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Ist. When the infinitive is preceded by a noun which requires de after it.--EXAMPLES:

Croyez-vous qu'il ait eu le temps | Do you believe that he has had d'y aller ?

time to go there? Il est sur le point de mourir. He is on the point of death, or

very near dying Je ne l'ai point trouvé en état de I did not find him in a state to

faire une si longue route. perforın so long a journey.

2d. Before the infinitive of verbs to which are joined certain nouns without an article, of which a list of the principal was given in treating of the article.-EXAMPLES: N'avez-vous pas envie de faire un Have you not a mind to tako a

petit tour de promenade? little walk ? Prenez garde de lui déplaire. Beware of displeasing him or


3d. Before the infinitive of a verb preceded by the verb étre, to be, and before the greater number of French adjectives.-Ex


Qu'il est heureux de ne pas être | How happy he is, not to be obligé de travailler!

obliged to work! Il est incapable de faire tort à qui He is incapable of wronging any

body whatever. Je suis las de vous répéter tou. I am tired of always repeating the jours la même chose.

same thing to you.

que ce soit.

4th. Before the infinitive of a verb following any of the verbs mentioned in the preceding lesson, with de, &c. for their complement.

The following list of verbs, which frequently occur, and are followed by de, before another verb in the infinitive, will be of service.


to accuse.
to affect.
to advise.
to blame.
to cease.
to command.
to intreat.
to advise.
to fear.
to deter.
to forbid.

Différer, to differ.

to tell,
Dispenser, to excuse.
Dissuader, to dissuade,

to write. Empêcher, to hinder. Enjoindre, to enjoin. Entreprendre, to undertake. Essayer,

to try. Feindre, to feign. Finir,

to finish.

Menacer, Mériter, Négliger, Offrir, Omettre, Ordonner, Oublier, Parler, Permettre, Persuader, Plaindre, Prescrire,

to threaten.
to deserve.
to neglect.
to offer.
to oinit.
to order.
to forget.
to speak.
to permit.
to porsuade.
to pity.
to prescribe.


to urge. to pray.. to proinise. to propose. to refuse. to thank. to resolve. to summon. to suspect. to beg. to endeavour.

It is propor to observe, that, in general, whenever, in English, instead of tho preposition to, with the infinitive, either of the prepositions of, from, by, or with, and the participle present, are used, the French make use of de, and the infinitive of the corresponding verb.-EXAMPLES : Finissez de jouer.

Make an end of playing. Il m'a empêché de l'acheter. He prevented me from buying it. Il est accusé de l'avoir assassiué. He is charged with murdering


Rule II. The preposition d is generally put before an infinitive. 1st. After adjectives denoting aptness, fitness, unfitness, inclination, repugnancy, and particularly after the following: Adroit, dexterous in. Assidu, assiduous in. Affreux, dreadful to. Beau,

fine to. Agréable, agreeable to. Bon,

good to. Aisé,

Charmant, charming to. Ardent,

Curieur, curious to. Diligent, diligent in. Porté,

inclined to. Disposé, disposed to. Le premier, the first to. Désagréable, disagreeable to. Le dernier, the last to. Enclin, inclined to. Prét,

ready to. Eract, exact in.


quick in. Facile,


liable to. Habile,

skilful in. Terrible, dreadful to. Lent,

slow in.

easy to. eager in.

easy to.

2d. The following verbs also require the infinitive with à:



to admit.
to accustom.
to help.



to like,
to authorise.
to endeavour.

Condamner Consistor, Disposer, Donner, Employer, Encourager, Engager, Exhorter,

to condemn,
to consist.
to dispose to.
to give.
to employ.
to encourage.
to engage,
to exhort.


to invite.
to think of.
to persist in.
to induce to.
to excite to.
to stay
to work.


the war.

RULE III. –The verbs commencer, continuer, discontinuer, comtraindre, engager, s'engager, exhorter, forcer, s'efforcer, manquer, obliger, tácher, and tarder, require the infinitive with de or á, as may be most agreeable to the ear.— EXAMPLES: A peine a-t-on commencé à vivre : Scarcely have we begun to live

qu'il faut songer à mourir. than we must think of dying. Il avait commencé d'écrire sa le- He had begun to write his letter ttre quand je suis entré.

when I entered. Je ne pus l'empêcher de continuer I could not prevent him from conà nous débiter ses extravagan

tinuing to fill our ears with his

extravagances. Il voulut continuer de faire la He would continue to carry ou

guerre. Il commence à descendre de sa He begins to come down from his

chambre. Il commençait à demander de vos He began to inquire about you.

nouvelles. Il avait commencé de changer do He had begun to alter his conduct.

conduite. Il me força d'abandonner cette en- He forced me to abandon this untreprise.

dertaking. Cela les obligea de camper à quel. That obliged them to encamp a ques lieues plus loin,

few leagues further off. With the above verbs, à is used to avoid the repetition of de; and de is reciprocally used, to avoid the repetition of or the collision of several vowels.

