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LESSON THE TWENTY-THIRD.

ON THE ADVERB

Rule I.-The adverb must be, in general, placed in a sentence before the adjective or participle which it modifies.-EXAMPLES: On est aisément intéressé par des Weare readily attracted by various

aspects divers, lorsqu'on entre prospects, when we enter into dans la carrière de la fortune: ihe career of fortune; but, when mais lorsqu'on est arrivé aux we have reached the highest preplus hautes places, les plaisirs de ferments, the pleasures of imagil'imagination finissent avec elles. nation are then at an end. Such -Tels on croit voir ces naviga- we may fancy those navigators, teurs qui, après avoir vainement who, after having vainly tried to essayé de s'ouvrir un passage open to themselves a passage to aux extrémités du monde, re- the extremities of the world, retournent tristement sur leurs turn sadly on their track, view. pas, et considèrent d'un ail ing, with a melancholy and lanmorne et languissant les divers guid look, the various scenes of spectacles de la nature dont ils nature by which they had been avaient été si vivement frappés, struck in so lively a mauper, lorsque naguère ils traversaient when, not long before, they les mers, l'esprit vivement ému crossed the seas with a mind par la curiosité et par l'espé. strongly agitated by curiosity rance.

and hope.

OBSERVATION.

There are circumstances in which taste alone can direct the proper use of the adverbs of manner, which may be placed either before or after the adjective. Thus, we may say, with equal propriety,

ouvertement ambitieux, César était ou ambitieux ouverte- Cæsar was openly ambitious.

ment. Rule II.-The adverb, in general, is placed immediately after the verb, in its radical tenses; or between the past participle and the quxiliary, in its compound tenses.-EXAMPLES: C'est le destin des choses humaines | It is the fate of human things to

de n'avoir qu'une durée courte have but a short and fleeting duet rapide, et de tomber aussitôt ration, and then to fall into that dans l'éternel oubli d'où elles eternal abyss whence they came. étaient sorties. - Mais, votre é- - But your church, great God! glise, grand Dieu! mais, le chef- but the admirable master-piece

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d'oeuvre admirable de votre sa. of your wisdom and of your gesse et de votre miséricorde

juercy to mankind; but your envers les hommes; mais, votre empire, sovereign Master of empire, maitre souverain des all hearts! will have no limits cæurs! n'aura point d'autres

but those of eternity.--Every bornes que celles de l'éternité. thing flies from us: all con-Tout nous échappe, tout dis- tinually vanishes around us ; it parait sans cesse autour de nous, is a scene on which every inc'est une scène sur laquelle, à stant new performers appearand chaque instant, paraissent de succeed one another; and, out nouveaux personnages qui se

of all the pompous parts they remplacent; et de tous ces play so well

, during the short rôles pompeux qu'ils ont si bien period they are seen on the joués, pendant le moment qu'on stage, nothing remains to them, les a vus sur leur théâtre, il de in the end, but regret to see the leur reste à la fin que le regret

conclusion of the drama, and de voir finir la représentation et

to find themselves only what, in de ne se trouver réellement que your eyes, they are, ce qu'ils sont devant vous.

EXCEPTION.-In the compound tenses of verbs, we may, however, sometimes place the adverb either before or after the past participle. Custom alone will direct in that respect; thus, we may say, equally well, Les femmes l'ont prodigieusement | The women have prodigiously

gaté, ou l'ont gâté prodigieuse- spoiled him. ment.

We place, either before or after the verb, the adverbs of order and rank, and those which denote time in a determinate manner ; thus we may say, Nous devons faire, premièrement, We ought, first, to do our duty;

notre devoir; secondement, cher- secondly, seek lawful pleasures.

cher les plaisirs permis. Aujourd'hui il fait beau; il pleu- To-day it is fine weather; it will vra, peut-être, demain.

rain, perhaps, orrow, On servit d'abord la soupe et le | The soup and bouilli were served bouilli, ou d'abord on servit

up first. la soupe et le bouilli.

OBSERVATIONS.

FIRST

Davantage, which many people are apt to confound with plus, and use for it, is, by no means, an expression synonymous with plus ; the following particularly distinguishes it from that expression.

1st. It will admit neither the preposition de, nor the conjunction que,

after it: do not say, therefore,
Si je reste ici j'aurai davantage de plaisir.

Il est aimé davantage que vous.
Instead of it, in the above, use plus; thus :
Si je reste ici, j'aurai plus de plai- If I stay bere, I shall have more
sir.

pleasure. Il est plus aimé que vous.

He is more beloved than

you. 2d. It is always placed after the word which it modifies, and answers, in English, to the more, when the more is not to be repeated; say, therefore, Il en sera aimé davantage, -and | He will be the more loved for it.

not Il en sera davantage aimé.

