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Les jeunes gens que j'ai voulu | The young men whom I wished instruire, ne m'ont pas écouté. to instruct, paid no attention

to me. Je l'ai vu peindre.

I saw her picture drawn. Je l'ai entendu chanter.

I heard it sung (a song). Je l'ai vu bâtir.

I saw it built (a house). Je les ai entendu réciter.

I heard them recited (lines). Je les ai vu porter.

I saw them carried (goods). Rule IV.—The past participle is declinable, when preceded by its direct complement, and followed by an infinitive, expressing an action done by the person or thing spoken of.- EXAMPLES: Je l'ai vue tomber.

I saw it fall (a house). Je l'ai vue peindre.

I saw ber while painting. Je l'ai entendue chanter.

I heard her sing. Je les ai entendus réciter.

I heard them recite. Je les ai vues danser.

I saw them dance. Je les ai vus jouer.

I saw them play. Les soldats que j'ai vus désarmer. The soldiers I saw disarming. Les courtisans que j'ai entendus | The courtiers whom I heard praislouer.

ing. RULE V.-The past participle is indeclinable, when preceded by its direct complement, and immediately followed by the preposition à or de, before an infinitire: we cannot, by suppressing the complement direct, place the subject of the proposition after the participle.EXAMPLES: L'histoire que j'ai commencé à lire | The history which I have begun est très amusante.

to read, is very entertaining. La garnison qu'il a cherché à The garrison, which he soughi to séduire est restée fidèle.

seduce, remained faithful. Les hommes que nous avons craint | The men whom we feared to come

d'aborder, étaient des voleurs. up with, were thieves. La demoiselle que vous avez cessé The young lady whom you left de voir, est fort spirituelle. off seeing, is very witty.

Vous me donnez des noms qni doivent une surprendre,

Madame; on ne m'a point instruit à les entendre,
It is contrary to the genius of the French language to say,

J'ai commencé l'histoire à lire.
Il a cherché la garnison à séduire.
Nous avons craint les hommes d'aborder.

Vous avez cessé la demoiselle de voir. RULE VI.-The past participle is declinable, wben preceded by its complement direct, and immediately followed by the preposition dor de before an infinitive: we can, by suppressing the complement direct, place the name of the object spoken of after the participle. -EXAMPLES: Les ouvriers, qu'il a obligés à tra- The workmen whom he obliged

vailler, ne sont pas contens de to work, are not pleased with lui.

him. Les femmes, que nous avons in- The women whom we have in

struites à feindre, nous ont sur- structed to dissemble, have sur. passés.

passed us. Les hommes que nous avons con- The men whom we have conricted

vaincus d'avoir volé, sont en of robbery, are in gaol.

prison. La simplicité, que j'ai eue de les The folly that I was guilty of ia

croire, est la cause de tout mon believing them, is the cause of malheur.

all my misfortunes.
We can say, agreeably to the genius of the French language,

Il a obligé les ouvriers à travailler.
Nous avons instruit les femmes à feindre.
Nous avons convaincu les hommes d'avoir volé.

J'ai eu la simplicité de les croire. RULE VII.—The past participle, preceded by the relative adverb en, without being first preceded by the compleinent direct, is indes clinable.--EXAMPLES: Il a fait lui seul plus d'exploits que | He alone has performed more exles autres n'en ont lu.

ploits than the others have read. J'ai maintenant plus de santé que I have at this time better health je n'en ai jamais eu.

than I ever had. J'ai dessiné plus de paysages que I have drawn more landscapes than vous n'en avez vu.

you have seen. De deux filles, la mère en avait oftwo daughters, the mother had fait une religieuse.

made one a nun. It is evident that, in the sentences above, que is not the complement direct of the past participle; it is only a conjunction, taken in an adverbial sense, which, of course, does not receive the influence of the participle, so as to become its complement direct.

RULE VIII.—The past participle is declinable, when preceded by en and its complement direct.-EXAMPLES: Lưs en avez-vous prévenus ? Have you informed them of it? Les femnies que j'en ai convain- The women whom I have con

vinced of it. Vous parlez de ses fautes; combien You speak of his faults: how many n'en a-t-il pas commises !

has he not committed ?

cues.

Déjà la renommée
Par d'étonnans récits m'en avait informée.

RULE IX.-When the past participle is followed by que, it is always indeclinable.-EXAMPLES: Terminez les affaires que vous

Put an end to the business which avez prévu que vous auriez.

you foresaw you should have. Les bijous que j'ai ordonné qu'on | The jewels which I ordered to be m'envoyât.

sent to me. Les dépenses qu'ils ont cru que je i The expenses which they thought ferais.

I should incur. Les terres qu'il aurait désiré que The lands that he would have dej'eusse achetées.

sired I should have bought. 3d. Of the past participle of reflective verbs.