N.B. Il commence de descendre, il commençait de demander de, il me força à, &c. would produce a very uncouth and barbarous sound.


OBSERVATIONS. Jst. When commencer signifies to begin by, it is followed by par. - EXAMPLE: Assez de gens se mêlent de ré- | There are people enough who em

former le monde; mais presque ploy themselves in reforming personne ne commence par se the world; but there is hardly réformer soi-mêine.

one who begios by reforming himself.

2d. The verbs engaget, s'engager, exhorler, are more often construed with d.--EXAMPLES : Je l'ai engagé à venir nous voir. I invited him to come and see us. Il s'engage à descendre le premier. He engages to come down firet.

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However, de may be used to avoid the repetition of à, or the collision of several vowels.

3d. S'efforcer, when it signifies, to make use of all one's strength, or to strain, requires the preposition à before the next infinitive.EXAMPLB: Il s'est efforcé à courir.

| He strove to run.

But when it signifies to endcarour, to make use of one's industry, it requires the preposition de.-EXAMPLE: Chacun doit s'efforcer de croitre | Every ono ought to endeavour to ep sagesse.


in wisdom,

4th. The verb manquer requires the proposition de when it is used negatively, or when it signifies to be near, to have like.-EXAMPLES: Les malheuroux n'ont jamais , The unfortunate have never failed manqué de se plaindre.

to complain. Je manquai de tomber-de me I had like to fall-to break my

casser le bras.


But manquer, without a negative, is commonly construed with d. -EXAMPLE: J'ai manqué d faire ce que je vous I have failed in doing what I had avais promis.

promised you.

5th. When tacher signifies to aim, it requires the preposition à before the infinitive.-EXAMPLES;

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But, when that verb signifies to endeavour, to use our utmost endeavours, it requires the preposition de.--EXAMPLE: Je tacherai de vous faire obtenir ce | I will endeavour to make you ohque vous désirez si ardemment. tain what you so ardently wish


6th. Tarder, when it means to tarry, to deloy, &c. requires ù.-EXAMPLES:

Ne tardez pas à revepir.
Pourquoi tardez-vous d y aller ?
Il ne tarda guère à le punir.

Do not delay coming back.
Why do you delay going thither?
He did not delay long his punish-


But, if it signifies to long, it requires de, and then is used in. personally only in the third person singular of each teuse.-Exam. PLES: ll me tarde de revoir mon pays | I long to see my native country.

natal. Il nous tardait d'arrivor.

We longed to arrive. Rule IV.-When to (the sign of the infinitive) is used to denoto the end or design for which a thing is done, and, in general, when with equal propriety to can be rendered by in order to, it is translated, in French, by pour, placed before the infinitive.--EXAMPLES: Les hommes sont nés pour s'en- | Men were born to love and help tr'aimer et s'entr'aider.

one another. Je suis venu pour vous voir. I came to (or in order to) see you. Jo ferai tout pour vous obliger. I will do every thing to oblige

you. Il ne l'a


vous faire do Ho did not say so to give you la peine.

pain. Pour être heureux, il faut être To (or in order to) be happy, content,

must be contented. Observe, that after the words, assez, trop, suffire, suffisant, pour is placed before the infinitives.-Ex n MPLES: Il n'est pas assez sot pour y ajou- | He is not foolish enough to give ter foi.

credit to it. Il a trop d'esprit pour se facher He has too much understanding to

d'une plaisanterie innocente. be angry at an innocent joke. Son revenu ne sufit pas pour | His income does not suffice to pay payer ses dettes.

his debts. Trento hommes sont suffisans Thirty men are sufficient to de. pour défendre ce pont.

fend that bridge.


In the following phrases, however, and the like, the preposition de must be used, instead of pour, after the above words. - EXAMPLES: Ce sera assez de m'en écrire.

It will be enough to write to me

about it. Ce serait trop, en vérité, de le It would be too much, indeed, to

recevoir d'une manière si dis- receive him in so distinguished tinguée.

a manner. Il suffira de l'en prévenir. It will suffice to give notice of it

to hin, or to ber.

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