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3d. It is never construed with an adjective; therefore, do not say, Il est davantage prudent, ou pru- | He is more wise.

dent davantage.

4th. It can never be used in the sense of le plus (the most,) as it is done by many French ; therefore, do not say, De toutes les fleurs d'un parterre,

la rose est celle qui me plaît davantage ; but

Of all the flowers of a parterre, De toutes les fleurs d'un parterre, the rose pleases me most.

la rose est celle qui ine plait le plus.

SECOND.

Autant and aussi are often confounded, in familiar discourse, as synonymous expressions. Some French people, for instance, say,

Pierre est autant riche que Jacques; or,
Pierre est riche autant que Jacques.

While they should say,
Pierre est aussi riche que Jacques. | Peter is as rich as James.

Should it be required to establish a comparison between two quulities, we should also make use of aussi ; as, Il est aussi arare que soupço- He is as avaricious as suspicious, In order that autant may be substituted for aussi in the above phrase, it must be placed between the two adjectives, and followed by que ; as,

uneux,

Il est avare autant que soupço- | He is as avaricious as suspicious.

nneux.

L'Anglais, indépendant, et libre uutunt que brave,
Des caprices de cour ne fut jamais esclave.
Mais, Hélénus, sensible aulant que généreux,
N'a jamais su, seigneur, braver un malhoureux.

Autant que may also serve as a connexion between two phrases ; as, Je l'estime autant que je l'aime. I esteem him as much as I love

him.

When autant serves to compare the merit of two actions expressed by the infinitive of two verbs, we must not fail of joining the

preposition de to the que which precedes the second action. Hence, the following phrases, where this preposition is omitted, are incorrect:

Il vaut autant écrire que parler.
J'aime autont le faire tout à l'heure que différer.

We must say, Il vaut autunt écrire que de parler. It is as well to write as to speak. J'aime autant le faire tout à I like as well to do it inmediately l'heure que de différer.

as to procrastinate. Autant does not modify an adveró, therefore the following sentence is incorrect: Ils les régalèrent autant bien que / They treated thenı as well as the

pouvait le permettre la pau- poverty of their country would vreté de leur pays.

allow. From what precedes, we shall establish, as a principle, the dif. ference between aussi and autant to be as follows:

Aussi is the proper modification of an adverb, and never of the quality expressed in the verb. Autant never modifies the adverb, and seldone the quality; and, when it does, it must be followed by que, and placed between the two adjectives it modifies. Autant, modi. fying ::e quality expressed in the verb, must be followed then by que de, or simply que, according as the verb is or is not in the infinitive mood.

When autant is used to express a comparison, the que, which, in the above cases, is juseparable from autant, is supplied by VOL. II.

2

de, and is placed belween the two objects compared, or relating to each other.--EXAMPLES: Il a autant de veriu que de talens. He has as much virtue as talents. L'arn:ée de Léonidas, composée The army of Leonidas, coinposed

de trois cents hommes, avait of three hundred men, had as aulant de héros que de soldats. many heroes as soldiers.

There are several authors who have made use of autant cotame, instead of autant que.- EXAMPLES: Ils étaient courageux autant co- They were as courageous as the

mme les meilleurs soldats de best soldiers of the empire.

l'empire. Le vrai brave conserve son juge- | The truly brave preserve judg

ment au milieu du péril avec ment amid danger, with as antant de présence d'esprit much presence of mind as if comme s'il n'y était pas.

they were not in it. It is a mistake, and, to rectify it, que must be substituted for comune. It is also a mistake to use comme after aussi, as in the following sen tence :

Tant qu'a duré la guerre on ma vu constamment

Aussi bon citoyen cumnie fidèle amant. Que should have been used instead of comme, but the line would be deficient in one syllable.

lustead of autant, we make use of tant, when there is no compa. rison; as, Il a tant de richesses qu'on ne His wealth is so great that it cansaurait les compter.

pot be counted. Cette pièce de vers offre tant de | This piece of poetry possesses so

beautés, que je l'aurais crue de many beauties, that I should Voltaire.

have thought it was Voltaire's.

THIRD.

Si, so, is used to give some extension to a qualification, and not, in general, to express a comparison.-EXAMPLES: Il est si bon qu'il n'a pas son He is so good that he has no pareil.

equal. Un corps si faible ne saurait ré- So weak a body cannot bear fasister à la fatigue.

tigue. Elle vous aime si tendremment que She loves you so tenderly, that

vous ne pouvez vous empêcher you cannot help loving her in de la payer de retour.

Ieturo.

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