Rulel.—The past participle of reflective verbs is always declinable, when attended by its complement direct.-EXAMPLES: Les Amazones se sont couvertes | The Amazons covered themselves de gloire.

with glory. Ils se sont décidés à lui faire un | 'They have determined to sue him.

ined procès. Elle s'est avisée de me donner un She took it into her head to give soufflet.

me a box on the ear. Elle s'est assise auprès de moi. She sat by me. Ils se sont rendus formidables. They have rendered themselves

formidable. Elle s'était flattée de réussir. She Nattered herself she should

succeed.'

Rule II.—The past participle of reflective verbs, when attended by a complement indirect, is indeclinable.-EXAMPLES: Lucrèce s'est donné la mort. Lucretia killed herself. Elle s'est mis des chimères dans She has stored chimeras in her l'esprit

head. Les Amazones se sont acquis de The Amazons have acquired to la gloire.

themselves glory. Vous vous êtes dit des honnêtetés. You spoke to one another civilly. Ils se sont préparé bien des peines. They have prepared themselves.

much trouble.

Deux fois nos tristes yeux se sont vu retracer,

Ce même enfant toujours tout prét à me percer. RULE III.--The past participle of reflective verbs, when attended at the same time by two complements, one direct, and the other indirect, is declinable. - EXAMPLES: VOL. II.

Y

La mort que Lucrèce s'est donnée. | The death that Lucretia gave her

self. Les chimères qu'elle s'est mises The chimeras which she has put dans l'esprit.

into her brain. La gloire que se sont acquise les The glory which the Amazons Amazones.

acquired. Les honnêtetés que rous vous êtes The civil speeches you made one dites.

to another. Les peines qu'ils se sont préparées. The trouble they prepared for

themselves. S. You have said nothing concerning the declinability of the past participle of stationary or neuter verbs, construed with avoir.

M. For a good reason: you have seen, in all the above examples concerning the past participle, that, to be declinable, it must be preceded by a complement direct; and, as the stationary or neuler verbs

none, their past participle must necessarily be indeclinable, when construed with avoir.-EXAMPLES : On pourrait compter par les bien- We may reckon the good deeds

faits de cet homme rare les jours of that extraordinary man by qu'il a vécu.

the days that he has lived. Il faut retrancher de la vie les We must deduct from life the heures qu'on a dormi.

hours we have slept. In the two above examples, que is not a complement : it is used, in the first, instead of pendant lesquels; and, in the second, instead of pendant lesquelles.

The past participle of stationary or neuter verbs, is, on the contrary, always declinable, when construed with étre. - EXAMPLES: Elle est venue me parler. Sbe came and spoke to mo. Elle s'est allée baigner.

Sho went to bathe herself. Les pavires sont allés se briser à The vessels went and bilged on la côte. .

the coast. Cette femme est arrivée à cinq This woman arrived at five o'clock,

heures, et est repartie à sept. and set off again at seven.

I conclude this account of the declinability of the past participle, by observing,

1st. That fait is indeclinable, as well as some other past participles, when used in an abstract sense.--EXAMPLES : La pluie qu'il a fait m'a empêché | The rain which has fallen has prede sortir.

vented me from going out. Les troupes qu'il a fallu leur en- The troops, which it has been voyer ont affaibli l'armée.

necessary to send them, hayo

enfeebled the army. La dépense qu'il y a eu dans cette The expense which there has been maison est effroyable,

in that house, is horrible.

2d. That fait, of all the past participles which may be united either to the infinitive of active, or to that of stationary or neuter verbs, is the only one that always remains indeclinable.---EXAMPLES: Les chemises que j'ai fait faire. The shirts that I caused to be

made. Voilà les livres que j'ai fait venir ! There are the books I ordered de France.

from France. Je l'ai fait entrer avec beaucoup With a great deal of difficulty I de difficulté.

made her come in.

But, if fait has the sense of fabriquer, créer, former, produire, &c. it is declinable.-EXAMPLE:

Les bottes qu'il m'a faites sont | The boots he made for me are too trop étroites,

tight.

3d. That when the past participle bas after it an infinitive understood, it is then indeclinable.-EXAMPLES : J'ai cité les plus beaux traits que I have cited the noblest traits I

could. Elle a dit toutes les plaisanteries She said all the pleasantries she qu'elle a voulu.

pleased. J'ai fait toutes les démarches que I took all the steps I should or j'ai .

ought.

j'ai pu.

The infinitives citer, dire, and faire, are understood in the foregoing phrases.

LESSON THE TWENTY-FIRST.

ON THE PROPER CHOICE OF THE AUXILIARY

Master. You have undoubtedly observed, in the course of this work, that the past participles of active verbs, having a direct complement, are combined with the auxiliary étre, in order to give a passive sense to the phrase, as in the following line :

Tout mortel est chargé de sa propre douleur : est chargé is used in a passive sense, becauso ono may say, charger quelqu'un.

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