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Je voulais
Je voulus
J'ai voulu

J'avais voulu

Je voudrais

I was willing
I have been

willing
que vous parti- I had been that
ssiez avant lui.

should

you
willing set off before
I should be him.

willing
I might have

been willing

I was afraid que vous ne vin.

I have been

lest you should ssiez trop tôt

afraid, &c. ) come too soon.

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'But should we wish to express an idea of time past, while the verb of the principal phrase remains in either of the tenses just noticed, the verb of the complementary phrase must be put in the past anterior or compound of the imperfect of the subjunctive.EXAMPLES:

Je ne croyais pas- Je n'ai pas | I did not believe that she had cru, &c. qu'elle eút chanté la

sung the day before. veille. J'avais craint qu'ils n'eussent pas ¡ I was afraid lest they should have voulu y consentir, avant que

refused to consent to it, before j'eusse reçu leur lettre.

I had received their letter. I would just observe, that the subjunctive mood, when employed in elliptical phrases, where the principal proposition is omitied, contributes greatly to the elegance of diction.--EXAMPLES : Qu'il vive!

May he live! Qu'il se soit oublié jusqu'à ce That he should so forget himself !

point! Qui m'aime, me suive!

Whoever loves me, let him follow

me !

M. I give you no list of the conjunctions that impose the subjunctive form on the verb which they precede, because this would be repeating what has been already said, in the Conversation on that part of speech, to which I refer you.

Though this lesson on the subjunctive may appear to some very extensive, yet the subject is far from being exhausted: several more exceptions miglit have been noticed, and perhaps new rules discovered; but, as the cases which they embrace are not common, I trust that practice, and the habit of reading good authors, will put you into possession of those niceties of the French language.

LESSON THE SIXTEENTH.

OF THE COMPLEMENT OT VERBS.

Rule I.- Active verbs, such as aimer, estimer, &c. require the word representing the object to which the action is extended (and such we call its complement, as it is necessary to complete the sense) to be united to them without the intervention of a preposition. - EXAMPLES : J'adunire le génie de Shakspeare. I admire Shakspeare's genius. Aimez-vous les légumes et les Do you like vegetables and fruits ? fruits ?

RULE II. -When active verbs, instead of one complement, have two, the one which is the object of the action they express may be called direct, and is placed immediately before the verb, when it is a pronoun, or immediately after, when it is a noun; the second, which may be called indirect, is expressed either by a preposition and its noun, which immediately follows the first complement of the verb, or by a pronoun, (before which the preposition à is understood) which precedes the verb.-EXAMPLES : Tout le monde accuse cette femme | Every body accuses that woman d'un crime.

of a crime. Tout le monde l'accuse du crime. Every body accuses her of the

crime. Le maître pardonne la faute à i The master forgives the fault of l'écolier.

the scholar. Le maître lui pardonne sa faute. The master forgives him his fault.

M. You have probably already taken notice, that the comple. ment indirect of some verbs is formed with the preposition de, and its complement, while that of others is formed with the preposition à, and its complement. To prevent you from falling into an error, you will find subjoined a list of the principal verbs which require the preposition de, &c. after them; and of those which, on the contrary, demand the preposition d, &c.

You will exercise yourselves on them, by forming phrases of your own, which will insure you a facility and readiness in using the true Preposition.

A LIST OF ACTIVE VERBS WHICH REQUIRE DE BEFORE

THEIR COMPLEMENT INDIRECT. Absoudre, to absolve.

Accepter, to accept. Accabler, to overwhelm. | Accuser, to accuse.

Avertir, Bannir, Blamer, Chasser, Corriger, Débusquer. Dégouter, Délivrer, Détourner, Dissuader, Emplir, Enfreindre,

Exclure, Expulser, Fléchir, Implorer, Informer Louer, Menacer, Obtenir, Priver, Recevoir, Soupçonner,

A LIST OF Acrive vekBS WHICH REQUIRE À BEFORE

THEIR COMPLEMENT INDIRECT.

Accorder, Adresser, Annoncer, Apporter, Aliribuer, Avouer, Dire, Donner, Demander, Devoir, Ecrire, Enseigner, Envoyer, Erpliquer, Oter, Pardonner, Prédire, Préférer,

Confier, Conseiller, Communiquer, Confesser, Déclarer, Dédier, Présenter, Préter, Procurer, Promcltre, Raconter, Rupporter, Refuser, Rendre, Renvoyer, Répéter, Reprocher, Révéler, Vendre,

to warn.
to banish.
to blame.
to expel.
to correct.
to drive out.
to disgust.
to free.
to divert.
to dissuade.
to fill.
to transgress.

to exclude
to turn out.
to inove.
to implore
to inform.
to praise.
to threaten.
to obtain.
to deprive,
to receive.
to suspect.

to grant.
to direct.
to announce.
to bring
to attribute.
to own.
to tell.
to give
to ask.
to owe
to write.
to teach.
to send.
to explain.
to tako away.
to forgive.
to foretell.
to prefer.

to trust. to advise. to communicate. to confess. to declare. to dedicate. to present. to lend. to procure. to promise. lo relate. to bring back. to refuse. to return. to send back. to repeat. to reproach. to reveal. to sell.

