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Also, that all French reflective verbs, contrary to the genius of the English, are conjugated with étre in their past tenses; as,
Je suis père et ce cour qu'un tel arrêt déchire
S'en est dit cent fois plus que tu ne peux m'en dire. There are some verbs, which, without being used passively or reflectively, take the auxiliary étre; as,
Aller, arriver, décéder, déchoir, entrer, mourir, naitre, partir, yester, sortir, tomber, venir, and its compounds devenir, intervenir, parvenir, revenir, and survenir.
REMARKS ON ALLER, SORTIR, AND TOMBER.
ALLER. We always make use of être, when aller is conjugated with its own participle : thus it is said, Il est allé, il était allé ; but, should the word été be substituted for the word allé, then the auxiliary avoir must be substituted for the auxiliary étre ; so we must say, in the sense of aller, Il a été, instead of Il est été, which is a barbarism in Freuch. There is a very nice distinction between Il est allé, and Il a été, for they are by no means synonymous; the former meaning that the person is gone and is not yet returned, while the latter means that he is returned from the place where he had been, or where he had lived. From this remark, it is evident that aller, conjugated with the verb étre, cannot be used for the first nor the second person, but only for the third.
SORTIR. This verb first takes the auxiliary avoir, to express that somebody who was out, returned: so we say of somebody that has returned, ila sorti; but, should he not be returned yet, we would say, Il est sorti.
Sortir is also conjugated with avoir, when it is followed by a complement.--EXAMPLES: Le palefrenier a-t-il sorti mes che- | Has the hostler taken my horses vaux de l'écurie?
out of the stable? Reinerciez-le de vous avoir sorti Thank him for having extricated d'une affaire si fâcheuse.
you from so unpleasant an affair.
TOMBER. This verb never admits for the conjugation of its past tenses of any other auxiliary than étre: so we must say, je suis tombé, j'étais tombé; but never, j'ai tombé, j'avais tombé, which are mistakes into which the French themselves are very liable to fall: even Voltaire, one of the most correct of our writers, has committed it in the following lines :
Où serais-je, grand Dieu! si ma crédulité
Fút should have been used instead of eút.
The verbs subvenir, apparaitre, comparaitre, approcher, are always conjugated with the auxiliary avoir.- EXAMPLES: On a subvenu à tous les besoins All the most urgent wants have les plus urgens.
been relieved. Il croit que l'ombre de sa mai. He believes that the ghost of his tresse lui a apparu en songe.
mistress has appeared to him in
a dream. J'étais sûr qu'il n'eût point coni I was sure that he would not have paru devant les juges.
made his appearance before the judges.
Vieillards, femmes, enfans, troupeaa faible et timide,
Dont n'u point approché cette guerre homicide. The verbs accourir, disparaitre, croitre, décroitre, contrevenir, arc conjugated with either of these auxiliary verbs.-EXAMPLES :
J'ai accouru, ou je suis accouru I ran to the noise.
au bruit. La rivière a cru, ou est crue.
The river has increased. Les eaux ont bien décru, ou sont The waters have much decreased.
bien décrues. Il prétendait n'avoir point con He contended that he had not con.
trevenu, ou n'être point contre travened the law.
venu à la loi. Je n'ai fait que tourner la tête, elle I did but turn my head, and she
a disparu, ou elle est disparue. disappeared.
Périr is generally ranked by all grammarians (Restaut excepted) among the verbs which admit equally well of either auxiliary. The distinction which the latter makes, appearing as delicate as it is judicious, I shall insert his remark on the use of this verb:
“ It is probable that the auxiliary avoir suits better when the verb has a general and indeterminate sense; as, when we say, Les enfans du grand prêtre (high priest) ont péri misérablement: and that the auxiliary étre is preferable, when the verb is attended by particular circumstances, as in the following phrases:
Les babitans de Jérusalem sont péris par le fer et par le feu.
L'armée de Pharaon est périe dans les eaux de la Mer Rouge.” The meaning of the following verbs is affected by changing their auxiliary.
Cesser is always conjugated with avoir, when it has a complement; it then ineans to leave off, to cease. — EXAMPLES:
Il a cessé ses plaintes.
He has ceased his complaints. Il a cessé de pleurer.
He has left off weeping. The same verb is conjugated with either of the auxiliaries, when it has no complement; it means to be over, to have ceased.- EXAMPLE: Sa fièvre a cessé, ou est cessée. | His fever is over.
