anterior or imperfect are, the present anterior or imperfect, the present anterior periodical or preterite, and the past or compound of the present of the indicative. - EXAMPLES :

Je lisais quand vous entriez.
Je lisais hier quand vous entrátes. .
Je lisuis, il n'y a qu'un instant, quand vous êtes entré.

THE PRESENT ANTERIOR PERIODICAL, OR PRETERITE.

This tense is used when speaking of, ur alluding to, an action that took place within a period of time specified and entirely past; such as, hier, la semaine dernière, le mois dernier, il y a trois mois, l'onnée passée, le siècle dernier, &c.—EXAMPLES: J'écrivis hier à mes amis, mais lol I worte yesterday to my friends, courrier ne partit point.

but the mail did not set off. Je passai chez vous la semaine I called at your house last week.

dernière, Y trouvátes-vous quelqu'un ? Did you find any body there? Je n'y vis personne.

I saw no body there. Je fis un voyage en Ecosse l'année I took a journey to Scotland last

dernière. On m'y fit bon year. I met with a good reaccueil.

ception there. Je le rencontrai il y a trois mois: I met him three months ago; he

il parut étonné de me voir. appeared surprised to see me.

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Observe that, in order to authorise the use of this tense, there must be the interval of a whole day: we could not, therefore, make use of it, in mentioning a circumstance that took place in the morning of a day not yet elapsed. In lieu of it, the past or compound of the present, J'ai été, &c. should be used.

This tense is chiefly used in the historic style, because the events

or facts narrated in it are entirely elapsed, as illustrated in the following passage, in which Telemachus relates the manner of his escape from the Trojan fleet. La douceur et le courage du sage The good-nature and courage of

Mentor me charmèrent: mais Mentor charmed ine; but I je fus encore bien plus surpris was still more surprised, when quand je vis avec quelle adresse I saw with what dexterity he il nous délivra des Troyens. delivered us from the Trojans. Dans le moment où le ciel The moment the heavens began commençait à s'éclaircir, et ou to clear up, and when the Troles Troyens nous voyant de jans, seeing us near, could not près, n'auraient pas manqué but have known us, he observed de nous reconnaitre, il remarqua one of their ships which nearly un de leurs vaisseaux qui était resembled ours, and had been presque

semblable au nôtre, et separated by the storm, whose que la tempête avait écarté. stern was crowned with certain La poupe en était couronnée

flowers. He immediately placed de certaines fleurs : il se háta garlands of the like flowers de mettre sur notre poupe upon our stern: he tied them des couronnes de fleurs sem- himself with ribbands of the blables ; il les attacha lui-même same colour as those of the avec des bandelettes de la même Trojans, and ordered all our couleur que celles des Troyens ; rowers to stoop as close as posil ordonna à nos rameurs de se sible to their benches, that baisser le plus qu'ils pourraient they might not be known by le long de leurs bancs, pour the enemy. In this condition nêtre point reconnus des enne- we passed through the most of mis. En cet état nous passames their fleet, while they shouted au milieu de leur flotte : ils for joy at seeing us, as though poussèrent des cris de joie en they had seen their companions, nous voyant, comme en re- whom they thought they had voyant les compagnons qu'ils lost, &c. avaient cru perdus, &c.

This tense corresponds with itself, and almost always with the past anterior periodical, or compound of the preterite, as, Quand vous le voulutes, je vins. When you required it, I came. Quand j'eui fini, j'y allai. When I had done, I went ther

THE PAST, OR COMPOUND OF THÉ PRESENT. This tense is used indiscriminately to signify a period of time entirely past, or one which is partly so only.- EXAMPLES: Avez-vous voyagé en Allemagne ? | Hare you travelled in Germany? Nous nous sommes rencontrés en We niet in Russia.

Russie.

J'ai déjeúné chez lui ce matin.

I breakfasted this morning at his

house.
He died this week.

Il est mort cette semaine.

It is used sometimes instead of a future just approaching; as, Avez-vous bientôt fini?

Have you nearly done ? Attendez un peu, j'ai fini dans Stay a little; I shall have done in un petit moment.

half a moment. This tense corresponds with itself, the present anterior or impera' fect, and the past comparative or double compound of the present, as,

aussitôt que vous l'avez voulu. J'ai lu pendant que vous écriviez.

après que vous avez eu diné.

There are cases in which we may indifferently use either of the above three tenses, the differences of which we have been endeavouring to establish ; but, as they have been already noticed, page 155, we refer the reader to it.

THE PAST ANTERIOR, OR COMPOUND OF THE IMPERFECT.

This teuse denotes a thing not only past in itself, but also as past with regard to another thing also past; thus, when I say: J'avais DÉJEUNÉ quand vous VINTES me demander, I HAD BREAKFASTED when you came to ask for me. By this expression, I give you to understand that my breakfast was done with regard to the party's coming, which is itself past or elapsed so far as regards the present utterance of the above sentence.

This tense corresponds with the past, present anterior periodical, past anterior periodical, and present anterior, or, in other terms, with the compound of the present, preterite, compound of the preterite, and imperfect of the indicative-EXAMPLES:

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l'AST ANTERIOR PERIODICAL, OR COMPOUND OF THE

PRETERITE.

This tense expresses commonly that a thing has been done beforu another in a time totally past, as is evinced in the following EXAMPLES:

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