RULE III.-When the verb étre is joined to the past participle of an active verb, and any complement follows, it is generally composed of the preposition de, and its complement.-EXAMPLES:

Il est estimé de tous les gens de | He is esteemed by all men of probien.

bity. Elle est chérie de tous ses parens. She is beloved by all her relations.

Observe, that the preposition par, by, is generally used in speaking of physical actions.-EXAMPLES:

Il a été tué par des voleurs de | He was killed by highwaymen.

grand chemin. La ville fut pillée par les soldats. The city was pillaged by the sol.

diers.

1

Par is required after verbs expressing the actions of the mind,
when an adverbial phrase or an adverb, has been previously used.
-EXAMPLE:
Je m'attends que mon ouvrage ! I am prepared to see my work, on

sur la vraie manière d'enseiguer the true manner of teaching
les langues, sera critiqué avec languages, unmercifully criti-
acharnement par les maitres cised by teachers, who are ser-
qui sont servilement attachés vilely attached to old systems,
aux vieilles routines, qu'ils ont which they complacently re-
la bonté de regarder comme gard as so many methods of
autant de méthodes d'instruc- instruction.
tion.

A LIST OF STATIONARY OR NEUTER VERBS WHICH SHOULD

BE FOLLOWED BY , AND ITS COMPLEMENT.

Applaudir,
Consentir,
Contrevenir,
Nuire,
Obéir,
Obvier,
Pardonner,
Parvenir,
Penser,
Persuader,
Plaire,
Renoncer,

to applaud.
to consent.
to infringe.
to hurt.
to obey.
to obviate.
to forgive.
to attain.
to think of.
to persuade.
to please.
to renounce.

Contribuer,
Déplaire,
Désobéir,
Remédier,
Ressembler,
Résister,
Réver,
Songer,
Subvenir,
Succéder,
Survivre,
Travailler,

to contribute.
to displease.
to disobey.
to remedy.
to resemble.
to resist.
to dream.
to think of.
to relieve.
to succeed.
to outlive.
to work.

A LIST OF SUCH REFLECTIVE VERB8 AS REQUIRE THE PRE

POSITION 4, AND ITS COMPLEMENT.

to stop

S'abandonner, to abandon one's S'apprêter, to dispose one's self.

self.
S'accoutumer, to accustom one's s'arrêter,
self.

S'attacher, to stick.
S'adonner, to addict one's self. S'adresser, to apply one's self.
S'amuser, to amuse one's self. Se déterminer,to resolve upon.
S'appliquer, to apply one's self. Se dioposer, to prepare one's self.
S'attendre,
to hope for.

S'endurcir, to inure one's self.

S'engager, to engage.

S'obstiner. to be obstinately reS'erposer, to expose one's self.

solved. Se fier, to trust.

S'opiniâtrer, to be obstinate. S'habituer, to accustom one's S'occuper, to employ one's self. self.

S'opposer,

to oppose one's self.

OBSERVATION.-With regard to the remaiuder of reflective verbs (which form a more numerous class than the above) when they have a complement, they require the preposition de and its complement.--EXAMPLES: Croyez-vous qu'il se repente de Do you believe that he repents of sa faute ?

bis fault? Il se prévaut de vos buntés. He takes advantage of your kindIl ne s'aperçoit pas du tour qu'on He does not perceive the trick lui joue.

which is played him. Vous ressouveuez-vous de cette Do you remeniber this anecdote?

anecdote?

negs.

1

OBSERVATION.-When the verb jouer is intended to signify to play on a musical instrument, it is necessary it should be followed by the preposition de; but, when it is intended to signify to play at some game, it requires the preposition d.--EXAMPLES: Ma seur joue de la guitare, de la | My sister plays on the guitar, the

harpe, et du forté-piano; et harp, and piano-forte; and my mon frère joue de la fute, du brother plays on the flute, the

siolon, et de la clarinette, violin, and the clarinet. J'aime mieux jouer aux cartes I had rather play at cards than

qu'à la boule, aux quilles, au at bowls, nine-pins, quoits, or palet, ou à la paume.

tennis.

LESSON THE SEVENTEENTH.

ON THE INFINITIVE.

Master. French infinitives may be preceded by either of the prepositions de, d, pour, or sans, as is shown by the following rules:

RULE I.-The preposition de is, used before the infinitive of verbe in the following cases :

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