Convenir, when it is conjugated with avoir, means être convenable to suit; and, when it is conjugated with être, it means demeurer d'accord, to agree.-EXAMPLE: Cette maison m'a converu, et je | This house suited me, and I agreed suis convenu du prix.
for the price.
Demeurer, when it is conjugated with croir, means to reside, or tarry; to stay a long while.--EXAMPLES: J'ai demeuré près de onze ans à | I have resided near eleven years Philadelphie.
in Philadelphia. Sa plaie a demeuré long-temps à It was a long time before his se fermer.
wound was healed.
But, when this verb means to remain, it requires étre.-EXAMPLE: Il est demeuré deux mille hommes | Two thousand men remained in
dans la place.
Racine therefore commits a fault, when he says
-Ma langue embarrassée
Est stould have been used instead of a.
Monter and descendre admit of either auxiliary; but élre should be preferred.-EXAMPLES: Notre Seigneur est monté au ciel. | Our Lord ascended into heaven. Il a, ou il est, monté à cheval. He went on horseback. Il était enseigne; il a monté à la He was an ensign: he has been lieutenance.
promoted to a lieutenancy. Le blé a ou est monté jusqu'à Corn has risen to twenty francs vingt francs le setier.
the twelve bushels. Il est descendu de sa chambre. He came down from his room. La justice a descendu dans ce The officers of justice went inta lieu.
that place. But, should these verbs have a direct complement, only the auxiliary avoir should be used.-EXAMPLES:
Il a monté un superbe cheval. He mounted a superb horse. Il a descenda les degrés avec pré. He came down stairs with precicipitation.
pitation. Passer, when followed by any complement, is conjugated with avoir.-EXAMPLES: Il a passé le long de la Tamise. He has passed along the Thames. Il a passé par tous les grades. He has passed through all the
degrees. Elle a passé comme une chandelle She went off like a candle that qui s'éteint.
burns out. On these lines of Boileau,
-Si leur sang tout pur, ainsi que leur noblesse,
Est passé jusqu'a vous de Lucréce en Lucrèce;
The year is elapsed.
We say, however, Ce mot a passé, to intimate that it has been ad. nitted ;-and, Ce mot est passé, to assert that it is no longer in use.
Echapper is conjugated with avoir, when it is attended by a direct complement.-EXAMPles: Il a échappé la côte, le danger, la | He escaped the coast, the danger, potence.
the gallows. Vous pouvez vous vanter que vous You
may boast that you had a narl'avez échappé belle.
row escape. Except in the above cases, it takes either of the auxiliaries.EXAMPLES: Il a échappé des mains du guet. He escaped from the hands of the
watch. Il est échappé du feu, des galères. He escaped from fire, from the
galleys. Le cerf a, on est, échappé aux The stag has escaped from the chiens.
dogs. Courir, signifying to run, admits of the auxiliary avoir only.-EXAMPLE: J'y ai couru aussitôt avec em I ran there immediately with eapressement,
Racine has therefore committed an error in the following line:
Il en était sorti lorsque j'y suis couru. I believe the above list comprises all the verbs of which custom has justified the conjugation, occasionally, either with one or both of the auxiliaries. Should any verb have escaped our inquiries, we must refer to the reading of good authors, which cannot fail to establist the habit of applying the proper auxiliary to the stationary or neuter verbs. But I will here give a rule, discovered by Restaut, which, I think, is accurate.
“All neuter, or stationary verbs, whose past participle is declinable, are conjugated with the verb étre; the neuter verbs, whose past par. ticiple is indeclinable, ought to be conjugated with avoir. Thus, since we may say, Un homme tombé; une femme arrivée, we ought to conjugate tomber, and arriver, with the verb étre; but, as we cannot say Un homme dormi: une femme régnée, we cannot conjugate dormir and régner with the verb étre; they must be conjugated with avoir."
LESSON THE TWENTY-SECOND.
ON THE PREPOSITION.
Rule I.-The prepositions d, de, or en, must be repeated in a sen. tence before each complement of theirs.
Le jargon supplée à l'esprit, à la Jargon supplies the place of un
raison, à la science, dans les per derstanding, reason,and science, sonnes qui ont un grand usage in persons who are thoroughly du monde.
trained to the world.
Je l'apporte en naissant, elle est écrite en moi,
EXAMPLES FOR DE.
Sa gaieté est un peu bruyante, il | His gaiety is rather boisterous, it
est vrai; mais il a tant de fran is true; but he has so much cbise, de naturel, et de bonhomie, openness, ingenuousness, and qu'il est impossible de le trouver good-nature, that it isimpossible importun.
to find hiin troublesome.